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ABUSE OF PROCESS
UDAP violations
inconvenient venue, 6.10.9
litigation misconduct, 6.10.10
ABUSIVE PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
CFPB authority, 3.4.6, 13.2.6.1
ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
see also PERSONAL GUARANTEES
UDAP application, 2.4.3
ACCOUNTANTS
UDAP application, 2.2.4.3, 2.3.11
UDAP violations, 9.4.8
liability as aiders and abettors, 10.4.1
ACCREDITORS
UDAP liability, 10.4.6
ACTIONS
bodily injury, see PERSONAL INJURY SUITS
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
common law, see COMMON LAW
consumers, preservation, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
debts, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
deceit, see DECEIT ACTIONS
FTC violations, private right, 6.11.2
limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
personal injury, see PERSONAL INJURY SUITS
products liability, see PRODUCTS LIABILITY ACTIONS
RICO, see RICO ACTIONS
stay of proceedings, see STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
survival of actions, see SURVIVAL OF ACTIONS
UDAP, see UDAP ACTIONS
UDTPA-type statutes, 12.2.8
UNIP actions, 9.5.2.2
venue, see VENUE
ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
see COLLECTION ACTIONS
ADHESION CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
definition, 5.6.3.2
FTC Credit Practices Rule, application, 5.6.3.1, 6.12.1
future service contracts, cancellation provisions, 9.1.2
layaway plans, nonrefundable deposits, 5.7.1
unfair provisions, 4.3.4, 5.6.3, 6.12
ADJUSTABLE RATE MORTGAGES (ARMs)
option-ARMS, derivative liability, 10.5.6.3.6
ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES
see also CONSUMER COMPLAINTS; GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; REGULATORY BODIES; STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
exhaustion prior to UDAP remedies, 2.3.3.6
UNIP remedies, 9.5.2.3.2
primary jurisdiction doctrine, 2.3.3.6.2, 9.5.2.3.2
ADMIRALTY LAW
state law preemption, 2.5.5.4
ADVANCE FEE BROKERS
see also LOAN BROKERS
UDAP violations, 6.2.3
ADVERTISEMENTS
“advertising injury,” insurance coverage, 10.6.2.1
bait and switch, see BAIT AND SWITCH
constitutional protections, 11.9.2
credit advertising, 6.6.2
credit card marketing, 6.8.1.3
deceptive, see MISLEADING ADVERTISING; MISREPRESENTATIONS
disclaimers, effect, 4.2.20.4
disclosures, see DISCLOSURE
drug advertising, 4.3.9
endorsements, see PERSONAL ENDORSEMENTS
food labeling, 2.5.9, 8.8.1
guarantees, 5.6.7.3.1
infomercials, see INFOMERCIALS
medical cures, 9.3.2
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
mortgage advertising, 6.7.1
necessity for deception, 4.2.18
nutritional supplements, 9.3.2
online transactions, 4.2.15.3.9
organic food, 2.5.9.3
price, see PRICING GIMMICKS
product safety, 5.4.4
rebate policies, 5.3.3.3
rent-to-own transactions, 8.7.3
substantiation of claims, 5.2
tobacco products, 8.8.3, 9.3.8
trademarks, unauthorized, 5.4.10
UDAP application, 2.2.4.1, 2.3.7, 2.3.8
unavailable goods, 5.3.2
unsafe use of products, 5.4.4
weight loss products, 9.3.2
ADVERTISING AGENCIES
liability for deceptive advertising, 10.4.1
AFFIDAVITS
class actions, proof of damages, 12.5.4.2.1
UDAP violations, reasonable cause for belief
compulsory process, 13.3.5.1
preliminary injunctions, 13.5.1.3
state enforcement actions, 13.4.2
AFFILIATIONS
see also PERSONAL ENDORSEMENTS
misrepresentations
debt collectors, 6.10.3
generally, 5.4.8.1
AGENTS
see also PRINCIPALS
deception, knowledge, effect, 4.2.5
material facts, disclosure, 4.2.15.3.3, 4.2.15.3.4
misrepresentations by, 4.2.20.4
multiple damages, liability, 12.4.2.9
punitive damages, liability, 12.4.3.7
UDAP liability, 10.2.2
liability of principal, 10.2.3
out-of-state jurisdiction, 11.5.2.4
AGGRAVATION
mental anguish, evidence, 12.3.3.9.7
AGREEMENTS
see CONSENT AGREEMENTS; CONTRACTS
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
organic, see ORGANIC FOODS
packaging and labeling, see FOOD LABELING
AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION ACT (FEDERAL)
see MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION ACT
AIDING AND ABETTING
civil conspiracy, 10.4.2.3
long distance and 900 charges, 10.4.5
UDAP liability, 10.4
credit card issuers, 10.4.3
liable conduct, 10.4.2.2
liable parties, 10.4.1
payment intermediaries, 10.4.3
telemarketing fraud, 10.4.4
AIR CLEANERS
see HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
AIR CONDITIONING
see ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS
AIR TRAVEL INDUSTRY
guidelines, 9.2.1
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.5.5.3
AIRLINE DEREGULATION ACT
NAAG guidelines, preemption, 9.2.1
UDAP preemption, 2.5.5.3, 2.5.5.4
AIRLINES
see AIR TRAVEL INDUSTRY
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR)
see ARBITRATION
ALTERNATIVE MORTGAGE TRANSACTIONS PARITY ACT (AMTPA)
state law preemption, 2.5.3.4
ALUMINUM SIDING
see HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
AMBULANCE SERVICES
UDAP application, 2.3.10
AMENDMENTS
pleadings, effect of notice letter requirements, 11.4.4.9, 11.6.1
UDAP statutes, retroactivity, 2.1.1, 11.3
AMERICAN RED CROSS
blood bank activities, UDAP application, 2.3.10
ANTI-COMPETITIVE
see ANTI-TRUST
ANTI-TRUST
automobile sales, 7.2.6.4
indirect purchasers, standing, 5.8.2
tie-ins as, 5.8.1
UDAP applicability, 4.3.3.1, 5.8
APARTMENT FINDERS
UDAP claims, 8.2.2
APARTMENT RENTALS
see LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICES; RESIDENTIAL LEASES
APPEALS
attorney fees, awarding, 12.8.6
injunctions, effect, 13.5.2.3
APPLIANCE LABELING RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
disclosure requirements, 8.8.4
APPLIANCES
see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
energy savings claims, 8.8.4
FTC labeling rule, see APPLIANCE LABELING RULE (FTC)
maintenance agreements, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
rent-to-own, see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
APPRAISERS
civil conspiracies, 10.4.2.3.1
fraud, 8.3.5
investigating, 8.3.5.2
nature of, 8.3.5.1
property flipping, 8.3.4
UDAP claims, 8.3.5.3
UDAP application, 2.2.4.3, 2.2.5.2
UDAP violations, 8.3.5.3
inflated prices, 8.3.2
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4
ARBITRATION
see also ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
attorney fees, awarding, 12.8.5, 12.8.12.4
failure to award, 12.8.5.2
binding arbitration clauses, enforceability, 11.5.8, 12.8.5.1
contract law defenses, 11.5.8.5
determination, 11.5.8.4
generally, 11.5.8.1
proof of agreement, 11.5.8.3
statutory limits, 11.5.8.2
third parties, by, 10.1.1
class-wide arbitration, 11.5.8.2.2, 11.5.8.6
federal statute, see ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
insurance claims, 11.5.8.2.4
“loser pays rule,” 12.8.5.3
multiple damages, 12.4.2.5
punitive damages, 12.4.3.5
state law, 11.5.8.2.4, 11.5.8.2.5
UDAP claims, effect, 11.5.8, 12.4.2.3.5, 12.8.5
unavailable forum, 11.5.8.5
ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
see also ARBITRATION
preemption of state law, 11.5.8.2.4, 11.5.8.2.5
ARCHITECTS
UDAP application, 2.3.11
ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
see TEXT MESSAGES
ASCERTAINABLE LOSS
see also DAMAGES, ACTUAL
bait-and-switch sales, 11.4.2.8.7
benefit of the bargain loss, 11.4.2.8.4
debt obligations, 11.4.2.8.8
defective products, 11.4.2.8.4, 11.4.2.8.5
determination, 11.4.2.8
different product, 11.4.2.8.4
foreclosures, 11.4.2.8.9
future losses, 11.4.2.8.5, 11.4.2.8.10
litigation expenses, 11.4.2.8.8
non-pecuniary losses, 11.4.2.8.1
overpayments, 11.4.2.8.6
proof, 11.4.2.6, 11.4.2.7, 12.4.1.1
security breaches, 11.4.2.8.10
temporary losses, 11.4.2.8.3
ASSET ATTACHMENT ORDERS
state enforcement agencies, 13.5.5
ASSET FREEZES
preliminary injunctions, 12.6.3.2.3
restitution award, enforcement, 13.5.4.7.2
state enforcement agencies, 13.5.5
ASSIGNEES
see also ASSIGNMENTS
attorney fees, liability, 12.8.9
close-connectedness doctrine, 10.4.2.5
ECOA liability, 10.5.2.5
HOEPA loans, 10.5.6.3.5
holder-in-due-course status, 10.5.6.2, 10.5.6.3
home improvement contracts, 10.5.6.3.1
land installment sales, 10.5.6.3.2
lender-related defenses, raising against, 10.5.6
Magnuson-Moss liability, 10.5.2.5
option-ARMs, 10.5.6.3.6
punitive damages, liability, 12.4.3.7
reverse mortgages, 10.5.6.3.4
securitized debt, 10.5.6.3.7
seller-related claims and defenses
FTC Holder Rule liability, 2.2.1.6, 10.5
lessors, 10.5.5
other liability theories, 10.5.3.2
TILA liability, 10.5.2.5
UDAP application, 2.2.1.6, 2.2.4.3, 2.4.1.5
UDAP defendants, as, 11.6.2
UDAP liability, 2.2.1.6, 10.5
ASSIGNMENTS
see also ASSIGNEES
insurance claims, 2.2.4.9, 2.4.1.2, 2.4.1.5
UDAP claims, 2.4.1.2, 2.4.1.5
ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES (ALFs)
see also NURSING FACILITIES
UDAP violations, 9.3.4
ASSURANCES OF VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE
see also CONSENT AGREEMENTS
generally, 13.4.1
violation, penalties, 13.5.2.2
withdrawal of consent, 13.5.2.2
ATTACHMENT
state enforcement agencies, 13.5.5
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
actual damages, status as, 12.3.3.7
appellate work, 12.8.6, 12.8.12.5
arbitration proceedings, 12.8.5, 12.8.12.4
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.8.8
assignees, liability, 12.8.9
awarding, 12.8
calculation, 12.8.11
catalyst theory, 12.8.4.5.3
class actions, 12.8.2.1
collateral proceedings, 12.8.4.6, 12.8.11.4
contingency fee agreements, 12.8.11.3.3
defendant’s recovery, 12.8.10
default judgments, 12.8.4.4
determination, 12.8.12.4
documentation, 12.8.12.1
examples of significant awards, 12.8.11.2
expert witness fees, 12.8.7.3, 12.8.11.7
hearing tips, 12.8.13
interest on awards, 12.8.11.3.2
judicial discretion, 12.8.10.4.6
legal services attorneys, see LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
liability for, 12.8.9
lodestar formula, 12.8.11.3.2
mandatory or discretionary, 12.8.3
multiple claims, parties, trials, 12.8.4.3
non-UDAP counts, 12.8.4.3, 12.8.11.4
notice letters, demands for, 11.4.4.7, 11.4.4.11, 12.8.2.1
out-of-pocket expenses, 12.8.11.7
paralegal fees, 12.8.7.2, 12.8.11.6
pleading, 12.8.12.1
preconditions, 12.8.2, 12.8.4
prevailing consumer, 12.8.4
prevailing seller, 12.8.10
procedure for seeking, 12.8.12
public interest attorneys, see LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
purpose of UDAP provisions, 12.8.1
question of law or fact, 12.8.12.4
reasonableness, 12.8.11.1, 12.8.11.3
receipt, 12.8.8
Rule 68 relationship, 12.8.11.8
settlement considerations, 11.6.8, 12.8.4.5
simultaneous negotiation of fees and merits, 12.8.4.5.2, 12.8.4.5.3
size considerations, 12.8.11.1
small claims jurisdiction, effect, 11.5.4
state enforcement actions, 13.5.8
statutory authorization, 12.8.2
supplemental fees, 12.8.12.3
timing of petition, 12.8.12.3
UDTPA remedies, 12.2.8.2
unsuccessful counts, 12.8.11.4
ATTORNEYS
advice from, effect on UDAP liability, 4.2.6
civil conspiracies, 10.4.2.3.2
fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
legal services attorneys, see LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
malpractice, see LEGAL MALPRACTICE
non-attorneys, see NON-ATTORNEY LEGAL SERVICE PROVIDERS
practice tips, see PRACTICE TIPS
property flipping schemes, involvement, 8.3.4.1
public interest attorneys, see LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
right to, see RIGHT TO COUNSEL
UDAP actions, court appointment, 13.4.11
UDAP application, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.3.2, 2.3.9
general scope provisions, 2.3.9.1
litigation activities, 2.1.4
non-practice activities, 2.3.9.4
privity issues, 2.3.9.5
regulatory displacement, 2.3.9.3
statutory exemptions, 2.3.9.2
UDAP violations
misconduct, 9.4.1
third-party liability, 10.4.1
unauthorized practice of law, see UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE OF LAW
ATTORNEYS GENERAL (STATE)
see also STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
consent agreements, disclosure, 13.5.1.10
enforcement powers
CFPB rules, 3.4.6, 13.2.6.1
non-UDAP claims, 13.4.4
UDAAP, 3.4.6, 13.2.6
UDAP, 13.1
evidence, obtaining from, 11.7.6
FTC investigational records, access, 13.3.10
investigative files, discovery, 13.3.11
laches doctrine, application, 13.4.8
libel actions, 13.4.9
private attorneys general, injunctive actions, standing, 11.4.2.1, 12.6.1, 12.6.3
source of UDAP law, 3.4.3.1
special counsel, 13.4.12
staff
calling as witnesses, 13.4.10
immunity, 13.4.9, 13.4.10
standing, generally, 13.4.4
UDAP actions, see under STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
UDAP complaints, notification, 11.4.4.1
UDAP guidelines or enforcement statements, issuance, 3.4.4.1
UDAP regulations, promulgation, 3.4.4.2
AUCTIONEERS
UDAP application, 2.3.8
AUTOMATIC RENEWAL PROVISIONS
nondisclosure, 5.5.5
AUTOMATIC STAY
see also BANKRUPTCY
injunctions, effect on, 13.5.1.8
relief from, 10.7
restitution proceedings, effect on, 13.5.4.7.1
AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES
UDAP violations, 7.2, 7.9
AUTOMOBILE BROKERS
UDAP violations, 7.8
AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
see AUTOMOBILE SALES; DEALERS
AUTOMOBILE DEFECTS
see also AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS; DESIGN AND SAFETY DEFECTS
disclosure, 7.4.9, 7.5.10.1
lemon vehicles, see LEMON VEHICLES
prior damage, disclosure, 7.5.4
secret warranties, 7.5.10.2
UDAP application, 2.3.8
AUTOMOBILE FINDING SERVICES
scams, 7.8
AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE
force-placed, 9.5.10
AUTOMOBILE LEASES
see also LEASING AGREEMENTS; RENTAL CAR PRACTICES
deceptive inducements, 7.6.2
early termination and default, 7.6.3
excess mileage and wear charges, 7.6.4
misrepresentations, 7.6.2
UCC Article 2A, 7.6.5
UDAP application, 7.6.1
UDAP violations, 7.6
AUTOMOBILE LOANS
see also BANK LOANS
credit insurance, 7.2.5
dealer financing practices, 7.2.3
frauds on the financer, 7.2.3.5
kickbacks, 7.2.3.2–7.2.3.4
packing of back-end charges, 7.2.2
yield-spread premiums, 6.2
AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
see also AUTOMOBILE DEFECTS
demonstrators, 7.4.9.2
estimates, 7.10.2
rental cars, 7.7.4
replaced parts, 7.10.3
secret warranties, 7.5.10.2
UDAP violations, 7.10
ownership issues, 11.8.1.4
AUTOMOBILE SALES
add-ons, 7.2
anti-trust claims, 7.2.6.4
back-end profits, 7.2
packing, 7.2.2
cancellation rights, 7.3.8, 12.7.4
cooling-off periods, 7.3.9, 7.3.11
credit insurance, 7.2.5
credit reports, illegal use, 7.3.2
curbstoners, 7.3.12
dealer conversations, tape-recording, 7.1.10
dealer fees, 7.2.6
dealer files, 7.1.2, 7.1.9
dealer kickbacks on financing, 7.2.3.2–7.2.3.4
demonstrators, 7.4.3
destination charges, 7.5.7
discovery tips, 7.1
documentary fees, 7.2.6
extended warranties, 7.2.4
falsifying creditworthiness, 7.2.3.5
financing, see AUTOMOBILE LOANS
glass etching, 7.2.7.3
hired guns, 7.3.11
insurance packing, 7.2.4
licensing and regulation, 7.1.5
manufacturer rebates, 7.5.6
Monroney sticker, 7.5.3
NADA code of ethics, 7.1.12
odometer readings, 7.4.5
see also ODOMETER READINGS
negotiation practices, 7.3
pricing misrepresentations, 7.5.2
program cars, 7.4.3
recap sheets, 7.1.2
rustproofing, 7.2.7.2
sale of used car as new, 7.4.3
service contracts, 7.2.4
slow delivery, 7.5.8
spot delivery, 7.3.10
tent sales, 7.3.11
trade-ins, see TRADE-INS
turnover system, 7.3.1
UDAP violations, 7.5
undisclosed damage, 7.5.4
“unhorsing,” 7.3.3
used cars, see USED CAR PRACTICES
various players described, 7.1.14
vehicle characteristics, misrepresentations, 7.5.5
warranties, 7.5.9, 7.5.10.2, 7.5.10.3
yo-yo sales, 7.3.10
AUTOMOBILE TOWING
see TOWING PRACTICES
AUTOMOBILES
accessories, see AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES
defects, see AUTOMOBILE DEFECTS
extended warranties, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
finding services, see AUTOMOBILE FINDING SERVICES
insurance, see AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE
leases, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
lemons, see LEMON VEHICLES
odometer readings, see ODOMETER READINGS
ownership proof, 11.8.1.4
rentals, see RENTAL CAR PRACTICES
repairs, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
rustproofing, see RUSTPROOFING PRACTICES
sales, see AUTOMOBILE SALES
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
state law
generally, see MOTOR VEHICLE LAWS
lemon laws, see LEMON VEHICLES
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
towing practices, see TOWING PRACTICES
trade-ins, see TRADE-INS
used, see USED CAR PRACTICES
wrecks, see SALVAGE CARS
BAD FAITH
see also GOOD FAITH
holders in due course, effect, 10.5.6.3.9
insurance claims, refusal to pay, 9.5.3.2
punitive damages, 12.4.3.3
treble damages, precondition, 12.4.2.3.1
refusal to settle, 12.4.2.3.2
UDAP actions, attorney fees, 12.8.10.4
BAILEES
UDAP liability for negligence, 6.13.3
BAIT AND SWITCH
damages and causation, 12.3.5.2
credit practices, 6.3.3, 6.6.1
furniture and carpet sales, 8.8.7
home repair sales, 8.4.2
injury determination, 11.4.2.8.7
unfair or deceptive practices, 5.3.1
used cars, 7.4.9.3
BANK ACCOUNTS
see also BANKS
attachment orders, 13.5.5
freeze orders, see ASSETS FREEZES
UDAP application, 2.2.1.3
UDAP violations, 6.9.1
BANK DEPOSITS
see BANK ACCOUNTS; CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT
BANK FRAUD
credit applications, falsification, 6.3.4.2, 6.3.4.4
BANK LOANS
see also BANKS; LOANS
falsification of application, 6.3.4
improvident lending, 6.3.3
loan broker originated, 6.2.2
UDAP application, 2.2.1
BANKING
see BANKS; CREDIT PRACTICES; UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
BANKRUPTCY
automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
consumers, effect on UDAP claims, 11.5.7
defense against holder in due course, 10.5.6.3.11
deposits, accepting prior to, 5.7.1
foreclosure rescue scams, 6.7.7.2
form preparers, deceptive practices, 9.4.3
health clubs, UDAP violations, 9.1.3.3
injunctive actions, effect, 13.5.1.8
restitution actions, effect, 13.5.4.7.1
trustees, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
UDAP civil penalties, effect, 13.5.3.10
UDAP defendants, effect, 10.7
UDAP preemption, 2.5.12, 11.5.7
use to litigate consumer claims, 11.5.7
BANKRUPTCY COURT
attorney fees, awarding, 12.8.2
UDAP claims, jurisdiction, 11.5.7
BANKRUPTCY SALES
see DISTRESS SALES
BANKS
see also FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS; SAVINGS AND LOAN INSTITUTIONS; UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
bank accounts, see BANK ACCOUNTS
debt collection regulations, enforcement, 2.2.2.1
deposits, see CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT
failed banks, suing, 10.8.2
federal agency guidelines, 6.6.6, 6.7.2.2
FTC Act, application, 2.2.1.5.1
loan brokers, policies for dealing with, 6.2.1
loans, see BANK LOANS
personal information disclosure, 5.9
state-chartered FDIC-insured banks, 2.5.3.5
UDAP application
banking services, 2.2.1.3
credit practices, 2.2.1
federal preemption, 1.6.1, 2.3.3.5.3, 2.5.3
regulated body exemption, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.3.1
BARGAIN SALES
automobile dealers, 7.3.11
deceptive practices, 5.3.3
phony sales, 5.3.3.1
pricing, 5.3.3.2
rebate offers, 5.3.3.3
BARTER TRANSACTIONS
UDAP application, 2.2.4.4
BASEMENT WATERPROOFING
see HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
BEACH CLUBS
see CAMPGROUND RESORT MEMBERSHIPS; TIMESHARES
BENEFICIARIES
see GIFTS; THIRD-PARTY BENEFICIARIES; TRUSTEES
BENEFIT OF THE BARGAIN LOSS
see LOSS-OF-BARGAIN DAMAGES
BETTER BUSINESS BUREAUS
endorsements, liability, 10.4.6
BILLING ERRORS
see also OVERCHARGES
deceptive billing practices, 5.7.7
unauthorized credit card charges, 6.8.3.2
BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
see ARBITRATION
BLANKET SECURITY INTERESTS
see NON-PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
BLOOD BANKS
UDAP statutes, application, 2.3.10.4
BOAT SAFETY ACT
see FEDERAL BOAT SAFETY ACT
BODILY INJURY SUITS
see PERSONAL INJURY SUITS
BONA FIDE ERROR
see GOOD FAITH
BONDING
agencies, see BONDING AGENCIES
campground resorts, 9.1.5.2
health spas, 9.1.3.1, 9.1.3.3
UDAP claims, effect, 10.6.1
BONDING AGENCIES
see also BONDING
UDAP claims, liability, 10.6.1
BOOK PUBLISHERS
UDAP statutes, application, 2.3.3.2
BOOK SALES
see ENCYCLOPEDIA SELLERS; MAGAZINE SELLERS; MAIL ORDER SALES; NEGATIVE OPTION SALES; UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
BOUNCED CHECKS
see DISHONORED CHECKS
BREACH OF CONTRACT
see also CONTRACT LAW
common law action as UDAP alternative, 1.7
insurance claim refusal, 9.5.3.1
FTC consent agreements, 3.5.1.9
UDAP violations, 5.6.5
aggravating circumstances, 5.6.5.3
mere breach, 5.6.5.1
refusal to rectify breach, 5.6.5.4
systematic breaches, 4.3.5, 5.6.5.2
BREACH OF THE PEACE
repossessions, 6.13.3
BROKERS
automobile brokers, see AUTOMOBILE BROKERS
investment brokers, see INVESTMENT COUNSELING
loans, see LOAN BROKERS; MORTGAGE BROKERS
real estate, see REAL ESTATE BROKERS
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
actual damages, 11.4.2.6, 12.3.5.1
arbitration agreement, existence, 11.5.8.3
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.6
attorney fee awards, 12.8.12.2
causation, 4.2.12.5
class actions, 12.5.4
compulsory process
reasonable cause, 13.3.5.1
setting aside, 13.3.3
consumer transaction, 2.1.2
damage preconditions
amount of damage, 11.4.2.6
impact, 11.4.2.1.2
generally, 11.4.2.1.1, 11.4.2.10
deception, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.3.2, 4.2.9
fraud, 4.2.3.1, 11.8.1.1
injunctions, violations, 13.5.2.1
intent, 4.2.4
lodestar formula, adjustments, 12.8.11.3.2
materiality, 4.2.12.2, 4.2.12.4
minimal damages, 11.4.2.7
notice letters, service, 11.4.4.9
permitted by law, 2.3.3.3.1, 2.3.3.3.2
reliance, 4.2.12
settlement offers, reasonableness, 11.4.4.11, 12.4.2.3.2
statute of limitations, 11.2.2.1
UDAP application and exemptions, 2.1.2, 2.3.3.3.1, 2.3.3.3.2, 11.6.1
UDAP enforcement actions, reasonable cause, 13.4.2
UDAP violations
civil penalties, 13.5.3.1
damages and causation, 12.3.5
requirement, 11.8.1.1, 13.5.1.4
unsubstantiated claims, 5.2.3
BURGLAR ALARMS
deceptive practices, 8.6.2
BURIAL PLOTS
see FUNERAL HOMES
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
see also EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES; INVESTMENTS
contracts with inconvenient venue provisions, 6.10.9
franchises, see FRANCHISES
FTC rule, see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES RULE (FTC)
UDAP application, 2.2.8.2, 2.2.8.4, 2.2.9
UDAP violations, 9.6.1
work-at-home schemes, see WORK-AT-HOME SCHEMES
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES RULE (FTC)
see also BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES; TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
generally, 9.6.1
violation as UDAP violation, 9.6.1
work-at-home schemes, application, 9.6.2
BUSINESSES
see also CORPORATIONS; PARTNERSHIPS
constitutional protections, 13.3.4.2
customary practices, deception, effect, 4.2.8
injunctions against, 13.5.1.5.3
internal disputes, UDAP application, 2.2.9
nonpayment of judgment, UDAP violation, 5.6.9
small businesses, see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
UDAP standing, 2.4.5.2
alternative remedies, 2.4.5.2.4
BUYING CLUBS
see also DISCOUNT COUPONS; FUTURE SERVICE CONTRACTS
UDAP violations, 9.1.6
CABLE DECODERS AND DESCRAMBLERS
unfair practices, 8.8.6
CABLE TELEVISION CONSUMER PROTECTION COMPETITION ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.6
CABLE TELEVISION SYSTEMS
see also REGULATED INDUSTRIES
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.5.6
unauthorized use, 4.3.9
CAMPGROUND LEASES
UDAP application, 2.2.6.1
CAMPGROUND RESORT MEMBERSHIPS
see also FUTURE SERVICE CONTRACTS; TIMESHARES
cancellation rights, 9.1.5.1, 9.1.5.2
high-pressure sales techniques, 5.5.1, 9.1.5.1
injunctive relief, 12.6.3.2.2
landshares, 9.1.5.3
practice tips, 9.1.5.3
state law, 9.1.5.2
UDAP application, 2.2.7
UDAP violations, 9.1.5
unilateral changes, 5.6.5.2
CAMPS
see CAMPGROUND LEASES; CAMPGROUND RESORT MEMBERSHIPS; MIGRANT FARMWORKER CAMPS
CANCELLATION RIGHTS
see also REFUNDS; RESTITUTION
action as UDAP alternative, 1.7, 11.6.6
automobile sales, 7.3.8, 12.7.4
cooling-off periods, 7.3.9, 7.3.11
credit applications, falsified, 6.3.4.3
damages, election, 12.7.2, 12.7.5
deceptive practice, related contracts, 12.7
door-to-door sales, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
home improvement contracts, 8.4.7
future service contracts, 9.1.2
misrepresentations, 7.3.8
multiple damages, effect, 12.4.2.7.5
procedures, 12.7.4
punitive damages, effect, 12.4.3.8
relationship to other remedies, 12.7.5
state law, 7.3.9
tent sales, 7.3.11
treble damages in addition, 12.4.2.6, 12.7.5
UDAP violations, 5.6.6, 12.7
CAR DEALERS
see AUTOMOBILE SALES; DEALERS
CAR LOANS
see AUTOMOBILE LOANS
CAR SALES
see AUTOMOBILE SALES; USED CAR SALES
CARMACK AMENDMENT
state law preemption, 2.5.5.1, 8.6.1
CARPET CLEANERS
see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
misrepresentations, 8.8.10
CARPET SALES
deceptive practices, 8.8.7
CARRIERS
see also AIR TRAVEL INDUSTRY; SHIPPERS
interstate carriers, 8.6.1
CARS
see AUTOMOBILES
CASE LAW
see also PRECEDENT; RESEARCH AIDS
Clearinghouse numbers, 1.3.4
consumer transaction, 2.1.8
Texas case law, 2.1.8.7
FTC precedent, 3.4.5
nondisclosure holdings, 4.2.15.3.8
out-of-state, using, 2.1.1, 3.4.3.2
reasonable consumer standard, 4.2.11.2
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3
reporting, 1.3.4, 3.4.3.1
research aids, 1.5, 3.4.3
unreported cases, 1.3.4, 3.4.3.1
unconscionability, 4.4.3–4.4.9
unregulated heating fuels, 8.5.1.3
CASH RELOAD CARDS
telephone sales, use, 10.4.3.5
CAUSATION
bait-and-switch tactics, 12.3.5.2
damage precondition, 11.4.2.9
reliance, relationship, 4.2.12.5
UDAP actions, necessity, 4.2.12.5, 12.3.5.1
CDW
see COLLISION DAMAGE WAIVERS (CDW)
CEASE AND DESIST ORDERS
see also INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
enforcement remedy, 13.5.1.1
violations, 13.5.2
CELLULAR PHONE SERVICE
see WIRELESS SERVICES
CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT
see also BANKS; BANK ACCOUNTS
purchase, UDAP application, 2.2.1.3
CERTIFICATION
class actions, 12.5.3, 12.5.4
law enforcement purposes, FTC confidential information, 13.3.10
CHARGES
see CREDIT CHARGES; FEES; OVERCHARGES; PRICING GIMMICKS
CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS
see CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS; NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS
see also NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
constitutional issues, 9.6.5.2
FTC telemarketing rule, application, 9.6.5.1
state law, 9.6.5.1
UDAP coverage, 2.2.4.12, 2.3.5.1
UDAP violations, 9.6.5
CHATTELS
see GOODS OR SERVICES; PERSONAL PROPERTY
CHECK CASHING SERVICES
UDAP application, 2.2.1.3
UDAP violations, 6.9.2
CHECKLISTS
see PRACTICE TIPS
CHECKS
see also BANKS
check cashing services, see CHECK CASHING SERVICES
dishonored, see DISHONORED CHECKS
live check solicitations, 6.9.5
rain checks, see RAIN CHECKS
telechecks, see REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
travelers checks, see TRAVELERS CHECKS
CHILD
consumer status, 2.2.4.8, 2.4.1.4
CHILDBIRTH CLASSES
UDAP application, 2.3.5.2
CHIROPRACTORS
see also MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS
UDAP application, 2.3.10
statutory exemptions, 2.3.10.2
CHOICE OF LAW
generally, 11.5.3
out-of-state transactions, 2.2.11.3.1
CHURNING SCHEMES
UDAP violations, 6.13.4
CIGARETTE LABELING AND ADVERTISING ACT (FEDERAL)
see also TOBACCO COMPANIES
UDAP preemption, 2.5.11, 8.8.3, 9.3.8
CIVIL CONSPIRACY
see CONSPIRACY
CIVIL INVESTIGATION DEMANDS (CIDs)
see also DISCOVERY; SUBPOENAS
subpoena distinguished, 13.3.8
UDAP enforcement agencies, 13.3
circumstances, 13.3.2
confidential information, 13.3.7
constitutional issues, 13.3.4
preconditions, 13.3.5
public access, 13.3.12
standards for review, 13.3.3
CIVIL PENALTIES
see also DAMAGES, STATUTORY
assurances of voluntary compliance, violation, 13.5.2.2
bankruptcy, effect, 13.5.3.10
consent orders, violation, 13.5.2.1
constitutional challenges, 13.5.3.2
double jeopardy issues, 13.5.3.3
financial worth, effect, 13.5.3.1
immunity, effect, 13.3.4.2
initial UDAP violations, 13.5.3
amount, factors, 13.5.3.5
criteria, 13.5.3.4
enhanced penalties, 13.5.3.7
imposing, procedures, 13.5.3.1
multiple penalties, 13.5.3.6
injunctions, violation, 13.5.2.1, 13.5.2.4
insurance coverage, 13.5.3.9
liability for, 13.5.3.8
negligent violations, 4.2.4.1, 4.2.5.2
private litigants, availability, 12.4.1.1
restitution orders, relationship, 13.5.4.8
status as criminal fine, 13.3.4.2, 13.5.3.1
statutory damages, distinction, 12.4.1.1
CIVIL PROCEDURE
see RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
see DISCRIMINATION
CIVIL SUITS
see ACTIONS; PERSONAL INJURY SUITS
CLAIMS
see ACTIONS; COUNTERCLAIMS; PLEADINGS
CLARIFICATION
effect on deception claim, 4.2.16
CLASS ACTIONS
advantages, 12.5.1
arbitration restrictions, 11.5.8.6
financial products and services, 11.5.8.2.2
attorney fees, 12.8.2.1
certification, 12.5.3, 12.5.4
common deceptive practice, 12.5.4.2
counterclaims, effect, 12.5.4.2.9
damage preconditions, effect, 11.4.2.1.2, 12.5.6
dealer kickbacks, 7.2.3.4
federal court, procedures, 12.5.2.2
federal jurisdiction, 11.5.5, 11.5.6, 13.4.7
fluid recovery, 12.5.3
fraud and UDAP actions compared, 12.5.4.1
generally, 12.5.1
injunctive relief, 12.5.1, 12.6.2.1, 12.6.3.2.3
material facts, nondisclosure actions, 4.2.15.1
migrant farmworkers, 8.2.9
minimal individual damage, 11.6.3, 12.5.3, 12.5.7
multi-state actions, 12.5.5
notice letters, 11.4.4.1, 11.4.4.8, 12.5.5
notice to class, 12.5.5
organization representing class, 11.4.2.1.3
payment system fraud, 10.4.3.2, 10.4.3.4
picking off named plaintiffs, 12.5.6
predominant class issues, 12.5.4.2.9
procedures, 12.5.2
proving common UDAP violation, 12.5.4
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3.1
removal to federal court, 11.5.6, 13.4.7
restitution, actual deception, necessity, 4.2.9
settlements, 12.5.1
Shady Grove, 12.5.2.2
statutory damages, 12.4.1.2, 12.5.7
superiority, 12.5.4.2.10
UDAP claims, procedures, 12.5.2
waiver of statutory damages, 12.5.7
CLEAN AIR ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.13
CLEANERS
see CARPET CLEANERS; HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
CLEAR AND CONSPICUOUS
online disclosures, 4.2.15.3.9
CLEARANCE SALES
see BARGAIN SALES
CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
older cases and documents, 1.3.4
CLOSE-CONNECTEDNESS DOCTRINE
assignee liability, 10.4.2.5
affirmative recoveries, 10.4.2.5.2
flags of close-connectedness, 10.4.2.5.3
utility of doctrine, 10.4.2.5.1
CLOSE-OUT SALES
see DISTRESS SALES
CO-VENTURERS
UDAP claims, liability, 10.3.5
COERCION
see also DURESS
collection tactics, 4.3.6
credit insurance, 9.5.9.4
credit tactics, 6.6.4
dealer negotiation tactics, 7.3.1
high-pressure sales, 4.3.6, 5.5
negative option sales, 5.5.5
unordered merchandise, 5.5.4
voluntary payment defense exception, 4.2.20.5
COLLATERAL
household goods as, 5.6.3.2, 6.11.1, 6.11.3, 6.13.1
COLLATERAL SOURCE RULE
insurance proceeds, UDAP application, 12.3.6.2
COLLECTION ACTIONS
see also DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
adding parties, 11.6.2
counterclaims, see COUNTERCLAIMS
default judgments, 6.10.10
defenses, see DEFENSES
inconvenient venue, 6.10.9
recoupment claims, 11.2.5
res judicata effect, 11.6.7
COLLECTION ACTIVITIES
see DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
COLLECTION AGENCIES
see DEBT COLLECTORS
COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP FRAUD PREVENTION ACT
requirements, 9.6.6
COLLEGES
see EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
COLLISION DAMAGE WAIVERS (CDW)
rental car practices, 7.7.2
COMBINES
see ANTI-TRUST
COMMERCE
see INTERSTATE COMMERCE; TRADE OR COMMERCE
COMMERCIAL SPEECH
constitutional protections, 11.9.2
political speech, differences, 11.9.2.3
COMMERCIALS
see ADVERTISEMENTS; INFOMERCIALS
COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.7
COMMODITY FUTURES
UDAP application, 2.2.8.3
COMMON LAW
agents, vicarious liability, 10.2
alternative UDAP actions, 1.7
claims, pleading, 11.6.6
contracts, see CONTRACT LAW
deceit, see DECEIT ACTIONS
defenses, UDAP claims, application, 4.2.20, 4.2.21
fraud, see FRAUD
fraudulent statements, 4.2.12.1
injunctive actions, application, 12.6.3.3
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
punitive damages, application, 12.4.3.2, 12.4.3.7
torts, see TORTS
UDAP damages, application, 12.3.2.1, 12.3.3.9.1
unconscionability, 4.4.9.2
warranty law, see WARRANTIES
COMMUNICATIONS ACT (FEDERAL)
UDAP preemption, 2.5.6
COMMUNITY ANTENNA TELEVISION
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5
COMPANIES
see BUSINESSES; CORPORATIONS; REGULATED INDUSTRIES
COMPENSATION
see DAMAGES; RESTITUTION
COMPETITION
see also ANTI-TRUST
lack of, effect on consumers, 4.3.2.3.5
COMPETITORS
disparaging, 5.4.11
COMPLAINTS
consumer complaints, 1.7
FTC complaints, 3.4.5.3
obtaining copies, 11.7.6
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY
see OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
COMPULSORY PROCESS
see CIVIL INVESTIGATION DEMANDS (CIDs); SUBPOENAS
COMPUTER EQUIPMENT
misrepresentations, 8.8.6
software sellers, see SOFTWARE SELLERS
CONCEALMENT
fraudulent conduct, 10.4.2.4
known defects, 5.7.3
overcharges, 6.4.2, 6.5.1
tolling of statute of limitations, 11.2.3.2
CONCILIATION
see ASSURANCES OF VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE
CONDITIONAL OFFERS
see also CONTINGENCY CLAUSES; YO-YO SALES
disclosure, 4.2.15.3.2, 5.3.9, 6.6.3.2
CONDITIONS
see also CONDITIONAL OFFERS; CONTINGENCY CLAUSES
disclosure requirements, 4.2.15.3.2, 5.3.9, 6.6.3.2
CONDOMINIUMS
timeshares, see TIMESHARES
UDAP application, 2.1.4, 2.3.3.5.5
UDAP standing, 2.4.1.6, 2.4.5.2.2
CONDUCT
deceptive, 4.2.14
illegal conduct as unfair, 4.3.9
inconsistent with contract, 5.6.4.2
CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
compulsory process, exemptions, 13.3.7
FTC investigational records, disclosure, 13.3.10
CONFLICT OF LAWS
UDAP actions, effect, 2.4.4, 11.5.3
CONSENT AGREEMENTS
see also ASSURANCES OF VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE
adoption as consent decree, 13.5.1.9
federal agencies, effect on state injunctive actions, 13.5.1.2
FTC, see CONSENT AGREEMENTS (FTC)
judicial modification of decree, 13.5.1.9
public disclosure, 13.5.1.10
violation, 13.5.1.9
CONSENT AGREEMENTS (FTC)
see also CONSENT AGREEMENTS
judicial modification of decree, 13.5.1.9
precedential value, 3.4.5.3
violation as breach of contract, 13.5.1.9
CONSENT ORDERS
contract law, application, 13.5.2.1
UDAP claims, demand notices, restrictions, 11.4.4.7
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES, ACTUAL
attorney fees, status, 12.3.3.7
credit rating injury, 12.3.3.6
direct damages distinguished, 12.3.1, 12.3.3.1
financing costs, status, 12.3.3.3
framing nature of suit, 11.6.3
future damages, 12.3.3.4
generally, 12.3.3.1
lost time or earnings, 12.3.3.4
lost use of product or service, 12.3.3.5
pain and suffering, 12.3.3.9
physical injuries, 12.3.3.8
pleading, 12.3.3.6
producing cause, 12.3.3.2
proving, 12.3.5.1
standards of proof, 12.3.3.2
CONSPIRACY
out-of-state defendants, jurisdiction, 11.5.2.5
tort claims, 10.4.2.3
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4.4
required elements, 10.4.2.3.2
CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
see also DISCRIMINATION; DUE PROCESS; FIRST AMENDMENT; SEARCH AND SEIZURE; SELF-INCRIMINATION
bona fide error defense, restrictions, 4.2.6
charitable fundraising, regulation, 9.6.5.2
civil penalties, 13.5.3.3
health club statutes, 9.1.3.1
injunctive orders, 13.5.1.5.2
multiple damages, 11.9.3, 11.9.4.1, 12.4.2.1
national class actions, 12.5.5
punitive damages, 11.9.4.1, 12.4.3.6.1, 12.4.3.6.3
state enforcement agencies
administrative proceedings, 13.4.6
compulsory process, 13.3.4
selective enforcement, 13.4.5
statutory damages, 11.9.4.1
UDAP regulations, 3.2.7.3.3, 3.4.4.2, 11.9.5
UDAP remedies, 11.9.4
UDAP statutes, 11.9
CONSTRUCTION
see also HOME BUILDERS; HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS; PRECUT HOUSING
building permits, 8.4.4
manufactured homes, see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
UDAP application, 2.2.5.2
UDAP violations, 8.3.6
CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST
successor corporations, 10.8.1
CONSUMER AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
CONSUMER COMPLAINTS
government agencies, referral, 1.7
CONSUMER CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS; CONTRACTS
arbitration clauses, enforceability, 11.5.8
credit contracts, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
damage provisions, UDAP application, 12.3.6.1
rescinding, 12.7
sales contracts, see SALES CONTRACTS
systematic breach, 4.3.5
unfair negotiation techniques, 7.3.7
CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS; CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS; CREDIT SALES
adhesive provisions, see ADHESION CONTRACTS
arbitration clauses, enforceability, 11.5.8
credit terms, see CREDIT TERMS
FTC Credit Practices Rule
application, 4.3.4, 6.12.1
violation, effect, 6.11.2, 6.12.1
language requirements, 5.6.1, 5.6.2
lender-related defenses, 10.5.6
military personnel, 11.5.8.2.3
post-consummation violation of terms, 6.6.5
repossession provisions
deceptive provisions, 6.13.2
unfair provisions, 6.13.1
small businesses, status, 6.10.9
seller-related claims and defenses, 10.5
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.1
unconscionable provisions, 6.12.2
unfairness, 4.3.4, 6.12
CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
see also CONSUMER LEASING ACT (CLA); EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA); FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA); TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
UDAP preemption, 2.2.1.5.3, 2.3.3.2
CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTS
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
abusive standard, 3.4.6
arbitration provisions, proposed rule, 11.5.8.2.2
credit card issuers, enforcement actions against, 6.8.2.1
debt collection rules, 6.10.2
deception definition, 4.2.3.1
mortgage lending rules, 6.7.2.1
advertising rule, 6.7.1
servicer rules, 6.7.3
rulemaking authority, 3.4.6, 6.7.2.1
unfair banking practices, regulation, 2.2.1.5.1
unfairness standard, 4.3.2.1
CONSUMER FRAUD ACTS
see also UDAP STATUTES
UDAP statutes, relationship, 3.4.2.5
CONSUMER GOODS
see also GOODS OR SERVICES; CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
definition, 2.1.8
household purposes, see HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
CONSUMER LEASING ACT (CLA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA); TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
closed-end auto leases, application, 7.6.3
violations as per se UDAP violation, 6.4.1
CONSUMER MARKET
imperfect market, effect, 4.3.2.3.12
lack of choice, 4.3.2.3.5
subprime, see SUBPRIME MARKET
CONSUMER PROTECTION ACTS
Affordable Care Act, 2.5.8.1
unfair or deceptive practices, see UDAP STATUTES
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.6
CONSUMER RECOVERY FUNDS
student tuition, see STUDENT TUITION RECOVERY FUNDS
UDAP claims, application, 10.6.3
CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
credit reports
false reports by creditors, 6.10.4
illegal use by auto dealers, 7.3.2
per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
CONSUMER SALES ACTS
see UDAP STATUTES
CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS; CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS; CONSUMER GOODS; NON-SALE TRANSACTIONS; SALES CONTRACTS
deceptive, see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
definition, 2.1.8
housing rental, status, 2.2.6
insurance, see INSURANCE
large transactions, Texas exemption, 2.2.12
mixed transactions, 2.1.8.3
post-transaction abuses, 4.3.2.3.11
private disputes, distinction, 11.4.3.8.2
public interest standards, 11.4.3
pyramid sales, status, 2.2.8.1
test purchases, status, 13.3.9
Texas case law, 2.1.8.7
UDAP application
alleging in pleadings, 2.1.2, 11.6.1
generally, 2.1.8, 3.2.7.2, 3.1.2
large transaction, Texas exemption, 2.2.12
out-of-state residents, 2.2.11.2
out-of-state transactions, 2.2.11.3
scope, 2.1
unconscionable, see UNCONSCIONABLE PRACTICES
unfair, see UNFAIR PRACTICES
CONSUMERS
see also NON-MERCHANTS
children, status as, 2.2.4.8, 2.4.1.4
complaints, see CONSUMER COMPLAINTS
corporations, status, 2.4.5.2.1
deceased, bringing action in name of, 2.4.2
definition, 2.1.8, 2.2.4, 2.4.5.1
disabled, see DISABLED CONSUMERS
elderly, see OLDER CONSUMERS
estates, status, 2.4.2
franchisees, status, 2.2.8.2
investors, status, 2.1.8.2, 2.2.8.2
manufactured home residents, status, 2.2.6
multiple damages, restrictions, 12.4.2.3
real estate purchasers, status, 2.2.5.1
special selection, deceptive practices, 5.3.8
substantial injury, see SUBSTANTIAL CONSUMER INJURY
tenants, status, 2.2.6
testers, status, 2.4.6
transactions, see CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
UDAP actions, see UDAP ACTIONS
UDAP application
burden of proof, 2.1.2
non-merchants, 2.3.4
non-sale transactions, 2.2.4
out-of-state consumers, 2.4.4
scope, 2.1.2, 2.1.8
unclean hands, 4.2.21.3, 6.3.4.4
vulnerable consumers, see VULNERABILITY
CONTESTS
see also LOTTERIES
deceptive practices, 5.3.8, 9.6.4
campground memberships, 9.1.5.1
timeshares, 8.3.9
travel packages and certificates, 9.2.3
do-not-mail lists, 9.6.4
FTC telemarketing rule, application, 9.6.4
state statutes regulating, 9.1.5.2
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
UDAP application, 2.2.4.12
unauthorized credit charges, 6.8.3.2
CONTINGENCY FEE AGREEMENTS
fee calculations, 12.8.11.3.3
UDAP violations, 9.4.1
CONTRACT LAW
see also BREACH OF CONTRACT; CONTRACTS; LEGAL RIGHTS; PRIVITY OF CONTRACT
arbitration agreements, application, 11.5.8.5
deception defense, application, 3.3.4, 4.2.20
FTC rules or consent decrees, violations, application, 13.5.1.9
future service contracts, application, 9.1.2
layaway plans, application, 5.7.1
misrepresentations, UDAP violations, 5.6.4
privity of contract, 4.2.20.3
UDAP actions
application, 3.3.4, 4.2.20
choice of law, 11.5.3
limitations, 11.2.1.2
voluntary payment doctrine, 4.2.20.5
CONTRACTORS
see HOME BUILDERS; HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS; CONTRACT LAW
binding arbitration clauses, enforceability, 11.5.8
breach of contract, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
cancellation, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS
choice of law provisions, 2.2.11.3.1, 11.5.3
common law actions as UDAP alternative, 1.7
credit contracts, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
damage provisions, UDAP application, 12.3.6.1
health clubs, see HEALTH CLUB MEMBERSHIPS
home improvement contracts, see HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
illegal terms, 5.6.3.3, 11.4.2.8.2
language requirements, 5.6.1, 5.6.2
layaway, see LAYAWAY PLANS
misrepresentation defense, 1.7
oral representations inconsistent with, 5.6.4.2
penalty clauses, see PENALTY CLAUSES
post-contract abuses, 4.3.2.3.11
repossession provisions, 6.13.1, 6.13.2
rescission, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS
sales, see SALES CONTRACTS
standardized terms, see STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
UDAP actions, requirement, 2.2.4, 2.3.8, 2.4.1
refusal to contract, 2.2.4.2
void contracts, 2.2.4.5
UDAP violations, 5.6
unenforceable terms, 5.6.3.3
unequal relationship of parties, 5.6.5.5
unfair terms
lack of meaningful choice, 4.3.2.3.5
standard form contracts, 4.3.2.3.4
time of formation, 4.3.2.3.6
voiding, 12.7
CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE
see also NEGLIGENCE
UDAP action, as defense, 4.2.11.2, 4.2.21.1
COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
see also DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES; TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
automobile sales, application, 7.3.9, 7.3.11
curbstoner exemption, 7.3.12
rent-to-own transactions, application, 8.7.5
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6
COOLING-OFF PERIODS
automobile sales, 7.3.9
tent sales, 7.3.11
buying clubs, 9.1.6
campground membership sales, 9.1.5.1, 9.1.5.2
door-to-door sales, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
future service contracts, 9.1.2
health spas, 9.1.3
living trusts, 9.4.5
RTO transactions, 8.7.5
state law, 7.3.9
violations as per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
COOPERATIVES
see CONDOMINIUMS; TIMESHARES
COPYRIGHT ACT (FEDERAL)
UDAP preemption, 2.5.7
CORPORATE OFFICERS
see also DIRECTORS
personal guarantees, UDAP application, 2.2.1, 2.4.3
self-incrimination, 13.3.4.2
UDAP liability, 10.3.2
attorney fees, 12.8.9
CORPORATIONS
see also BUSINESSES
attorney fees, liability, 12.8.9
closely-related corporations, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
constitutional protections, 13.3.4.2
corporate disregard theory, 10.3.4
defendants, as, 11.6.2
definition, 2.3.5.1
directors, see DIRECTORS
dissolution orders, 13.5.6
“fiduciary shield” doctrine, 11.5.2.4
FTC Act, scope, 2.3.5.1
loans, personal guarantees, UDAP application, 2.2.1, 2.4.3
multiple damages, vicarious liability, 12.4.2.9
nonpayment of judgment, UDAP violation, 5.6.9
officers, see CORPORATE OFFICERS
parent companies, see PARENT COMPANIES
piercing corporate veil, 10.3.3
punitive damages, vicarious liability, 12.4.3.7
stockholders, see SHAREHOLDERS
UDAP liability, 10.3
related corporations, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
successor corporations, 10.8.1
UDAP standing, 2.4.5.1, 2.4.5.2
CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS
see FOR-PROFIT SCHOOLS
COSIGNERS
see ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
COSMETICS
UDAP application, 2.5.8.5
COST
see FEES; PURCHASE PRICE; REPAIR COSTS
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS; WITNESS FEES
COUNSELING SERVICES
credit counseling, see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
investment counseling, see INVESTMENT COUNSELING
free services, UDAP application, 2.2.4.6
COUNTERCLAIMS
see also PLEADINGS; SET-OFFS
attorney fees, entitlement, 12.8.10, 12.8.11.4
class actions, effect, 12.5.4.2.9
future service contracts, collection actions, 9.1.2
multiple damages, effect, 12.4.2.7.1
UDAP violations
compulsory counterclaims, 1.8, 11.5.4, 11.6.3, 11.6.5.1
defense to collection action, 3.1.1, 11.6.3
jurisdiction, 11.5.4
limitations, 11.2.5
notice letter requirements, effect, 11.4.4.3
COURSE MATERIALS
constitutional protections, 11.9.2.4
COURT RECORDS
evidence, obtaining from, 7.1.7, 11.7.6
CRAMMING
unauthorized charges on phone bills, 5.7.7, 8.5.3.4, 10.4.5
CREDIT ACTIVITIES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
CREDIT AGREEMENTS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
CREDIT APPLICATIONS
falsification by seller or broker, 6.3.4
computing damages, 6.3.4.3
consumer’s clean hands, 6.3.4.4
dealer practices, 7.2.3.5
legal claims available to consumer, 6.3.4.2
nature of problem, 6.3.4.1
CREDIT BALANCES
unfair or deceptive practices, 6.8.3.3
CREDIT BUREAUS
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
CREDIT CARD FINDERS
UDAP violations, 6.8.3.1
CREDIT CARD ISSUERS
see also CREDIT CARDS
abuses by, 6.8.2
CFPB enforcement actions, 6.8.2.1, 6.8.2.2.1
OCC advisory letters 6.8.2.2.2
subprime cards, 6.8.2.2
aiding and abetting merchant fraud, 10.4.3.2
litigation against, obstacles, 6.8.1.2
merchant-related claims, raising against, 10.4.3.2, 10.5.4
CREDIT CARD PRACTICES
see also CREDIT CARDS
CFPB enforcement actions, 6.8.2.1, 6.8.2.2.1
marketing and advertising, 6.8.1.3
OCC advisory letters, 6.8.2.2.2
regulation, 6.8.1.1
subprime cards, 6.8.2.2
UDAP violations, 6.8
ability to avoid injury, 4.3.2.3.9
credit balances, 6.8.3.3
loss protection and reporting services, 6.8.4
unauthorized charges, 6.8.3.2
CREDIT CARDS
credit balances, 6.8.3.3
“fee-harvester” cards, 6.8.2.2.1
finders, see CREDIT CARD FINDERS
issuers, see CREDIT CARD ISSUERS
loss protection and reporting services, 6.8.4
marketing and advertising, 6.8.1.3
merchant fraud, liability, 10.4.3.2
practices, see CREDIT CARD PRACTICES
regulation, 6.8.1.1
secured credit cards, 6.8.2.2.1
unfair practices, 6.8.2.2.2
subprime cards, 6.8.2.2
UDAP application, 2.2.1, 2.3.3.2
unauthorized charges, 6.8.3.2
ability to avoid, 4.3.2.3.9
CREDIT CHARGES
see also CREDIT TERMS; FINANCING COSTS; INTEREST RATES; LATE PAYMENT PENALTIES
dealer fees as, 7.2.6.3
excessive, 6.5
misrepresentations, 6.6.1
nondisclosure, 6.6.3
CREDIT CLINICS
see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
CREDIT CONSULTANTS
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; DEBT CONSOLIDATION; LOAN BROKERS
CREDIT CONTRACTS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
see also DEBT CONSOLIDATION; DEBT RELIEF SERVICES; FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS; LOAN BROKERS
debt settlement services distinguished, 6.14.4
UDAP application, 2.2.1, 6.14.3
CREDIT INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE PRACTICES
automobile sales, 7.2.5
claims, failure to pay, 9.5.9.6
coercion, 9.5.9.4
deceptive marketing, 9.5.9.3
described, 9.5.9.1
disclosure requirements, 9.5.9.2, 9.5.9.3
excessive cost, 6.5.2, 9.5.9.2
excessive credit property insurance, 6.11.3, 9.5.9.5
illusory benefits, 9.5.9.3
kickbacks, 9.5.5.4, 9.5.9.2
packing, see INSURANCE PACKING
sales, UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.1.3
tied sales, challenging, 5.8.1
VSI, see VENDOR’S SINGLE-INTEREST INSURANCE (VSI)
CREDIT LEGISLATION (STATE)
see also STATE LAW
attempts to evade, 6.4.5
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.3.3.5.5
violations, 6.4.4
CREDIT PRACTICES
see also CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC); CREDIT TERMS; CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
advance-fee credit offers, 6.2.3
automobile sales, 7.2.3
banks, see UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
coercive tactics, 6.6.4
deceptive practices, 6.6
discriminatory, 6.4.3
exorbitant charges, 6.5
forced-placed insurance abuses, 9.5.10
home improvement sales, 8.4.7
home mortgage loans, 6.7
foreclosures, see FORECLOSURES
loan brokers, 6.2
loan terms, 6.7.2
misleading advertising, 6.7.1
modification of loans, 6.7.5
servicing, see MORTGAGE SERVICING
improvident extension of credit, 6.3
see also IMPROVIDENT LENDING
falsification of credit application, 6.3.4
manufactured home sales, 8.1.1.3
misleading advertising
general advertising, 6.6.2
mortgage loans, 6.7.1
oppressive practices, 6.8
post-confirmation practices, 6.6.5
prohibited practices, 6.11
trade or commerce, inclusion in term, 2.1.4
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.1, 2.3.3
state-by-state survey, 2.2.1.7
unconscionable practices, 6.12.2
yield spread premiums, 6.2.4, 6.7.2.1
CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
adhesion contracts, application, 4.3.4.1, 5.6.3.1
circumvention attempts, 6.11.3
future service contracts, application, 9.1.2
overview, 6.11.1
repossession provisions, restrictions, 6.13.1
unfair practices, application to credit contracts, 4.3.4
using to challenge other creditor remedies, 6.12.1
utilizing in private actions, 6.11.2
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6, 6.11.2
CREDIT PROPERTY INSURANCE
see also CREDIT INSURANCE
excessive insurance, 6.11.3, 9.5.9.5
CREDIT RATINGS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
injury, damages, 11.4.2.8.10, 12.3.3.6
misrepresentations by collectors, 6.10.4
repair to, see CREDIT REPAIR LAWS; CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
CREDIT REPAIR LAWS
see also CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
application
buy-here, pay-here dealerships, 7.4.14.2
credit application falsification, 6.3.4.2
credit counselors, 6.14.3
credit repair organizations, 6.14.2
debt elimination schemes, 6.14.5
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4.4
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
see also DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
deceptive and unfair practices, 6.14.2
FTC telemarketing regulations, 6.14.2
regulation, see CREDIT REPAIR LAWS
sample pleadings, 6.14.1
CREDIT REPORTS
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
CREDIT SALES
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE LOANS
FTC Holder Rule, 10.5.2.1, 10.5.6.3.1
insurance, see CREDIT INSURANCE
insurance packing, 9.5.11
manufactured homes, 8.1.1.3
tie-ins, challenging, 5.8.1
CREDIT TERMS
see also CREDIT PRACTICES; FINANCING COSTS
interest and charges, see CREDIT CHARGES
misleading advertising, 6.6.2
mortgage advertising, 6.7.1
UDAP violations, 6.6
coercive tactics, 6.6.4
misrepresentations, 6.6.1
nondisclosure, 6.6.3
post-consummation violations, 6.6.5
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
see also CREDIT PRACTICES; CREDIT SALES; CREDIT TERMS; LOAN BROKERS; LOANS
coercive tactics, 6.6.4
contracts, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
falsified applications, 6.3.4
goods or services, 2.2.1.2, 2.2.1.3
home improvement sales, 8.4.7
improvident, 6.3
manufactured home sales, 8.1.1.3
insurance packing, 9.5.11
trade or commerce, 2.2.1.1
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.1, 2.3.3.2
state-by-state survey, 2.2.1.7
vulnerable groups, 4.3.8
CREDIT UNIONS
NCUA Rules, application, 2.5.3.6
UDAP actions, bringing, 2.4.5.2
UDAP application, 2.5.3.6
CREDITOR REMEDIES
see CREDIT PRACTICES; DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
CREDITORS
see also CREDIT PRACTICES; DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES; DEBT COLLECTORS; LOAN BROKERS
FTC Holder Rule, application, 2.2.1.6, 10.5
improvident lending, see IMPROVIDENT LENDING
mortgage lenders, see MORTGAGE LENDERS
seller-related claims and defenses
close-connectedness doctrine, 10.4.2.5.1
FTC Holder Rule liability, 10.5.2, 10.5.3.1
other liability theories, 10.5.3.2
suits by, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
UDAP defendants, as, 11.6.2
UDAP liability
generally, 2.2.1, 6.10.1
holder liability, 2.2.1.6, 10.5
state-by-state survey, 2.2.1.7
UDAP statutes, use by, 2.2.4.15, 2.4.5.2
CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS
immunity, see IMMUNITY
intent, necessity of proof, 4.2.4
stay of civil proceedings pending, 13.3.4.2
UDAP actions, status, 13.3.4.2, 13.5.3.1
CRIMINALS
UDAP claims by, 4.2.12.5
CRUISES
UDAP violations, 9.2.2
CUSTOM-MADE
misrepresentations, 5.4.6
CUSTOMER LISTS
confidentiality, CID, 13.3.7
DAMAGE PRECONDITIONS
see also DAMAGES; INJURY
Article III standing requirements, 11.4.2.1.4
California, 11.4.2.3
causation, 11.4.2.9
exceptions, 11.4.2.5
impact, 14.4.2.1.3
implications, 11.4.2.1
injunctive relief, 12.6.3.1, 13.5.1.4
injuries that satisfy, 11.4.2.8
bait-and-switch, 11.4.2.8.7
“benefit of the bargain” standard, 11.4.2.8.4
debts, 11.4.2.8.8
different product, 11.4.2.8.4
foreclosure threat, 11.4.2.8.9
future losses, 11.4.2.8.5, 11.4.2.8.10
litigation expenses, 11.4.2.8.8
loss of home equity, 14.4.2.8.8
non-pecuniary losses, 11.4.2.8.1
other losses, 11.4.2.8.11
overpayment, 11.4.2.8.6
security breaches, 11.4.2.8.10
temporary losses, 11.4.2.8.3
unenforced clauses, 11.4.2.8.2
minimal damage, 11.4.2.7
nature of, 14.4.2.1.1
organizational standing, 11.4.2.1.3
proof of amount, necessity, 11.4.2.6
proof of precondition, 11.4.2.10
statutes dispensing with, 11.4.2.4
types, 11.4.2.2
DAMAGED GOODS
see DEFECTIVE GOODS
DAMAGES
see also INJURY; UDAP REMEDIES
actual damages, see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
attorney fees, relationship, 12.8.4
bait-and-switch tactics, 5.3.1, 12.3.5.2
class actions, 12.5.1–12.5.4
collateral source rule, 12.3.6.2
common law fraud element, 4.2.3.1
composition, 11.4.2.8
consequential damages, see CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
contractual limitations, 12.3.6.1
credit application falsification, 6.3.4.3
direct damages, see DIRECT DAMAGES
future loss, 11.4.2.8.10
holders, maximum liability, 5.6.10, 10.5.2.4
injunctive actions, relationship, 12.6.3
jury instructions, 12.4.2.8
liquidated damages, see LIQUIDATED DAMAGES CLAUSES
loss-of-bargain, see LOSS-OF-BARGAIN DAMAGES
mental anguish, see MENTAL ANGUISH
minimal, 11.4.2.7, 12.5.3
minimum, see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
mitigation, see MITIGATION OF DAMAGES
multiple, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
notice letters, specification, 11.4.4.7
out-of-pocket, see OUT-OF-POCKET DAMAGES
pain and suffering, see PAIN AND SUFFERING
pleading, 11.6.1
precondition to suit, see DAMAGE PRECONDITIONS
private UDAP remedies, 12.2
private UDTPA remedies, availability, 12.2.8.2
proximate damages, see CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
punitive, see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
real-estate-related transactions, 2.2.5.2
recoupment claims, 11.2.5
repair costs, see REPAIR COSTS
rescission, election, 12.7.2, 12.7.5
restitution, see RESTITUTION
settlement offers, effect, 11.4.4.11
statutory provisions, construction, 12.3.2.1
treble, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
UDAP claims, evaluating, 11.6.3
UDAP scope provisions, application, 2.2.5.2
utilities
illegal shutoff, 8.5.2.3
interrupted service, 8.5.2.3
DAMAGES, ACTUAL
see also CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES; DAMAGES; DIRECT DAMAGES
ascertainable loss, see ASCERTAINABLE LOSS
attorney fees, status, 12.3.3.7
bait and switch cases, 12.3.5.2
calculation, 12.3
collateral source rule, 12.3.6.2
consequential damages, 12.3.3
contractual limitations, 12.3.6.1
direct actual damages, 12.3.2
direct and consequential distinguished, 12.3.1, 12.3.3.1
double damages precluded, 12.3.7
general damages, 12.3.1
interrelation of UDAP claims and other claims, 12.3.7
jury instructions, 12.4.2.8
loss-of-bargain damages, see LOSS-OF-BARGAIN DAMAGES
minimal, 11.4.2.7
mitigating, 12.3.3.2, 12.3.6.3
multiple damages, relationship, 12.4.2.1, 12.4.2.6, 12.4.2.8
non-pecuniary losses, 11.4.2.8.1
out-of-pocket damages, see OUT-OF-POCKET DAMAGES
physical injuries, 12.3.3.8
precondition, 11.4.2, 13.4.3
prejudgment interest, 12.3.4
proving, 12.3.5
punitive damages, relationship, 12.4.3.4
repair costs, see REPAIR COSTS
restitution, see RESTITUTION
small claims court, jurisdiction, 11.5.4
statutory authorization, 12.3.2.1
statutory damages in addition, 12.4.1.2
temporary losses, 11.4.2.8.3
DAMAGES, MINIMUM
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
see also DAMAGES
arbitration proceedings, 12.4.2.5
calculation, 12.4.2.7
cancelled debts, 12.4.2.7.5
class actions, 12.5.7
constitutional challenges, 11.9.3, 11.9.4.1, 12.4.2.1
due process, 12.4.3.6.3
default judgments, 12.4.2.4
election, 12.4.3.8, 12.7.5
emotional distress damages, 12.4.2.7.4
insurance claims, 12.4.2.7.3
interrelation with other awards, 12.4.2.6
jury instructions, 12.4.2.8
liable parties, 12.4.2.9
limits on, 12.4.2.3
mandatory, 12.4.2.2
multiple defendants, 12.4.2.7.2
multiple violations, 12.4.2.7.3
multiplier to be utilized, 12.4.2.3.5
notice letters, assertion, 11.4.4.7
preconditions, 12.4.2.3
prejudgment and postjudgment interest, 12.4.2.7.6
principal’s liability, 10.2.3.6
punitive damages in addition, 12.4.2.6, 12.4.3.8
purchase price, treble, 12.4.2.7.5
rescission in addition, 12.4.2.6, 12.7.5
set-offs, effect, 12.4.2.7.1
settlement offers, effect, 11.4.4.11, 12.4.2.7.2
small claims court jurisdiction, effect, 11.5.4
standards where discretionary, 12.4.2.3.4
statutory authorization, 12.4.2.1
statutory damages, interrelationship, 12.4.2.6
unintentional violations, 4.2.4
vicarious liability, 12.4.2.9
what awards should be trebled, 12.4.2.7.3
DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
see also DAMAGES
actual damages, necessity, 12.4.3.4
arbitration, availability, 12.4.2.3.5, 12.4.3.5
attorney fees, awarding in addition, 12.8.2.3
calculation, 12.4.3.6
civil penalties, analogy, 13.5.3.1
common law fraud actions, 12.4.3.2
constitutional challenges, 11.9.4.1, 12.4.3.6.1
death of plaintiff, effect, 2.4.2
election, 12.4.3.8
financial worth, discovery, 13.5.3.1
interrelation with other remedies, 12.4.3.8
liability, 12.4.3.7
limits on, 12.4.3.6
multiple awards, 12.4.3.6.3
multiple damages in addition, 12.4.2.6
rescission and, 12.4.3.8
salvage fraud, 7.4.6
small claims court, jurisdiction, 11.5.4
standards, 12.4.3.3
state caps, 12.4.3.6.2
statutory authorization, 12.4.3.1
DAMAGES, STATUTORY
see also DAMAGES
calculation, 12.4.1
civil penalties, distinction, 12.4.1.1
class actions, 12.4.1.2, 12.5.7
constitutional challenges, 11.9.4.1
damage preconditions, effect, 11.4.2.1
death of plaintiff, effect, 2.4.2
interrelationship with other awards, 12.4.1.4
multiple claims and plaintiffs, 12.4.1.2
multiple damages, 12.4.1.3
punitive damages in addition, 12.4.1.4, 12.4.3.8
statutory authorization, 12.4.1.1
treble damages in addition, 12.4.2.6
treble statutory damages, 12.4.1.3
DANCE STUDIOS
see also FUTURE SERVICE CONTRACTS
UDAP violations, 9.1.4
DEALERS
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES; RETAILERS; SELLERS; SUPPLIERS; WHOLESALERS
add-ons, 7.2
credit insurance, 7.2.5
documentary fees, 7.2.6
glass etching, 7.2.7.3
rustproofing, 7.2.7.2
service contracts, 7.2.4
buy-here, pay-here dealerships, 7.4.14
close-connectedness doctrine, 10.4.2.5.1
credit applications, falsification, 7.2.3.5
credit reports, illegal use, 7.3.2
deposing, 7.1.14
former employees, 7.1.7
discovery tips, 7.1
hidden assets, uncovering, 7.1.13
licensing, 7.1.5
packing of back-end charges, 7.2.2
NADA code of ethics, 7.1.12
kickbacks on financing, 7.2.3.2–7.2.3.4
RV rental assistance, 7.8
service contracts, 7.2.4
tape-recording conversations between consumer and, 7.1.10
turnover system, 7.3.1
UDAP violations
lessor’s liability, 10.5.5
manufacturer’s liability, 10.2.3.3
unauthorized practice of law, 7.2.6.6
unfair negotiation practices, 7.3
DEATH
survival of UDAP claims
consumer, 2.4.2
defendant, 10.8.3
restitution claims, 13.5.4.2
DEBIT CARDS
unauthorized charges, 10.4.3.4
DEBT ADJUSTING BUSINESSES
see DEBT CONSOLIDATION
DEBT CANCELLATION PRODUCTS
credit cards, deceptive marketing, 6.8.2.1
DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
see also COLLECTION ACTIONS; DEBT COLLECTORS
auto repairs, unauthorized charges, 7.10.7
banks, enforcement of regulations, 2.3.3.5.3
CFPB rules, 6.10.2
class actions, 12.5.4.2.7
coercive tactics, 4.3.6
deceptive practices, 6.10
collection letters, 5.4.8.1
hospitals, 9.3.6
illegal practices, 6.10.8
inconvenient venue, 6.10.9
legal rights, misrepresentations, 5.6.8, 6.10.5
per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
rent-to-own firms, 8.7.6
RICO actions, 1.7
sources of precedent, 6.10.2
UDAP application, 2.2.2, 2.2.4.3, 6.10.1
goods, services, or merchandise, 2.2.2.1.2
other regulation preempting, 2.2.2.1.5, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.5.3
privity issues, 2.2.2.1.4
state-by-state survey, 2.2.2.2
subrogated claims, 2.2.4.9
suppliers, 2.2.2.1.3
trade and commerce, 2.2.2.1.1
unconscionable practices, 4.4.7
unenforceable debts, 6.10.7
default judgments, 6.10.10
unfair practices, 4.3.6, 6.10
unlawful debts, 6.10.1
vicarious liability, 10.2.3.4
DEBT COLLECTORS
see also DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
deceptive practices, 6.10
harassment, prohibitions, 6.10.6
illegal actions, taking against consumer, 6.10.8
misrepresentations
identity and nature, 6.10.3
false threats, 6.10.4
legal consequences of nonpayment, 6.10.5
private agencies hired by government entities, 2.3.6
UDAP claims, liability, 2.2.2, 6.10.1
DEBT CONSOLIDATION
see also CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; REFINANCING PRACTICES
exorbitant charges, 6.5.2
UDAP application, 2.2.1.3, 2.2.5.2, 6.14.3
DEBT ELIMINATION SCHEMES
see also DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
credit repair laws, application, 6.14.5
UDAP violations, 6.14.5
DEBT MANAGEMENT PLANS
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; DEBT CONSOLIDATION
DEBT POOLING BUSINESSES
see DEBT CONSOLIDATION
DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
bankruptcy petition preparers, 9.4.3
counseling, see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
credit repair, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
elimination schemes, see DEBT ELIMINATION SCHEMES
foreclosure rescue scams, see FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
FTC Telemarketing and Sales Rule, requirements, 6.14.4
negotiation and settlement services, see DEBT SETTLEMENT AND NEGOTIATION SERVICES
unauthorized practice of law, 9.4.4
DEBT SETTLEMENT AND NEGOTIATION SERVICES
see also DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
UDAP violations, 6.14.4
DEBTS
see also DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES; DEBT COLLECTORS
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.8.8
medical debt, 9.3.6
unauthorized charges, 6.10.7, 8.5.3.4
unenforceable, collection, 6.10.7, 6.10.10
unlawful debts, collection, 1.7
DECEIT ACTIONS
see also FRAUD; MISREPRESENTATIONS
limitations, application to UDAP actions, 11.2.1.2
materiality and reliance, 4.2.12.1
pleading, 11.6.6
UDAP alternative, 1.7, 11.6.6
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING
see MISLEADING ADVERTISING
DECEPTIVE CONSUMER SALES ACTS
see UDAP STATUTES
DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
see also MISREPRESENTATIONS; UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
actual deception
necessity, 4.2.9
state enforcement actions, 13.2.3
advertising, see MISLEADING ADVERTISING
aiding and abetting, 10.4.2.2
apartment finders, 8.2.2
assisted living facilities, 9.3.4
automobiles, 7
“back-end” sales, 7.2
banks, see UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
billing practices, 5.7.7
broad standard, 3.3.4
buying clubs, 9.1.6
campground resorts, 9.1.5
capacity to deceive, 4.2.9
cease and desist orders, 13.5.1
cessation, effect, 4.2.7
clarification, effect, 4.2.16
class actions, 12.5.4.2
commercial speech, 11.9.2.1
conduct as deceptive, 4.2.14
constitutional issues, 11.9
contract defenses, application, 4.2.20
contract language, 5.6.1
contract provisions, 5.6.3
creditor remedies, 6.13.2
contracts, 5.6
credit and collections, 6
credit card finders, 6.8.3.1
credit card loss protection and reporting services, 6.8.4
credit card marketing, 6.8.1.3, 6.8.2.1
credit card practices, 6.8
credit charges, excessive, 6.5.3
credit counselors, 6.14.3
credit insurance, 9.5.9
credit repair clinics, 6.14.2
customary business conduct, effect, 4.2.8
dance studios, 9.1.4
dealer negotiations, 7.3
debt collection, 6.10
debt consolidation services, 6.14.3
debt elimination services, 6.14.4
debt settlement services, 6.14.4
defenses, 4.2.6–4.2.8, 4.2.10, 4.2.20, 4.2.21
definitions, 3.4.4.2
diploma mills, 9.6.7
electronic funds transfers, 6.9.3
endorsements, 5.4.8.3
energy-related services, 8.5
fiduciaries, 9.4
flexible standards, 3.3.4
foreclosure rescue scams, 6.7.7
foreclosures, 6.7.6
for-profit schools, 9.1.7
fraud, comparison, 4.2.3.1
FTC standards, 4.2.3–4.2.5, 4.2.9, 4.2.11.1, 4.2.12.2
future service contracts, 9.1
gift cards and certificates, 6.9.6
good faith, effect, 4.2.6
good will buybacks, 7.4.8
health care, 9.3
high-pressure sales techniques, 5.5.1
home builders, 8.3.6
home mortgage loans, 6.7
home-related services, 8.4
household products, 8.8
household services, 8.6
immediate customer not deceived, 4.2.17
immigration consultants, 9.4.2.1
improvident extension of credit, 6.3
injunctions, 13.5.1
insurance, 9.5
intent, necessity, 4.2.4
knowledge, necessity, 4.2.5
landlord-tenant practices, 8.2
laundry list, 3.2.1, 3.2.2.1
practices outside list, 3.2.3, 3.3.4
reliance not necessary, 4.2.12.3.2
lemon laundering, 7.4.7, 7.4.9.3
liability, see LIABILITY
likelihood to deceive, 4.2.9
literally true statements, 4.2.13, 4.2.15.3
live check solicitations, 6.9.5
living trusts, 9.4.5
loan brokers, 6.2
managed care plans, 9.3.7
manufactured homes
parks, 8.1.2
sales, 8.1.1
materiality, 4.2.12
medical cures, 9.3.2
migrant farmworkers, 8.2.9
misleading practices, status, 4.2.3.2
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
negative option sales, 5.5.5
new car sales, 7.5
nonadvertised statements, 4.2.18
nondisclosure, 4.2.15
non-English speaking consumers, 5.6.1
nursing facilities, 9.3.3
nutritional supplements, 9.3.2
opportunity schemes, 9.6
overall net impression, 4.2.13
packaging, 4.2.14, 5.4.5
partial truths, 4.2.13
pawnbrokers, 6.13.5
per se deception, 4.2.1
see also PER SE VIOLATIONS
performance practices, 5.7
pictures, 4.2.14
practices outside specific prohibitions, 3.2.3, 3.3.4
pricing inducements, 5.3
proving, 3.3
question of fact, 11.8.2.3
real estate sales, 8.3
reasonable consumer standard, 4.2.11
referral sales, 5.5.3
regulations, see UDAP REGULATIONS
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12, 13.2.3
remittances, 6.9.4
rent-to-own transactions, 8.7
repair work, 5.7.6
reporting to government agency, 1.7
repossessions, 6.13.3
scienter, 4.2.5.2
scholarship location services, 9.6.6
service contracts, 5.6.7.2
standards, 3.3.4, 3.4.5.4, 13.2.3
state enforcement actions, 13.2.3
statutory fraud, status, 4.2.3.2
statutory violations as, 3.2.7.4.2
storage practices, 8.6.1
subprime credit cards, 6.8.2.2
subsequent clarification, effect, 4.2.16
tax collection without remittance, 5.3.7, 5.7.7
telechecks, 6.9.3
telemarketing fraud, assisting, 10.4.4
tort defenses, application, 4.2.21
travel-related, 9.2
unconscionability, relationship, 4.2.2, 4.4.1
unfairness, comparison, 4.2.2, 4.3.3.1
unlicensed activities, 5.4.8.2
unsolicited goods, 5.5.4
unsubstantiated claims, 5.2.1
used car sales, 7.4
thirty day, “50-50” warranties, 5.6.7.3.2
vulnerable consumers, 4.2.11
warranties, 5.6.7
weight loss products, 9.3.2
DECEPTIVE TRADE PRACTICES
see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
DECEPTIVE TRADE PRACTICES STATUTES
see UDAP STATUTES
DECLARATORY RELIEF
see also EQUITABLE RELIEF
UDAP statutes, availability, 12.6.5
DEFAMATION CLAIMS
see LIBEL ACTIONS
DEFAULT JUDGMENTS
attorney fees, 12.8.4.4
multiple damages, 12.4.2.4
res judicata effect, 11.6.7
unfair practices, 6.10.10
DEFAULT PROVISIONS
see also PENALTY CLAUSES
leases, unconscionability, 4.4.9.2
unfair provisions, 4.3.2.3.7
DEFECTIVE GOODS
see also DESIGN AND SAFETY DEFECTS
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.8.4, 11.4.2.8.5
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE DEFECTS
disclosure requirements, 5.7.3
phony sales, 5.3.3.1
manufactured homes, 8.1.1.2
real estate brokers, disclosure obligations, 8.3.3
unconscionable practices, 5.6.6
DEFENDANTS
see also PARTIES
bankrupt defendants, 10.7
death, effect, 10.8.3
financial worth, discovery, 13.5.3.1
injunctive actions, 13.5.1.7
other bad acts, admissibility, 11.8.1.2
privity of contract, necessity, 2.2.4
residency, effect, 11.5.2
UDAP actions, 2.2.4, 2.3.8
choosing, 10.1.1, 11.6.2
due process, 11.9.4.3
DEFENSES
arbitration clause enforcement, 11.5.8.5
assignees, raising against, 10.5
attorney fees for preparation, entitlement, 12.8.11.4
bona fide error, 4.2.6
collection actions
recoupment claims, 11.2.5
school-related defenses, 9.1.7.7
UDAP counterclaims, 3.1.1, 11.6.3
common law defenses, UDAP claims, application, 4.2.20
compulsory process enforcement
generally, 13.3.3
lack of reasonable cause, 13.3.5.1
constitutional defenses, 11.9
consumers, preservation, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
contract defenses, UDAP applicability, 4.2.20
contributory negligence, 4.2.21.1
credit card transactions, raising, 10.5.4
deceptive practices, 4.2.6–4.2.8, 4.2.10, 4.2.11.2, 4.2.20, 4.2.21
FTC guidelines, compliance defense, 2.5.2
holders-in-due-course, raising against, 10.5.6.3.11
injunctive actions, 12.6.3, 13.5.1.2, 13.5.1.5
learned intermediary doctrine, 4.2.21.4
liability, see LIABILITY
limitation period, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
misrepresentation, 1.7
money-back guarantee, 4.2.19
mootness, 13.5.1.2
puffing, 4.2.10
related creditors, raising against, 10.5
remoteness, 4.2.20.3
school-related defenses, 9.1.7.7
securitization transactions, 10.5.6.3.7
tort defenses, UDAP applicability, 4.2.21
UDAP claims as affirmative defense, 11.6.3
UDAP regulations, substantial compliance defense, 3.2.2.2
unavailable goods, rain checks, 5.3.2
unclean hands, 4.2.21.3
voluntary payment doctrine, 4.2.20.5
DEFINITIONS
adhesion contracts, 5.6.3.2
advertising injury, 10.6.2.1
bad faith, 12.8.10.4.3
base price, 7.5.2
commercial communication, 6.7.1
consumer, 2.1.8, 2.2.4, 2.4.5.1
consumer transactions, 2.1.8, 2.2.4
corporation, 2.3.5.1
dealer sticker price, 7.5.2
deception, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.4
deceptive practices, 3.4.4.2
diploma mill, 9.6.7
dwelling, 11.5.8.2.1
frivolous, 12.8.10.4.5
good, 2.1.5, 2.2.1.2
good faith, 10.5.6.3.9
groundless, 12.8.10.4.4
illegal pyramid scheme, 9.6.3
invoice price, 7.5.2
merchandise, 2.1.6
misleading, 4.2.3.2
Monroney sticker price, 7.5.3
person, 2.4.5.2
service, 2.1.7, 2.2.1.2
substantial consumer injury, 4.3.2
trade or commerce, 2.1.4
UDAP statutes, scope, 2.1
unconscionability, 4.4.2, 4.4.3, 4.4.9.1
unfair practices, 3.4.4.2, 6.12.1, 5.6.3.1
unfairness, 3.2.7.4.1, 4.3.3
DELIVERY
delay or non-delivery, 5.7.2
new car sales, slow delivery, 7.5.8
process, see SERVICE
spot delivery, see YO-YO SALES
DEMAND DRAFTS
see REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
DEMAND LETTERS
see NOTICE LETTERS
DEMONSTRATORS
lemon laundering, 7.4.9.2
DENTISTS
see also MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS
malpractice, see MEDICAL MALPRACTICE
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.3.10
statutory exemptions, 2.3.10.2, 2.3.10.3
DENTURISTS
deceptive practices, 9.3.2
DEODORIZERS
misrepresentations, 8.8.10
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
manufactured home standards, 8.1.1.2
UDAP application, 2.3.6
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
enforcement agency status, 2.3.3.1
UDAP preemption, 2.3.3.1
DEPOSITIONS
see also DISCOVERY
practice tips, 11.7.3
DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS DEREGULATION AND MONETARY CONTROL ACT OF 1980 (DIDA)
state law preemption, 2.5.3.5
DEPOSITS
bank deposits, see BANK ACCOUNTS; CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT
deceptive practices, 5.7.1
security deposits, see SECURITY DEPOSITS
DERIVATIVE LIABILITY
see also LIABILITY
UDAP violations, 2.1.9, 2.2.1.6, 10.5
DESCENT, RESCUE AND ESCAPE SYSTEMS
see EMERGENCY DEVICES
DESIGN AND SAFETY DEFECTS
see also SAFETY HAZARDS
automobile defects, see AUTOMOBILE DEFECTS
countertop water distillers, 8.6.4
home sales, disclosure obligations, 8.3.1.1
manufactured homes, 8.1.1.2
radon testing, 8.6.5
DEVELOPERS
see also HOME BUILDERS; REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS; SUBDIVIDED LAND
land fraud schemes, 8.3.8
liability for actions of real estate agent, 10.2.3.4
misrepresentations, 4.2.17, 8.1.1.4
water and sewer issues, 8.5.4.3
DIET PRODUCTS
see WEIGHT LOSS PRODUCTS
DIRECT DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES, ACTUAL
calculation, 12.3.2.1
consequential damages distinguished, 12.3.1, 12.3.3.1
cost-to-repair damages, 12.3.2.3
economic loss doctrine, application, 12.3.2.1
loss-of-bargain damages, 12.3.2.2
out-of-pocket damages, 12.3.2.4
restitution, 12.3.2.4
product value deduction, 12.3.2.4.2
DIRECTORS
see also CORPORATE OFFICERS
UDAP claims, liability, 10.3
out-of-state jurisdiction, 11.5.2.4
DISABLED CONSUMERS
see also CONSUMERS; VULNERABILITY
enhanced penalties, 13.5.3.7
minimum statutory damages, 12.4.1.1
unconscionable practices, 4.4.4
unfair loans, 4.3.8
DISASTERS
enhanced penalties, 13.5.3.7
price gouging, 4.3.11, 8.5.1.5
DISCLAIMERS
advertisements, 4.2.20.4
deception claims, application, 3.3.4, 4.2.20.4
oral misrepresentations, effect, 4.2.20.4
DISCLOSURE
see also OMISSIONS
automatic renewal policies, 5.5.5
business opportunities, 9.6.1
buying clubs, 9.1.6
cancellation policies, 5.6.6
conditions or limitations, 4.2.15.3.2, 5.3.9, 6.6.3.2
consent agreements, 13.5.1.10
consumer’s duty to investigate, 4.2.15.3.7
contests and game promotions, 9.6.4
credit cards
loss protection and reporting services, 6.8.4
promotional materials, 6.8.1.3
credit insurance, cost and benefits, 9.5.9.2, 9.5.9.3
credit terms, 6.4.1
damaged or defective goods, 5.7.3
debts, statute barred, 6.10.7
electronic disclosures, 4.2.15.3.10
energy efficiency, 8.8.4
failure to disclose, 4.2.15
fiduciary duty, 4.2.15.3.3
foreign manufacture, 5.4.7
franchises, 9.6.1
free offers, terms and conditions, 5.3.6
FTC investigational records, 13.3.10
FTC standard, 4.2.15.2
FTC Telemarketing Rule, 5.3.9, 6.6.3.2
home builders, 8.3.6.1
home sellers, 8.3.1
Internet transactions, 4.2.15.3.9
language requirements, 5.6.1
legal rights, 5.6.8
material facts, see MATERIAL FACTS
misdisclosure, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
manufactured home communities, requirements, 8.1.2.2, 8.1.2.3
mortgage insurance, 9.5.12
new car sales
damage, 7.5.4
known defects, 7.5.10.1
nondisclosure, see NONDISCLOSURE
online transactions, 4.2.15.3.9
personal information, 5.9
pricing in obscure manner, 5.3.4
real estate brokers, obligations, 8.3.1.1, 8.3.2, 8.3.3
refund policies, 5.7.1, 5.7.2
rent-to-own transactions, 8.7.4
safety hazards, 5.4.4
subsequent disclosures, effect, 4.2.16
TILA disclosures, 2.2.1.5.3, 2.3.3.3.1
used car sales, 7.4.2–7.4.9
mileage, 7.4.5
used goods, 5.7.4
warranties, 5.6.7.2.1
DISCOUNT COUPONS
see also BUYING CLUBS
UDAP violations, 9.1.6
DISCOVERY
see also CIVIL INVESTIGATION DEMANDS (CIDs); PRACTICE TIPS; SUBPOENAS
attorney general’s office, restrictions, 13.3.11
automobile sales cases, 7.1
bankruptcy court, 11.5.7
buy-here, pay-here dealerships, 7.4.14.4
class actions, sales misrepresentations, 12.5.4.2.3
defendant’s financial worth, 11.7.5, 13.5.3.1
depositions, 11.7.3
document requests and admissions, 11.7.4
excessive credit charges, discovery, 6.5.3
former employees, 7.1.7
NCLC resources, 1.3.3
pattern or practice evidence, 11.7.5
insurance claims practices, 9.5.2.4
repudiation of Holder Rule, 5.6.10
state enforcement agencies
party-plaintiffs, 11.7.2
scope of powers, 13.3.8
state’s evidence, 13.3.5.1, 13.3.11
trade secrets, exemptions, 13.3.7
UDAP claims, 11.7
obtaining evidence, 11.7.5, 11.7.6
scope, 11.7.2
when to start, 11.7.1
DISCRETION
judicial, see JUDICIAL DISCRETION
state enforcement agencies
restitution order, seeking, 13.5.4.1
UDAP enforcement, 13.4.5
DISCRIMINATION
see also CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
credit practices, 6.4.3, 7.2.3.4
for-profit schools, 9.1.7.5
insurance practices, 9.5.6
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2.2
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4.4
public accommodations, testers, 13.3.9
state enforcement actions, 13.4.5
unfairness, 4.3.9
DISHONORED CHECKS
unfair banking practices, 6.9.1.3
DISPARATE KNOWLEDGE
unfair advantage, 4.3.7
DISTRESS
see MENTAL ANGUISH
DISTRESS SALES
see also BARGAIN SALES
deceptive, 5.3.3.1
DISTRIBUTORS
see DEALERS; SUPPLIERS; WHOLESALERS
DISTRIBUTORSHIP
UDAP application, 2.2.8.2
DO-NOT-CALL LISTS
constitutional challenges, 11.9.2.2
DO-NOT-MAIL LISTS
sweepstakes, 9.6.4
DOCTORS
see also MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS
malpractice, see MEDICAL MALPRACTICE
UDAP application, 2.1.4, 2.3.10
statutory exemptions, 2.3.10.2
UDAP standing
actions against drug manufacturers, 2.2.4.3
actions against health insurers, 2.4.1.6
DOCUMENT PREPARERS
bankruptcy petition preparers, 9.4.3
unauthorized practice of law, 9.4.4
DOCUMENT REQUESTS
see DISCOVERY
DOCUMENTS
auto dealer records, 7.1.2
business documents, subpoenas, 13.3.4.2
FTC investigational records, disclosure, 13.3.10
production, see DISCOVERY; SUBPOENAS
state enforcement agencies, examination powers, 13.3.3
DODD-FRANK WALL STREET REFORM AND CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT
attorney general enforcement authority, 13.2.6
CFPB, transfer of authority to, 3.4.6
federal preemption standards, 2.5.3.1, 2.5.3.3.1, 2.5.3.3.8
D’OENCH, DUHME DOCTRINE
FDIC special defenses, 10.8.2
DOMAIN NAMES
fraudulent sellers, 8.5.3.7
DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
see also COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
cooling-off violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6
curbstoners, 7.3.12
high-pressure sales techniques, 5.5.1, 5.5.6
loan brokers, 6.2.1
water treatment systems, 8.6.4
DRIVER’S PERMITS
international, marketing, 9.2.5
DRUG MANUFACTURERS
see also MANUFACTURERS
learned intermediary doctrine, 4.2.21.4
UDAP actions against
by physicians, 2.2.4.3
free samples, 2.2.4.6
UDAP application, 2.5.8.5
unfair advertising, 4.3.9
DRUGS
see MEDICATIONS; PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
DUE PROCESS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
civil penalties, 13.5.3.3
civil UDAP suits, 11.9.4
compulsory process, 13.3.4.1
contempt proceedings, 13.5.2.1
out-of-state defendants, 11.5.2.2
outside counsel and, 13.4.12
punitive damages, challenges, 12.4.3.6.1, 12.4.3.6.3
state enforcement proceedings, 1.9.4.3, 13.4.6
contempt proceedings, 13.5.2.1
statutory damages, challenges, 11.9.4.1
UDAP defendants, 11.9.4.3
UDAP regulations, 11.9.5
DURESS
see also COERCION
credit tactics, 6.6.4
dealer negotiation tactics, 7.3.1
defense against holder in due course, 10.5.6.3.11
unfair practice, 4.3.6
voluntary payment doctrine exception, 4.2.20.5
E-MAIL
see also INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
unsolicited bulk commercial, see SPAM E-MAIL
E-SIGN
see ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES IN GLOBAL AND NATIONAL COMMERCE ACT (E-SIGN)
ECONOMIC LOSS DOCTRINE
UDAP claims, application, 4.2.21.2, 12.3.2.1
EDUCATIONAL GRANTS
location services, 9.6.6
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
diploma mills, 9.6.7
for-profit, see FOR-PROFIT SCHOOLS
scholarship location services, see SCHOLARSHIP LOCATION SERVICES
UDAP application, 2.3.5.2
ELECTION
non-UDAP recovery, 12.8.4.3
punitive or multiple damages, 12.4.3.8
rescission or damages, 12.7.2, 12.7.5
ELECTRIC HEAT
see also ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS
deregulation abuses, 8.5.2.2
illegal shut-offs, 8.5.2.3
interrupted service, 8.5.2.3
UDAP application, 8.5.2.1
ELECTRONIC DISCLOSURES
UDAP violations, 4.2.15.3.10
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
see also COMPUTER EQUIPMENT
deceptive practices, 8.8.6
ELECTRONIC FUNDS AVAILABILITY ACT
preemption of state law, 2.5.3.9
ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER ACT (EFTA)
application
generally, 6.9.1.5
gift cards and certificates, 6.9.6
remotely created checks, 6.9.3
ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFERS
unauthorized, 6.9.3, 10.4.3.4
unfair banking practices, 6.9.1.5
ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES IN GLOBAL AND NATIONAL COMMERCE ACT (E-SIGN)
overview, 4.2.15.3.10
EMERGENCY DEVICES AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS
deceptive practices, 8.6.2
EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
enhanced penalties, 13.5.3.7
medical treatment, 9.3.6
price gouging, 4.3.11, 8.5.1.5
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
see MENTAL ANGUISH
EMPLOYEE HEALTH BENEFITS ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.8.3
EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (ERISA)
state law preemption, 2.5.10, 9.3.6
EMPLOYEES
former employees, discovery, 7.1.7
EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
UDAP application, 2.1, 2.2.9
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
deceptive practices, 9.6.2
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5
EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING SERVICES
see EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
see also BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
UDAP application, 2.2.8.2, 2.2.8.4, 2.2.9
UDAP violations, 9.6.2
work-at-home schemes, see WORK-AT-HOME SCHEMES
ENCYCLOPEDIA SELLERS
see also DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES; MAIL ORDER SALES
deceptive practices, 8.8.9
ENDORSEMENTS
see PERSONAL ENDORSEMENTS
ENERGY MARKETERS
UDAP violations, 8.5.2.2
ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS
FTC rules
appliances, see APPLIANCE LABELING RULE (FTC)
home insulation, see LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION RULE (FTC)
UDAP violations, 8.8.4
ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
Department of Justice, status, 2.3.3.2
federal banking, see FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES
FTC, status, 2.3.3.2
state, see ATTORNEYS GENERAL (STATE); STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
ENGINEERS
UDAP application, 2.3.11
ENTERPRISES
see BUSINESSES
ENVIRONMENTAL CLAIMS
see also ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS
misrepresentations, 8.8.5
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA); DISCRIMINATION
dealer kickbacks, application, 7.2.3.4
for-profit schools, application, 9.1.7.5
FTC Holder Rule, relationship, 10.5.2.5
violations, UDAP actions, 2.2.1.5.3, 2.3.3.2
yo-yo sales, application, 7.3.10
EQUAL PROTECTION
see DISCRIMINATION
EQUITABLE RELIEF
class action certification, 12.5.4.2.9
declaratory relief, 12.6.5
injunctive relief, see INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
restitution, 13.5.4.1
UDAP availability, 12.6.4
EQUITABLE TOLLING
see TOLLING
EQUITY
see COMMON LAW; EQUITABLE RELIEF
ERRORS
see MISTAKES
ESCROW
concealed overcharges, 6.6.1
escrow agents, disclosure, 9.4.6
UDAP violations, 6.7.3
ESTATES
see also HEIRS
UDAP actions
death of consumer, 2.4.2
death of defendant, 10.8.3
ESTOPPEL
defense, UDAP applicability, 4.2.20.7
limitation defenses, 11.2.3.2
UDAP claims not raised as compulsory counterclaims, 11.5.4
EVICTIONS
deceptive notices, 8.2.8.1
excessive fees, 8.2.8.3
improper evictions, 8.2.8.2
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2.5
nursing home residents, 9.3.3
residential tenancies, 8.2.8
retaliatory evictions, 8.2.8.2
seizure of tenant’s property, 8.2.8.4
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF; DISCOVERY; WITNESSES
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.6, 11.4.2.7
attorney fees, reasonableness, 12.8.12.2
bad faith UDAP claims, 12.8.10
bait-and-switch schemes, 5.3.1
causation, 4.2.12.5, 11.4.2.9
class actions, 12.5.4
civil penalties, multiple violations, 13.5.3.6
damages, 11.4.2.6, 11.4.2.7
deception, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.5
deceptive practices, reasonable cause for belief, 13.4.2
expert evidence, see EXPERT EVIDENCE
injury, 11.4.2.6, 11.4.2.8
materiality, 4.2.12.2
mental anguish, aggravation, 12.3.3.9.7
notice letters, service, 11.4.4.9
obtaining, 11.7
oral representations, 5.6.4
other bad acts, 11.8.1.2
parol evidence rule, UDAP claims, application, 4.2.20.2
pattern or practice, 11.7.5
insurance claims, 9.5.2.4
pecuniary loss, 11.4.2.6
preponderance of evidence, 11.8.1.1, 13.5.1.4
reliance, 4.2.12.3.7
statements to police, admissibility, 11.8.1.4
tape-recording conversations, 7.1.10
test purchases, sufficiency, 13.3.9
UDAP actions
admissible evidence, 11.8.1
damages, 12.3.5.1
fact-finding tips, 11.7
litigation approach, 3.3.2
multiple violations, 13.5.3.6
parol evidence rule, application, 4.2.20.2
proof required, 11.8.1.1
right against self-incrimination, 11.9.4.2
right to confront witnesses, 11.9.4.2
unlawful activity, requirement for some CIDs, 13.3.5.1
vehicle ownership, 11.8.1.4
EXCESSIVE FINES CLAUSE
punitive damage award challenged under, 12.4.3.6.1
EXPENSES
see DAMAGES, ACTUAL; OUT-OF-POCKET DAMAGES; REPAIR COSTS
EXPERT EVIDENCE
see also EVIDENCE; WITNESSES
admissibility, 11.8.1.3
attorney fee rates, 12.8.12.2
automobile sales cases, 7.1.3
causation, 4.2.12.5
excessive credit charges, deception, 6.5.3
fees, reimbursement, 12.8.7.3
state enforcement actions, 13.5.8
locating in advance, 1.5
UDAP claims, 11.8.1.3
EXTENDED WARRANTIES
see SERVICE CONTRACTS
FAA
see ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
FACT-FINDING
UDAP claims, 11.7
FACTORY PRICED
see BARGAIN SALES
FAILED BANKS
UDAP actions against, 10.8.2
FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
credit card transactions, application, 6.8.3.2
violations, UDAP exemptions, 2.2.1.5.3, 2.3.3.2
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
dealer violations, 7.3.2
UDAP preemption, 2.5.13
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
yo-yo sales, application, 7.3.10
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
claims under, joinder of UDAP claims, 11.5.5
violations as UDAP violation, 3.2.6, 3.2.7.3.6, 3.4.5
FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.13
FALSE ADVERTISING
see MISLEADING ADVERTISING
FALSE CLAIMS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
FALSE CLAIMS ACT
for-profit-school abuses, application, 9.1.7.5
FALSE STATEMENTS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
FAMILY USE
see CONSUMER GOODS; CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS; HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
FARMERS
UDAP application, 2.1.8.4, 2.1.8.6
seed purchases, 2.1.6
FARMWORKERS
see MIGRANT FARMWORKER CAMPS
FAXES
see JUNK FAXES
FEDERAL AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
enforcement agencies, see ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
regulatory agencies
banking agencies, see FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES
generally, see FEDERAL REGULATORY AGENCIES
UDAP preemption, 2.2.1.5, 2.5
FEDERAL ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
see ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES
see also FEDERAL REGULATORY AGENCIES
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
FDIC, see FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
FRB, see FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
enforcement actions
credit card issuers, against, 6.8.2, 10.4.3.2
payment system fraud, aiding, 10.4.3.2, 10.4.3.4
guidance
non-traditional mortgage products, 6.7.2.2
unfair or deceptive practices, 6.6.6
NCUA, see NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION (NCUA)
OCC, see OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
OTS, see OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION (OTS)
FEDERAL BOAT SAFETY ACT
state law preemption, 2.5.4
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
UDAP preemption, 2.5.6
VoIP, 8.5.3.6
wireless service, 8.5.3.5
FEDERAL CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT
see CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
FEDERAL COURT
attorney fees, calculation, 12.8.11.3.1, 12.8.11.3.2
UDAP claims, removal to, 11.5.6
state enforcement actions, 13.4.7
UDAP class actions, procedure, 12.5.2.2
UDAP jurisdiction, 11.5.5
FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
failed banks, receivership, 10.8.2
non-traditional mortgage products, guidance, 6.7.2.2
state-chartered FDIC-insured banks, 2.5.3.5
unfairness standard, 4.3.2.1
FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK BOARD (FHLBB)
see OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION (OTS)
FEDERAL LAW
preemption of state law, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
repossession provisions, violation, 6.13.1
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7, 4.3.9
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
see also PREEMPTION
air transportation laws, 2.5.5.3, 2.5.5.4
AMTPA, 2.5.3.4
banking regulation, 1.6.1, 2.2.1.5, 2.5.3
debt collection, 2.2.2.1.5
Bankruptcy Code, 2.5.12
boating laws, 2.5.4
Carmack Amendment, 2.5.5.1
CCPA regulations, 2.2.1.5.3
commerce, 2.5.7
commodities marketing, 2.5.7
communications laws, 2.5.6
complete preemption, 2.5.1, 2.5.10.1, 11.5.5
conflict preemption, 2.5.1, 2.5.10.1
copyright and trademarks, 2.5.7
credit disclosure laws, 2.5.3
credit laws, generally, 6.4.4
credit repair laws, 6.14.2
credit unions
federal credit unions, 2.5.3.6
state credit unions, 2.5.3.5
Dodd-Frank Act standards, 2.5.3.1, 2.5.3.3.1, 2.5.3.3.8
Electronic Funds Availability Act, 2.5.3.9
ERISA, 2.5.10, 9.3.6
express preemption, 2.5.1
FAA, 11.5.8.2.4, 11.5.8.2.5
federal savings associations, 2.5.3.3
field preemption, 2.5.1, 2.5.3.1, 2.5.3.3.1
FTC Act, 2.5.2
food labeling, 2.5.9
general principles, 2.5.1
gift card regulation, 6.9.6
health laws, 2.5.8
Higher Education Act, 9.1.7.4
HPA, 2.5.3.9, 9.5.12
insurance, 2.5.7, 2.5.10.2
interstate commerce, 2.5.5, 2.5.7, 8.6.1
Interstate Commerce Act, 2.5.5.2
manufactured home standards, 2.5.4
motor vehicle laws, 2.5.4
MVICSA, 7.4.5
National Bank Act, 2.5.3.2
NCUA, 2.5.3.6
OCC regulations, 2.5.3.2
organic food, 2.5.9.3
other federal statutes, 2.5.13
OTS former regulations, 2.5.3.3
patents, 2.5.7
RESPA, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.5.3.7, 6.4.2
savings and loan institutions
federal associations, 2.5.3.3
state associations, 2.5.3.5
securities regulation, 2.5.7
state-chartered FDIC-insured banks, 2.5.3.5
state claims, 2.5.2, 11.5.5
subsidiaries, 2.5.3.3.8
TILA, 2.2.1.5.3, 2.5.3.8
tobacco regulation, 2.5.11, 9.3.8
transportation and shipping laws, 2.5.5, 8.6.1
FEDERAL REGULATORY AGENCIES
banking agencies, see FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
credit practices, regulation, 2.2.1.5.1
FCC, see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
FTC, see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
CFPB, transfer of authority to, 6.7.2.1
non-traditional mortgage products, guidance, 6.7.2.2
TILA mortgage rules, 6.7.2.1, 6.7.3, 8.3.5.3
unfairness standard, 4.3.2.1
FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
see also RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
Rule 68, relationship to costs awards, 12.8.11.8
FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS
see also SAVINGS AND LOAN INSTITUTIONS
Dodd-Frank Act preemption standards, 2.5.3.3.1, 2.5.3.3.8
OTS preemption regulations, 2.5.3.3
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC) ACT
advisory opinions, issuance, 3.4.5.6
asset attachment orders, 13.5.5
case law, 3.4.5
CFPB, transfer of authority to, 3.4.6
consent agreements, see CONSENT AGREEMENTS (FTC)
credit practices, regulation, 2.2.1.5.1
deception definition, 4.2.3.1
deception standards, 4.2.3–4.2.5, 4.2.9, 4.2.11.1, 4.2.12.2, 4.2.15.2
decisions, application to UDAP statutes, 3.4.5.1
enforcement agency status, 2.3.3.1
enforcement guidelines, 3.4.5.6
guides, see GUIDES (FTC)
informal staff letters, 3.4.5.6
investigational records, disclosure, 13.3.10
materiality presumption, 4.2.12.2
orders, “avalanche” clauses, 13.5.1.6
precedential value of rulings, 3.4.5.1
precedents, obtaining, 3.4.5.5, 3.4.5.6
reliance presumption, 4.2.12.2
rules, see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
statements, 3.4.5.6
UDAP preemption, 2.3.3.1
unfairness definition, 3.2.2.2.3, 4.3.2
distinction from “S&H” standard, 4.3.3.3.2
state use, 4.3.3.4
unsubstantiated claims, criteria, 5.2.2
website, 3.4.5.5
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC) ACT
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
banking agency guidelines, 6.6.6
banks, application, 2.2.1.5.1
nonprofit organizations, application, 2.3.5.1
UDAP statutes
comparison, 3.4.5.4
model legislation, 3.4.2.2
preemption, 2.2.1.5.1, 2.5.2
FEES
see also CREDIT CHARGES; OVERCHARGES; PRICING GIMMICKS
automobile dealers, 7.2.6
deceptive billing practices, 5.7.7
class actions, 12.5.4.2.6
deceptive advertising or disclosure, 5.3
deceptive pricing, 5.3.7
hidden fees, 5.3.4
“fee-harvester” credit cards, 6.8.2.2.1
free services, UDAP application, 2.2.4.6, 5.3.6
landlords, excessive, 8.2.8.3
loan brokers, deceptive practices, 6.2
money transfer services, 6.9.4
unauthorized, ability to avoid, 4.3.2.3.9
FICTITIOUS NAMES
deceptive use, 5.4.9
unregistered, 5.4.8.2
FIDUCIARIES
disclosure requirements, 4.2.15.3.3
UDAP violations, 9.4
FIFTY/FIFTY (50/50) WARRANTIES
UDAP violations, 5.6.7.3.2
FILED RATE DOCTRINE
insurance applicability, 2.3.1.4
telecommunications companies, 2.5.6, 8.5.3.1
wireless companies, application, 8.5.3.5
utilities, 2.3.2.1
FINANCE CHARGES
see CREDIT CHARGES; FINANCING COSTS
FINANCE COMPANIES
see also FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
punitive damages, liability, 12.4.3.7
UDAP application, 2.2.1, 2.3.3.2
FINANCIAL COUNSELING
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
see also BANKS; FINANCE COMPANIES; SAVINGS AND LOAN INSTITUTIONS
federal preemption of state law, 2.5.3
personal information disclosure, 5.9
UDAP application, 2.2.1, 2.3.3.2, 2.5.3
FINANCIAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
arbitration restrictions, 11.5.8.2.2
CFPB authority, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
unfair practices, see UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
FINANCING ACTIVITIES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
FINANCING COSTS
see also CREDIT CHARGES; CREDIT TERMS
consequential damages status, 12.3.3.3
treble damages, 12.4.2.7.6
FINDERS
apartments, see APARTMENT FINDERS
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE FINDING SERVICES
credit cards, see CREDIT CARD FINDERS
deceptive practices, 9.4.7
loans, see LOAN BROKERS
missing heirs, UDAP application, 9.4.7
scholarships, see SCHOLARSHIP LOCATION SERVICES
FINES
see CIVIL PENALTIES
FIRE SALES
see DISTRESS SALES
FIRST AMENDMENT
see also CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
compulsory process, protections, 13.3.4.4
course materials, protected by, 11.9.2.4
deceptive commercial speech, 11.9.2.1
distinguishing political from commercial speech, 11.9.2.3
injunctive relief, considerations, 13.5.1.5.2
press reporting of fraud, protection, 11.9.2.5
publication protected by, 11.9.2.4
unfair commercial speech, 11.9.2.2
FLIPPING SCHEMES
appraisal fraud and, 8.3.5.1
described, 8.3.4.1
multiple parties, 8.3.4.1
other causes of action, 8.3.4.4
UDAP precedent, 8.3.4.2
FLOOD SALES
see DISTRESS SALES
FOOD ADVERTISING
see FOOD LABELING
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)
food labeling requirements, 2.5.9.1.3, 2.5.9.1.4, 8.8.1.2
FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT (FDCA)
UDAP preemption
cosmetics labeling, 2.5.8.5
food labeling, 2.5.9.1
homeopathic drugs, 2.5.8.5
medications, 2.5.8.5
nutritional supplements, 2.5.8.5
prescription drugs, 2.5.8.5
violations as UDAP violations, 2.5.9.1.3, 2.5.9.1.4
FOOD LABELING
see also FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT (FDCA); LABELS; NUTRITIONAL LABELING AND EDUCATION ACT (FEDERAL)
FDA requirements, 2.5.9.1, 8.8.1.2
federal preemption, 2.5.9
meat and poultry, 2.5.9.2
nutritional claims, 2.5.9.1.1, 8.8.1.1
organic foods, 2.5.9.3, 8.8.1.3
UDAP violations, 2.5.9.1.3, 2.5.9.1.4, 8.8.1
FOR-PROFIT SCHOOLS
see also EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS; FUTURE SERVICE CONTRACTS; STUDENTS
defenses to student loan repayment, 9.1.7.7
diploma mills, 9.6.7
FTC guides, 9.1.7.2
history, 9.1.7.1
injunctive relief, 12.6.3.2.2
nature of, 9.1.7.1
obstacles to suing, 9.1.7.6
UDAP alternatives, 9.1.7.5, 9.1.7.7
UDAP application, 2.3.5.2, 9.1.7.3, 9.1.7.4
UDAP precedent, 9.1.7.3
FORCE-PLACED INSURANCE
UDAP violations, 6.7.3
automobile insurance, 9.5.10
FORECLOSURE
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.8.9
assistance schemes, see FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
loans doomed to, 6.7.2.3
state law violations as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.3.3
UDAP violations, 6.7.6
FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
see also CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.8.9
FTC rule, 6.7.7.1
UDAP application, 1.6.1, 2.2.4.15
UDAP violations, 6.7.7
deed theft scams, 6.7.7.3
overview, 6.7.7.1
phantom help, 6.7.7.2
FORESEEABILITY
consequential damages, 12.3.3.2
FORMS
FTC investigational records
access requests, 13.3.10
certification of use, 13.3.10
printers and distributors, UDAP statutes, application, 2.3.7
standard form contracts, see STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
FRANCHISES
see also BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
FTC rule, see FRANCHISING RULE (FTC)
UDAP actions involving, notice letter, 11.4.4.6
UDAP application, 2.2.8.2, 2.3.3.5.4
UDAP violations, 9.6.1
franchisor liability, 2.3.8, 10.3.6, 11.6.2, 13.2.5
FRANCHISING RULE (FTC)
see also FRANCHISES; TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
generally, 9.6.1
preemption of state law, 2.5.2, 9.6.1
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6, 9.6.1
FRAUD
see also DECEIT ACTIONS; MISREPRESENTATIONS
aiding and abetting, 10.4.2.2, 10.4.3, 10.4.4
acceptance of benefits, 10.4.2.4
appraisers, 8.3.5
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4.2, 8.3.5.1
automobile financing, 7.2.3.5
commodity futures, UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.8.3
common law actions
see also DECEIT ACTIONS
elements of claim, 4.2.3.1
materiality and reliance, 4.2.12.1
UDAP alternative, 1.7, 11.6.6
concealment of fraud, 10.4.2.4
concealment of known defects, 5.7.3
consumer fraud acts, see CONSUMER FRAUD ACTS
credit applications, 7.2.3.5
credit card fraud, 10.4.3
deceptive practice
as, 4.2.1
comparison, 4.2.3.1
defense against holder in due course, 10.5.6.3.11
land fraud schemes, see LAND FRAUD SCHEMES
mental anguish damages, 12.3.3.9.4
money-back guarantee, effect, 4.2.19
mortgage brokers, 8.3.4.2, 8.3.5.1
nondisclosure as, 5.7.3
900 numbers, 10.4.5
per se UDAP violation, 3.2.4
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4
punitive damages, 12.4.3.2
ratification, 10.4.2.4
real estate fraud, UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5
RICO remedies, see RICO ACTIONS
securities fraud, 2.2.8.3
statutory fraud, interpretation, 4.2.3.2
telemarketing fraud, 10.4.3, 10.4.4
UDAP actions, limitations, 11.2.1.2
FRAUDULENT STATEMENTS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
FREE OFFERS AND TRANSACTIONS
see also CONTESTS; GIFTS
deceptive pricing, 5.3.6
campground marketing, 9.1.5.1, 9.1.5.2
conditions or limitations, 5.3.9
timeshare marketing, 8.3.9
tobacco products, 8.8.3
UDAP application, 2.2.4.6
FREEDOM OF SPEECH
see FIRST AMENDMENT
FREEZE ORDERS
see ASSET FREEZES
FREEZER MEAT PLANS
UDAP violations, 8.8.2
FREIGHT SHIPMENTS
see SHIPPERS
FRINGE LENDERS
see PAWNBROKERS; PAYDAY LENDERS; SUBPRIME MARKET
FRIVOLOUS ACTIONS
see BAD FAITH
FUEL
see UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
FUNDS
consumer, see CONSUMER RECOVERY FUNDS
insurance, see INSURANCE GUARANTEE FUNDS
FUNERAL HOMES
FTC rule, see FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.4, 9.3.5
vulnerable consumers, 4.4.4
FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
overview, 9.3.5
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6
FURNITURE SALES
see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
deceptive practices, 8.8.7
FUTURE SERVICE CONTRACTS
buying clubs, 9.1.6
campground resort memberships, 9.1.5
cancellation, 9.1.2
dance studios, 9.1.4
description, 9.1.1
discount coupons, 9.1.6
for-profit schools, 9.1.7
health clubs, 9.1.3
GAMBLING AND GAMES PROMOTION
see also CONTESTS; LOTTERIES
statutory violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
UDAP application, 2.1.6
regulated gambling, 2.3.3.3.2
GARNISHMENT
see WAGE GARNISHMENT
GAS
see NATURAL GAS
GIFT CARDS AND CERTIFICATES
see also GIFTS
deceptive practices, 6.9.6
GIFTS
see also FREE OFFERS AND TRANSACTIONS
cards and certificates, 6.9.6
UDAP application, 2.2.4.6, 2.4.1.3
GLASS ETCHING OF VEHICLES
UDAP violations, 7.2.7.3
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS (GPS)
car rental company abuses, 7.7.5
GOING-OUT-OF BUSINESS SALES
see DISTRESS SALES
GOOD FAITH
see also BAD FAITH
deceptive practices, effect, 4.2.6
holder-in-due-course status, requirement, 10.5.6.3.9
insurance claims, settlement, 9.5.3.2
UDAP regulations, noncompliance, effect, 3.2.2.2
GOODS OR SERVICES
see also MERCHANDISE
advertising, see ADVERTISEMENTS
attorney services, status, 2.3.9
banking activities, status, 2.2.1.2, 2.2.1.3
campground memberships, status, 2.2.7
credit transactions, status, 2.2.1.2
damaged or defective, see DEFECTIVE GOODS
debt collection, 2.2.2.1.2
definition, 2.1.5, 2.1.7
dentists, status, 2.3.10
franchise sales, status, 2.2.8.2
free, see FREE OFFERS AND TRANSACTIONS; GIFTS
good, definition, 2.1.5, 2.2.1.2
group health insurance policies, status, 2.4.1.2
horses, status, 2.1.5
household products, see HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
household services, see HOUSEHOLD SERVICES
insurance, status, 2.3.1
interpretation, 2.1.5, 2.1.7
investment contracts or counseling, status, 2.2.8.3
landlord-tenant transactions, status, 2.2.6
loans, status, 2.2.1.2, 2.2.1.3
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
mortgages, status, 2.2.1.2
movers, see HOUSEHOLD MOVERS
real estate, status, 2.2.5.1.2
real estate related, 2.2.5.2
refinancing, status, 2.2.1.2
safety hazards, see SAFETY HAZARDS
service, definition, 2.1.7, 2.2.1.2
storage services, see STORAGE COMPANIES
substitution, see SUBSTITUTION
UDAP statutes, scope, 2.1.5, 2.1.7, 2.2.1.2, 2.2.1.3
unavailable, see UNAVAILABLE ITEMS
unrequested, see UNREQUESTED SERVICES; UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
used, see USED GOODS
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
see also ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT ENTITIES; REGULATORY BODIES
affiliation or approval, misrepresentations, 5.4.8.1
private collection agencies hired by, 2.3.6
regulation by, effect on UDAP application, 2.3.3
UDAP claims, contacting, 1.7
UDAP liability for acts of agents, 10.2.3.5
UDAP statutes
application, 2.3.6, 2.4.5.3
enforcement, 13
GOVERNMENT ENTITIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
UDAP application, 2.3.6
UDAP claims, bringing, 2.4.5.3
GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT
nonpublic personal information disclosure, 5.9
GROUNDLESS ACTIONS
see BAD FAITH
GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE POLICIES
UDAP application, 2.4.1.2
GUARANTEES
see also WARRANTIES
misrepresentations, 5.6.7.3
personal endorsements, see PERSONAL ENDORSEMENTS
personal guarantees, see PERSONAL GUARANTEES
GUARANTORS
see ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
GUARDIANS
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.4.11
GUIDES (FTC)
bait-and-switch practices, 5.3.1
enactment, 3.4.5.6
enforcement guidelines, 3.4.5.6
for-profit schools, 9.1.7.2
free offers, 5.3.6
online transactions, application, 4.2.15.3.9
precedential value, 3.4.5.6
reference prices, use, 5.3.3.2
UDAP standards, relationship, 3.3.4
HAND-MADE
misrepresentations, 5.4.6
HANDGUNS
regulation, 3.4.4.2, 8.8.8
HANDICAPPED CONSUMERS
see DISABLED CONSUMERS
HARASSMENT
see also THREATS
debt collectors, prohibitions, 6.10.6
RTO debt collectors, 8.7.6
unfairness, 4.3.6
HARM
see INJURY
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT (FEDERAL)
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.5.13
HEALTH BENEFITS CLAIMS
deceptive practices, 9.3.2
HEALTH CARE FACILITIES
see also ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES (ALFs); HOSPITALS; NURSING FACILITIES
Affordable Care Act, 2.5.8.1
Hill-Burton requirements, 2.5.8.1
UDAP application, 2.3.10.4, 2.5.8
HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
see MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS
HEALTH CLUB MEMBERSHIPS
club closings, 9.1.3.3
free offers, 5.3.6
injunctive relief, 12.6.3.2.2
UDAP violations, 9.1.3
HEALTH INSURERS
see also HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS (HMOs); INSURANCE
Affordable Care Act, 2.5.8.1
UDAP application, 2.5.8.3
UDAP standing, 2.4.1.5
UDAP violations, 9.3.6
HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS (HMOs)
see also HEALTH INSURERS; MANAGED CARE PLANS
misleading advertising, 9.3.7
UDAP liability, 2.4.1.6, 2.5.8.2, 9.3.7
UDAP standing, 2.4.1.5
HEARING AID SALES
see also MEDICAL DEVICES
deceptive practices, 9.3.1
HEARINGS
attorney fees, awarding, 12.8.13
compulsory process
raising UDAP defenses, 13.3.3
reasonable cause, 13.3.5.1
preliminary injunctions, 13.5.1.3
HEATING
see ELECTRIC HEAT; ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS; NATURAL GAS; UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
HEIRS
see also ESTATES
missing, finders, UDAP application, 9.4.7
UDAP actions, 10.8.3
UDAP statutes, application, 2.4.2
HIDDEN FEES
automobile service contracts, 7.2.4.4
price padding, 5.3.4
HIGH-COST MORTGAGES
see also HIGHER-PRICED MORTGAGES; MORTGAGE LOANS
HOEPA regulation, see HOME OWNERSHIP AND EQUITY PROTECTION ACT (HOEPA)
derivative liability, 10.5.6.3.5
TILA regulation, 6.7.2.1
HIGH-PRESSURE SALES
class actions, 12.5.4.2.3
deceptive practices, 5.5.1
door-to-door sales, 5.5.6
living trusts, 9.4.5
telemarketers, 5.5.6
unfair practices, 4.3.6, 5.5.2
HIGHER EDUCATION ACT (HEA)
for-profit school abuses
UDAP claims based on, 9.1.7.3
private right of action, 9.1.7.5
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.5.13, 9.1.7.4
HIGHER-PRICED MORTGAGES
see also HIGH-COST MORTGAGES; MORTGAGE LOANS
TILA regulation, 6.7.2.1
HILL-BURTON ACT
UDAP claims, 2.5.8.1
UDAP preemption, 2.5.8.1
HMOs
see HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS (HMOs)
HOLDER RULE (FTC)
see also HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE; TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
adhesion contracts, application, 5.6.3.2
assignees, application, 2.2.1.6, 10.5
attorney fee liability, 12.8.9
campground resort memberships, application, 9.1.5.3
close-connectedness doctrine, relationship, 10.4.2.5.1
credit card transactions, application, 10.5.4
creditor liability, related-seller claims, 2.2.1.6, 10.5.2
seller-arranged loans, 10.5.3
leases, application, 10.5.5
liability under, refusal to accept, 5.6.10
limits to, 10.4.2.5.1, 10.5.2.5
maximum liability, 10.5.2.4
notice requirement, 10.5.2.1
omission of notice, 10.5.3.2
NCLC treatise analyzing, 1.3.2
practical effects, 10.5.1
repudiation, 5.6.10, 8.1.1.1
school-related claims and defenses, application, 9.1.7.7
scope, 10.5.2.2
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE
see also ASSIGNEES
assignees, status, 10.5.6.2, 10.5.6.3
“shelter” rule, 10.5.6.2, 10.5.6.3.8, 10.5.6.3.9
close-connectedness doctrine, 10.4.2.5.1
consumer transactions, unfairness, 4.3.4.2
defeating holder-in-due course defense, 10.5.6.3
defenses against, 10.5.6.3.11
lender-related defenses, 10.5.6
FTC rule, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
home repair contracts, 8.4.7
liability
attorney fees, 12.8.9
refusal to accept, 5.6.10, 8.1.1.1
seller-related claims and defenses, 10.5.2, 10.5.3
HOME BUILDERS
see also CONSTRUCTION; DEVELOPERS
UDAP application, 2.2.5.2
UDAP violations, 8.3.6
HOME EQUITY LINES OF CREDIT (HELOCs)
arbitration restrictions, 11.5.8.2.1
derivative liability, 10.5.6.3.3
HOME EQUITY LOANS
see HOME EQUITY LINES OF CREDIT (HELOCs); MORTGAGE LOANS
HOME FINDERS
see APARTMENT FINDERS
HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
see also CONSTRUCTION
building permits, 8.4.4
construction standards, 8.4.4
contract provisions, 8.4.3
credit contracts, 8.4.7
door-to-door sales, see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
failure to perform work, 8.4.6
FTC Holder Rule, application, 10.5.6.3.1
marketing misrepresentations, 8.4.2
pricing issues, 8.4.5
UDAP violations, 8.4
repair practices, 5.7.6
state law violations as per se violations, 3.2.7.3.6
warranties, 8.4.3
HOME INSPECTORS
faulty reports, liability, 8.3.1.1
third-party liability, 4.2.17
HOME INSULATION
see ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS; HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS; LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION RULE (FTC)
HOME-MADE
misrepresentations, 5.4.6
HOME MORTGAGE LOANS
see MORTGAGE LOANS
HOME OWNERS LOAN ACT (HOLA)
federal savings association regulation, 2.5.3.3.1
HOME OWNERS PROTECTION ACT (HPA)
mortgage insurance, requirements, 2.5.3.9, 9.5.12
preemption of state law, 2.5.3.9, 9.5.12
HOME OWNERSHIP AND EQUITY PROTECTION ACT (HOEPA)
assignees, application, 10.5.6.3.5
home improvement contracts, application, 8.4.7
HOME PURCHASES AND SALES
see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
HOME-SAVER SERVICES
see FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
HOME-SECURED LOANS
see MORTGAGE LOANS
HOME SOLICITATION SALES
see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
HOME STUDY SCHOOLS
see FOR-PROFIT SCHOOLS
HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS
UDAP application, 2.5.8.5
HORSES
sales, UDAP application, 2.1.5
HOSPITALS
see also HEALTH CARE FACILITIES
Affordable Care Act, 2.5.8.1
Hill-Burton Act, 2.5.8.1
UDAP application, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.5.4, 2.3.5.1, 2.3.6, 2.3.10.4, 2.5.8
UDAP violations, 9.3.6
HOTEL LODGINGS
see also TRAVEL INDUSTRY
UDAP application, 2.1.8.6
HOUSE SALES
see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
see also CONSUMER GOODS; HOUSEHOLD SERVICES
carpet sales, 8.8.7
cleaners and purifiers, 8.8.10
computers, 8.8.6
credit property insurance, 6.11.3, 9.5.9.5
definition, 2.1.8
electronic equipment, 8.8.6
energy savings claims, 8.8.4
environmental claims, 8.8.5
food labels, 8.8.1
freezer meats, 8.8.2
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 6.11.3
furniture sales, 8.8.7
handguns, 8.8.8
magazines and encyclopedias, 8.8.9
maintenance agreements, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
miscellaneous goods, 8.8.10
moving services, see HOUSEHOLD MOVERS
non-purchase money security interests, 5.6.3.2, 6.11.1, 6.11.3, 6.13.1
rent-to-own, see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
repossession, restrictions, 6.13.1
tobacco, 8.8.3
HOUSEHOLD MOVERS
Carmack Amendment, 8.6.1
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5, 8.6.1
UDAP violations, 6.13.3
HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS
see HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
HOUSEHOLD SERVICES
deceptive practices, 8.6
definition, 2.1.8
movers, see HOUSEHOLD MOVERS
HOUSEHOLD USE
see CONSUMER GOODS; CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS; HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS
HUD
see DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
IDENTITY THEFT VICTIMS
UDAP standing, 2.2.4.10
ILLEGAL PRACTICES
unfairness, 4.3.2.5
IMMIGRATION CONSULTANTS
state law, 9.4.2.2
unfair and deceptive practices, 9.4.2.1
IMMUNITY
criminal prosecution, effect on UDAP enforcement actions, 13.3.4.2
receivers, 13.5.6
state enforcement agencies, 13.4.9, 13.4.10
IMPERFECTIONS
see DEFECTIVE GOODS; SECONDS
IMPROVIDENT LENDING
falsification of credit applications, 6.3.4
consumer’s clean hands, 6.3.4.4
consumer’s damages, 6.3.4.3
consumer’s legal claims, 6.3.4.2
nature of problem, 6.3.4.1
generally, 6.3.1
manufactured homes, 8.1.1.3
UDAP restrictions
general application, 6.3.3
specific laws, 6.3.2
INCAPACITY
defense against holder in due course, 10.5.6.3.11
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
see DIRECT DAMAGES
INCONSPICUOUS
see OBSCURITY
INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
employment relations, UDAP application, 2.2.8.4, 2.2.9
liability of principal, 10.2.3.4
sellers, status, 10.2.3.4
INDIAN-MADE
misrepresentations, 5.4.6
INDIANS
see NATIVE AMERICANS
INDUSTRIES
regulated, see REGULATED INDUSTRIES
INFOMERCIALS
deceptive practices, 5.4.8.1
INFORMATION ACCESS SERVICES
see PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
advantages to consumers, 12.6.1
assurance of voluntary compliance precondition, 13.4.1
bankruptcy stay, effect, 13.5.1.8
cessation of deceptive practice, effect, 4.2.7
class actions, 12.5.1, 12.5.4.2.9, 12.6.2.1, 12.6.3.2.3
constitutional defenses, 11.9.2, 13.5.1.5.2
damage preconditions, effect, 11.4.2.1, 12.6.3.1
FTC, 10.3.2.3
heating fuel relief, 8.5.6
immunity, effect, 13.3.4.2
impediments, 12.6.3.3
innovative orders, 13.5.1.6
judicial discretion, 13.5.1.5.3
mootness, 13.5.1.2
parties, 13.5.1.7
preconditions, 11.4.2.1, 12.6.3, 13.5.1.4
preliminary, see PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS
private actions
prerequisites, 12.6.3
public benefit, 12.6.3.2
statutory authorization, 12.6.2
UDTPA remedies, 12.2.8.2, 12.6.2.1, 12.6.3.2.2
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3.4
restitution orders, relationship, 13.5.4.8
scope issues, 13.5.1.5
state enforcement agencies, 13.5.1
UDAP violations, 13.5.1
corporate officers, 10.3.2.3
UDTPA violations, 12.2.8.2, 12.6.2.1, 12.6.3.2.2
violation of injunction, 13.5.2
penalties, 13.5.2.4, 13.5.6
INJURY
see also DAMAGES
bait-and-switch cases, 11.4.2.8.7
causation, 11.4.2.9
credit application falsification, 6.3.4.3
damage preconditions, 11.4.2
future losses, 11.4.2.8.10
illegal clauses, 11.4.2.8.2
impractical to avoid, 4.3.2.3.13
injunctions, necessity, 12.6.3.1, 13.5.1.4
involuntary events, 4.3.2.3.7
irreparable, see IRREPARABLE INJURY
loan modification attempts, 6.7.5.4
mental anguish, 11.4.2.8.1, 12.3.3.9
not reasonably avoidable, 4.3.2.3
pain and suffering damages, 12.3.3.9
physical injury, 12.3.3.8
precondition to private action, see DAMAGE PRECONDITIONS
preliminary injunctions, necessity, 13.5.1.3
substantial consumer injury, see SUBSTANTIAL CONSUMER INJURY
unanticipated, 4.3.2.3.8
INMATES
UDAP application, 2.2.4.6, 2.2.4.14
INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FEDERAL)
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.5.13
INSOLVENCY
see BANKRUPTCY
INSPECTION
automobile cases, experts, 7.1.3
home inspectors, see HOME INSPECTORS
INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
INSULATION
see ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS; HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS; LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION RULE (FTC)
INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE PRACTICES
adjusters, see INSURANCE ADJUSTERS
agents, see INSURANCE AGENTS
claims, see INSURANCE CLAIMS
companies, see INSURANCE COMPANIES
credit, see CREDIT INSURANCE
federal law, state override, 2.5.7
filed rate doctrine, applicability, 2.3.1.4
force-placed automobile insurance, 9.5.10
guarantee funds, see INSURANCE GUARANTEE FUNDS
health insurers, see HEALTH INSURERS
liability insurance, see LIABILITY INSURANCE
mortgage insurance, see MORTGAGE INSURANCE
packing, see INSURANCE PACKING
policies, see INSURANCE POLICIES
premiums, see INSURANCE PREMIUMS
primary jurisdiction, 2.3.1.4
proceeds, see INSURANCE PROCEEDS
sale of insurance, see INSURANCE PRACTICES
third-party failure to purchase, 9.5.8
UDAP application, 2.3.1, 2.3.3, 2.5.7, 2.5.10.2
merchandise, 2.1.6
recipients of payments, 2.4.1.2
service, 2.1.7
UDAP violations, 9.5
UNIP legislation, see UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP) LEGISLATION
INSURANCE ADJUSTERS
see also INSURANCE CLAIMS
claims settlement, 9.5.3
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5
INSURANCE AGENTS
see also INSURANCE POLICIES
failure to obtain coverage, 9.5.8
misrepresentations, 9.5.3.2, 9.5.3.5, 9.5.4.1
UDAP liability, 2.2.4.6, 2.3.3.2
INSURANCE CLAIMS
see also INSURANCE PRACTICES; INSURANCE PROCEEDS
adjusters, see INSURANCE ADJUSTERS
arbitration, 11.5.8.2.4
bifurcation of claims, 9.5.3.2
excessive delay in responding, 9.5.3.3
refusal to pay
bad faith refusal, 9.5.3.2
breach of contract, 9.5.3.1
credit insurance, 9.5.9.6
multiple damages calculations, 12.4.2.7.3
settlement policies, 9.5.3
misrepresentations, 9.5.3.5, 9.5.4.2
nondisclosure and deception, 9.5.3.5
pattern of unfairness, 9.5.2.4
unfair coercion, 9.5.3.6
third party’s failure to obtain coverage, 9.5.8
UDAP application, 2.2.3.1, 2.3.1, 2.4.1.2, 9.5.3
vexatious litigation, 9.5.3.4
INSURANCE CODES (STATE)
see also STATE LAW; UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP) LEGISLATION
arbitration restrictions, 11.5.8.2.4
ERISA, application, 2.5.10.2
federal preemption, 11.5.8.2.4
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.3.1.3, 2.3.3.5.5
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
INSURANCE COMMISSIONER
UNIP hearings, 9.5.2.3.2
INSURANCE COMPANIES
UDAP liability, 2.3.1, 2.3.3.2
statutory exemptions, 2.3.1.2
UDAP standing, 2.4.1.5
subrogated claims, 2.2.4.9, 2.4.1.2, 2.4.1.5
INSURANCE GUARANTEE FUNDS
UDAP claims, application, 10.6.3
INSURANCE PACKING
automobile sales, 7.2.2, 7.2.4
UDAP violation, 9.5.11
INSURANCE POLICIES
see also INSURANCE; INSURANCE CLAIMS
arbitration provisions, 11.5.8.2.4
beneficiaries, UDAP application, 2.4.1.2
coverage, misrepresentations, 9.5.4.1
credit insurance, 9.5.9.6
unnecessary coverage, 9.5.5.2
coverage, third party’s failure to obtain, 9.5.8
discrimination, 9.5.6
merchants, recovering under, 10.6.2
premiums, see INSURANCE PREMIUMS
sale of, see INSURANCE AGENTS
UDAP liability, see LIABILITY INSURANCE
INSURANCE PRACTICES
see also INSURANCE; INSURANCE CLAIMS
claims settlement, see INSURANCE CLAIMS
credit insurance, 9.5.9
kickbacks, 9.5.5.4, 9.5.9.2
discrimination, 9.5.6
excessive premiums, 9.5.7
force-placed auto insurance, 9.5.10
misrepresentations, 9.5.4, 9.5.5
misuse of special status, 4.3.10
mortgage insurance, 9.5.12
multiple damages calculations, 12.4.2.7.3
nondisclosure, 9.5.3.5, 9.5.5
packing, see INSURANCE PACKING
primary jurisdiction doctrine, 9.5.2.3.2
sales schemes, unfair or deceptive, 9.5.5
twisting, 9.5.5
UDAP application, 2.3.1, 2.3.3, 2.5.7, 2.5.10.2
state insurance code displacement, 2.3.1.3
UDAP exemption, 2.3.1.2
regulated practices, 2.3.1.2.2, 2.3.3
specific exemptions, 2.3.1.2.1
UDAP violations, 9.5
UNIP legislation, see UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP) LEGISLATION
unnecessary insurance, 9.5.5.2
vexatious litigation, 9.5.3.4
INSURANCE PREMIUMS
discrimination, 9.5.6
excessive as UDAP violation, 9.5.7
INSURANCE PROCEEDS
see also INSURANCE CLAIMS
collateral source rule, UDAP application, 12.3.6.2
INTENT
see also WILLFULNESS
common law fraud, necessity, 4.2.3.1
deception, necessity, 4.2.4, 9.6.3
multiple damages, necessity, 12.4.2.3.1
nondisclosure, 4.2.15.3.5
used goods, sale as new, 5.7.4
INTEREST
see also INTEREST RATES
attorney fee awards, 12.8.11.3.2
multiple damages calculations, 12.4.2.7.6
prejudgment, see PREJUDGMENT INTEREST
UDAP claims, awarding, 12.3.4
INTEREST RATES
see also CREDIT CHARGES; USURY LAWS (STATE)
deceptive banking practices
calculations, 4.2.8
misrepresentations, 6.9.1.2
nondisclosure, 6.9.1.2
rate exportation by national banks, 2.5.3.2.1
state parity laws, 2.5.3.5
UDAP violations, 6.6.1, 6.5
bank accounts, 6.9.1.2
yield-spread premiums, 6.2.4
INTERNATIONAL DRIVER’S PERMITS
marketing, 9.2.5
INTERNET DOMAIN NAMES
see DOMAIN NAMES
INTERNET RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS (ISPs)
UDAP violations, 8.5.3.7
INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
cash-to-cash money transfers, 10.4.3.5
diploma mills, 9.6.7
disclosure requirements, 4.2.15.3.9
FTC rules, application, 4.2.15.3.9
invasion of privacy, 5.9
jurisdictional issues, 11.5.2.3
pyramid schemes, 9.6.3
Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act, 4.2.15.3.9
unsolicited bulk commercial e-mail, see SPAM E-MAIL
VoIP services, 8.5.3.6
INTERROGATORIES
see DISCOVERY
INTERSTATE COMMERCE
see also TRADE OR COMMERCE
federal preemption, 2.5.5, 2.5.7
air transportation laws, 2.5.5.3, 2.5.5.4
Carmack Amendment, 2.5.5.1, 8.6.1
FAA, 11.5.8.2.5
Interstate Commerce Act, 2.5.5.2
transportation and shipping laws, 2.5.5.4
household movers, 8.6.1
UDAP application, 2.2.11
INTIMIDATION
see COERCION; DURESS
INVASION OF PRIVACY
UDAP challenges, 5.9, 11.4.2.8.1
INVESTIGATIONS
see also CIVIL INVESTIGATION DEMANDS (CIDs)
automobile sales cases, 7.1
state enforcement agencies, 13.3
costs, recovery, 13.5.8
notice requirements, 13.4.1
reasonable cause, 13.3.5.1
scope, 13.3.2, 13.3.3
test purchasers, 2.4.6
INVESTIGATIVE SUBPOENAS
see SUBPOENAS
INVESTIGATORS
see FINDERS; INVESTIGATIONS; TESTERS
INVESTMENT COUNSELING
see also CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
UDAP application, 2.1.8.6, 2.2.8.3
INVESTMENTS
see also BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
UDAP application, 2.1.8.2, 2.1.8.6, 2.2.4.3, 2.2.4.6, 2.2.8
IRA ACCOUNT
purchase, UDAP application, 2.2.1.3
IRREPARABLE INJURY
see also DAMAGES; INJURY
injunctions, necessity, 13.5.1.4, 13.5.1.3
preliminary injunctions, necessity, 13.5.1.3
IRRIGATION DISTRICTS
UDAP statutes, application, 2.3.6
ISPs
see INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS (ISPs)
JOINDER
parties, see PARTIES
UDAP claims with federal claims, 11.5.5
JOINT ENTERPRISE
UDAP liability, 10.4
JOINT VENTURES
jurisdiction, 11.5.2.5
UDAP liability, 10.3.5
JUDGMENTS
default, see DEFAULT JUDGMENTS
merchant’s nonpayment, UDAP violation, 5.6.9
offer of judgment, 12.8.11.8
JUDICIAL DISCRETION
attorney fee awards, 12.8.2.1, 12.8.4, 12.8.10.4.6, 12.8.10.5, 12.8.11.1
class actions, certification, 12.5.3
civil penalties, 13.5.3.5
expert witness fees, 12.8.7.3
injunctions
defendants, naming, 13.5.1.7
issuance, 13.5.1.2, 13.5.1.5.3
preliminary injunctions, 13.5.1.3
punitive damages, 12.4.3.6
restitution orders, 13.5.4.1
state enforcement actions, attorney fees, 13.5.8
treble damages, 12.4.2.2
JUDICIAL REVIEW
arbitration awards, 12.4.2.5.2
JUNK FAXES
ability to avoid, 4.3.2.3.9
coercive sales technique, 5.5.6
UDAP application, 2.2.4.1
JURISDICTION
administrative agencies, 2.3.3.6.2, 13.4.6
co-conspirators, 11.5.2.5
federal court, 11.5.5
removal jurisdiction, 11.5.6, 13.4.7
federal question jurisdiction, 11.5.5, 11.5.6, 13.4.7
forum non conveniens, 11.5.2.6
“general jurisdiction,” 11.5.2.2
insurance-related matters, 2.3.1.4, 9.5.2.3.2
Internet transactions, 11.5.2.3
joint venturers, 11.5.2.5
out-of-state sellers, 11.5.2
parent companies, 11.5.2.5
pendent jurisdiction, 11.5.5
personal jurisdiction, 11.5.2.2
primary jurisdiction doctrine, see PRIMARY JURISDICTION DOCTRINE
“specific jurisdiction,” 11.5.2.2
supplemental jurisdiction, 11.5.5
UDAP actions
bankruptcy court, 11.5.7
counterclaims, 11.5.4
federal court, 11.5.5, 11.5.6
out-of-state sellers, 11.5.2
small claims courts, 11.5.4
JURY INSTRUCTIONS
see also JURY TRIALS
multiple damages, 12.4.2.8
practice tips, 11.8.2.4
JURY TRIALS
see also JURY INSTRUCTIONS
attorney fees, determination, 12.8.10.4.6, 12.8.12.4
civil penalty actions, 13.5.2.1
injunctive actions, 13.5.1.4
punitive damages, determination, 12.4.3.6
questions of fact, 11.8.2.3
strategic considerations, 11.8.2.1
trial strategy, 11.8.2.4
UDAP actions, 11.8.2.2
voir dire, 11.8.2.4
KEROSENE
see UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
KICKBACKS
automobile financing, 7.2.3.2
ECOA class actions, 7.2.3.4
UDAP claims, 7.2.3.3
credit insurance, 9.5.5.4, 9.5.9.2
KNOWLEDGE
see DISPARATE KNOWLEDGE; SCIENTER
LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
energy savings claims, application, 8.8.4
LABELS
see also FOOD LABELING; PACKAGING
deceptive, 5.4.6, 5.4.7, 8.8.1
federal preemption of state law, 2.5.9, 2.5.13
FTC rules
appliances, see APPLIANCE LABELING RULE (FTC)
home insulation, see LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION RULE (FTC)
tobacco products, 8.8.3, 9.3.8
LABOR UNIONS
UDAP claims, standing, 2.2.9, 2.4.1.5
LABORATORIES
see MEDICAL LABORATORIES
LACHES
attorney general, application, 13.4.8
equitable claims, application, 12.3.2.4.1
LAND FRAUD SCHEMES
see REAL ESTATE FRAUD
LAND SALES
see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
LAND SURVEYORS
liability to third parties, 4.2.17
LAND-HOME PACKAGES
manufactured home purchases, 8.1.1.4
LANDLORD-TENANT LEGISLATION (STATE)
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2.6.2
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.3.3.5.4, 2.2.6.2
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6, 8.2.5.2
LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICES
see also RESIDENTIAL LEASES; TENANTS
early terminations, 8.2.7
employer-provided housing, 8.2.9
evictions, see EVICTIONS
injunctive relief, 12.6.3.2.2
innovative orders, 13.5.1.6
migrant farmworkers, 2.2.6.4, 8.2.9
manufactured homes, see MANUFACTURED HOME COMMUNITIES
misrepresentations
authority to rent, 8.2.5.2
crime, regarding, 8.2.5.3
occupancy certificate, failure to obtain, 8.2.5.2
substandard housing, 4.4.6, 8.2.5.1, 8.2.5.2
UDAP application, 2.2.6, 2.3.3.5, 2.4.5.2.1
manufactured homes, 2.2.6, 8.2.1
non-merchant landlords, 2.3.4
UDAP violations, 6.10.10, 8.2
unconscionable practices, 4.4.6
utilities, 8.2.6
LAND INSTALLMENT SALES
derivative liability, 10.5.6.3.2
LANDSHARES
campground resorts, 9.1.5.3
LANGUAGE
consumer contracts
non-English speaking consumers, 5.6.1
plain English requirement, 5.6.2, 11.6.6
LANHAM TRADEMARK ACT (FEDERAL)
food labeling claims under, 2.5.9.1.3
violations as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6
LATE PAYMENT PENALTIES
see also CREDIT CHARGES
UDAP violations, 6.12.2
LAW CLERKS
see PARALEGALS
LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
LAWYERS
see ATTORNEYS; PRACTICE OF LAW
LAYAWAY PLANS
deceptive practices, 5.7.1
state law violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
LEARNED INTERMEDIARY DOCTRINE
limits on liability, 4.2.21.4
LEASE FORMS
see also STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
plain English, 5.6.2
printers and distributors, UDAP statutes, application, 2.3.7
LEASING ACT
see CONSUMER LEASING ACT (CLA)
LEASING AGREEMENTS
adhesive terms, see ADHESION CONTRACTS
apartments, see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES; RENTAL CAR PRACTICES
close-connectedness doctrine, application, 10.4.2.5.1
dealer-related claims, raising, 10.5.5
default terms, see DEFAULT PROVISIONS
FTC holder rule, application, 10.5.5
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2.4
oil and gas, see OIL AND GAS LEASES
rent-to-own, see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
residential, see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
sale-leaseback scams, see SALE-LEASEBACK SCAMS
standard form, see LEASE FORMS; STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
UDAP application, 2.2.4.4, 2.2.6
LEGAL EXPENSES
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
LEGAL MALPRACTICE
non-attorney legal service providers, 9.4.4
UDAP application, 2.3.9, 9.4.1
LEGAL PRACTICE
see PRACTICE OF LAW
LEGAL RIGHTS
misrepresentations
debt collectors, 6.10.5
generally, 5.6.8
LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
see also ATTORNEYS
attorney fees
calculating, 12.8.11.5
entitlement, 12.8.7.1
fee schedule, 12.8.11.5
settlement negotiations, 12.8.4.5.2
LEGISLATIVE HISTORY
UDAP statutes, 3.4.2
LEMON VEHICLES
goodwill buy back, 7.4.8
lemon laundering, 7.4.7
recreational vehicles, 7.4.9.3
state law
UDAP displacement, 2.3.3.5.5
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
LENDERS
see CREDITORS
LESSORS
liability for dealer-related claims, 10.5.5
LIABILITY
aiders and abettors, 10.4
accrediting organizations, 10.4.6
advertising agencies, 10.4.1
agents, 10.2.2
principal’s liability, 10.2.3
assignees, 2.2.1.6
attorney fees, 12.8.9
bonding agencies, 10.6.1
civil UDAP penalties, 13.5.3.8
closely-related corporations, 10.3.4
corporate officers, 10.3.2. 13.5.3.8
co-venturers, 10.3.5
credit card issuers for merchant fraud, 10.4.3
creditors, 2.2.1
holder liability, 2.2.1.6
debt collectors, 6.10
deception, knowledge requirement, 4.2.5
defenses, see DEFENSES
derivative liability, 2.1.9, 2.2.1.6, 10.5
directors, 10.3
drug manufacturers, 4.2.21.4
endorsements, deceptive, 5.4.8, 10.4.6
estates after death of defendant, 10.8.3
exempted sellers, 2.3
franchisors, 10.3.6
holders in due course, see HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE
independent contractors, principal’s liability, 10.2.3.4
injunctions, violation, 13.5.2.3
insurance coverage, see LIABILITY INSURANCE
lessors for dealer-related claims, 10.5.5
lost credit cards, disclosure, 6.8.4
manufacturers, 2.3.8, 10.2.3.3, 10.4.1
multiple damages
settlement offers, effect, 12.4.2.3
vicarious liability, 12.4.2.9
notice letters, effect, 11.4.4.11
parent companies, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
partners, 10.3.5
principals, 10.2.3
privity of contract, application, 2.2.4, 2.3.8, 4.2.20.3, 4.2.17
punitive damages, vicarious liability, 12.4.3.7
related corporations, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
restitution orders, 13.5.4.4, 13.5.4.7.2
shareholders, 10.3.3
state enforcement actions, 13.2.5
statutory caps, application to UDAP liability, 2.3.5.2
successor corporations, 10.8.1
telemarketing fraud, 10.4.4
telephone carriers, fraudulent 900 schemes, 10.4.5
telephone service bureaus, 10.4.5
third parties, 10.4
vicarious liability, 10.2
wholesalers, 2.3.8
LIABILITY INSURANCE
coverage for civil penalties, 13.5.3.9
LIBEL ACTIONS
attorney general, immunity, 13.4.9
consumer fraud reports, 11.9.2.5
disparaging competitors, 5.4.11
LICENSED GROUPS
see also REGULATED INDUSTRIES; UNLICENSED ACTIVITIES
debt collectors, 6.10.3
lawyers, 2.3.9.3
misrepresentations, 5.4.8.2
mortgage brokers, 6.2.1
UDAP statutes, application, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.6, 2.3.11
LICENSING AGENCIES (STATE)
automobile dealerships, 7.1.5
LICENSING VIOLATIONS
see UNLICENSED ACTIVITIES
LIFE CARE HOMES
see ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES (ALFs); NURSING FACILITIES
LIFE INSURANCE
see INSURANCE PACKING; INSURANCE PRACTICES
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS
see UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
LIQUIDATED DAMAGES CLAUSES
see also CONTRACT LAW; PENALTY CLAUSES
enforceability, 5.6.6
LIQUIDATION SALES
see DISTRESS SALES
LITIGATION AIDS
see PRACTICE TIPS
LITIGATION EXPENSES
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
LITIGATION MISCONDUCT
UDAP violations, 6.10.10
LIVE CHECK SOLICITATIONS
deceptive practices, 6.9.5
LIVING TRUSTS
scams, 9.4.5
LOAN BROKERS
see also CREDITORS; MORTGAGE BROKERS
advance fee brokers, 6.2.3
credit applications, falsification, 6.3.4
regulation, 6.2.1
steering, 6.7.2.1
UDAP application, 2.2.1.3, 2.3.3.2
UDAP violations, 4.3.10, 6.2
misrepresentations, 6.2.2
yield spread premiums, 6.2.4, 6.7.2.1
LOAN FINDERS
see LOAN BROKERS
LOAN MODIFICATION
breach of agreement, 6.7.5.3.2
HAMP guidelines, 6.7.5.2
misrepresentations, 6.7.5.3.1
scam providers, 6.7.7.2
UDAP violations, 6.7.5
overview, 6.7.5.1
per se violations, 6.7.5.2
types, 6.7.5.3
unfair practices, 6.7.5.3.4
unfair terms, 6.7.5.3.3
LOAN PRACTICES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
LOANS
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
bank loans, see BANK LOANS
car loans, see AUTOMOBILE LOANS
collection, see DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
debt consolidation, see DEBT CONSOLIDATION LOANS
FTC Holder Rule, application, 10.5.2.2
goods or services, status as, 2.2.1.2
home-secured, see HOME EQUITY LINES OF CREDIT (HELCs); MORTGAGE LOANS
interest rate, see INTEREST RATES
modification of terms, see LOAN MODIFICATION
mortgage loans, see MORTGAGE LOANS
predatory lending, 6.7.2
refinancing, see REFINANCING PRACTICES
student loans, see STUDENT LOANS AND ASSISTANCE
UDAP application, 2.2.1
usurious, see USURY LAWS (STATE)
vulnerable groups, unfairness standard, 4.3.8
LODESTAR FORMULA
attorney fees, calculation, 12.8.11.3.2
LONG DISTANCE SERVICES
see also TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
cramming, see CRAMMING
filed rate doctrine, application, 8.5.3.1
1-900, see PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
slamming, 8.5.3.2
unauthorized charges, 8.5.3.4
ability to avoid, 4.3.2.3.9
collection by local telephone company, 10.4.5
LONGSHORE AND HARBOR WORKERS’ COMPENSATION ACT
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.5.13
LOSS-OF-BARGAIN DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES, ACTUAL; DIRECT DAMAGES
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.8.4
calculation, 12.3.2.2
described, 12.3.2.1
framing nature of suit, 11.6.3
LOST CREDIT CARDS
reporting services, deceptive practices, 6.8.4
LOTTERIES
see also CONTESTS; GAMBLING AND GAMES PROMOTION
credit card telemarketing fraud, 10.4.4
deceptive practices, 9.6.4
federal preemption, 2.5.13
statute violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
LOW BALLING
deceptive pricing, 5.3.7
MADE IN USA
deceptive labels, 5.4.7
MAGAZINE SELLERS
see also MAIL ORDER SALES; NEGATIVE OPTION SALES; UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
deceptive practices, 8.8.9
MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
FTC Holder Rule, relationship, 10.5.2.5
thirty-day, “50-50” warranties violating, 5.6.7.3.2
UDAP statutes, relationship, 5.6.7.1.4
MAIL FRAUD
see RICO ACTIONS
MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
generally, 5.7.2
MAIL ORDER SALES
see also TELEPHONE SALES
delay and non-delivery, 5.7.2
FTC rule, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
magazine sales, 8.8.9
online, see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
unsolicited goods, see UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
MAINTENANCE AGREEMENTS
see SERVICE CONTRACTS
MALICE
see WILLFULNESS
MALPRACTICE
see LEGAL MALPRACTICE; MEDICAL MALPRACTICE; NEGLIGENCE
MANAGED CARE PLANS
see also HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS (HMOs)
UDAP violations, 9.3.7
MANAGERS
UDAP liability, 10.3
MANUFACTURED HOME COMMUNITIES
see also MANUFACTURED HOME SALES
cooperative ownership, 8.1.2.6.1
disclosure requirements, 8.1.2.2, 8.1.2.3
discriminatory practices, 8.1.2.2
evictions, 8.1.2.5
injunctive relief, 12.6.3.2.2
land-home package alternative, 8.1.1.4
leases, 8.1.2.4
licensure, 8.1.2.4
misrepresentations, 8.1.2.4
residents associations, 8.1.2.6.3
restrictions on resident’s sale of home, 8.1.2.3
state legislation, 8.1.2.6.2
tie-ins, 5.8.1, 8.1.2.2
UDAP violations, 8.1.2
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.6, 8.1.2.1
MANUFACTURED HOME SALES
see also MANUFACTURED HOME COMMUNITIES
brokers selling, 8.1.1.1
construction and safety standards, 8.1.1.2
credit sales, arbitration restrictions, 11.5.8.2.1
defects in home, site, or installation, 8.1.1.2
improvident extension of credit, 8.1.1.3
land-home packages, 8.1.1.4
misrepresentations, 8.1.1.1
park resident, by, 8.1.2.3
tied sales, 5.8.1, 8.1.2.2
UDAP application, 2.2.5.1.4, 2.2.6
UDAP violations, 8.1.1
MANUFACTURED HOUSING
see MANUFACTURED HOME SALES; PRECUT HOUSING
MANUFACTURERS
see also WHOLESALERS
drug manufacturers, see DRUG MANUFACTURERS
misrepresentations, 2.3.8
product origin, 5.4.7
retailers, to, 4.2.17
status misrepresentation, 5.4.9
rebates, theft by dealers, 7.5.6
UDAP application, 2.2.4.3, 2.3.8
UDAP claims, liability for dealer’s actions, 10.2.3.3
MANUFACTURING
geographic origin, disclosure, 5.4.7
methods, misrepresentations, 5.4.6
MARKETING
see ADVERTISEMENTS
MARKETS
consumer market, see CONSUMER MARKET
securities, see SECURITIES
subprime market, see SUBPRIME MARKET
MATERIAL FACTS
nondisclosure
class actions, 12.5.4.2.8
FTC standard, 4.2.15.2
generally, 4.2.15.1
knowledge, requirement for liability, 4.2.5
pure omissions, unfairness, 4.2.15.2, 4.3.7
state UDAP precedent, 4.2.15.3
MATERIALITY
FTC presumption, 4.2.12.2
misrepresentations, 4.2.12
omissions, 4.2.15.3.1
subjective test, 4.2.15.3.1
UDAP actions, necessity, 4.2.12.4, 13.2.3
MCCARRAN-FERGUSON ACT
FAA preemption, 11.5.8.2.4
UDAP preemption, 2.5.7
MEAT PLANS
see FREEZER MEAT PLANS
MEAT PRODUCTS
packaging and labeling, 2.5.9.2
MEDIA ADVERTISING
see ADVERTISEMENTS
MEDIA REPORTING
defamation claims, First Amendment protections, 11.9.2.5
MEDICAL CURES
deceptive practices, 9.3.2
MEDICAL DEBT
Affordable Care Act, 2.5.8.1
ERISA, application, 2.5.10.1, 9.3.6
UDAP violations, 9.3.6
MEDICAL DEVICES
see also HEARING AID SALES; MEDICAL SUPPLIES
UDAP application, 2.1.8.6, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.3.10.4, 2.5.8.4, 9.3.1
MEDICAL INSURANCE
see HEALTH INSURERS
MEDICAL FACILITIES
see HEALTH CARE FACILITIES
MEDICAL LABORATORIES
UDAP liability, 2.3.10.4
MEDICAL MALPRACTICE
bonding agencies, UDAP claims, 10.6.1
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.4, 2.3.10
state procedural requirements, effect, 2.3.10.5
MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS
see also CHIROPRACTORS; DENTISTS; DOCTORS; OPTOMETRISTS
malpractice, see MEDICAL MALPRACTICE
UDAP application, 2.1.4, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.3.10
entrepreneurial vs. professional activities, 2.3.10.1
general scope provisions, 2.3.10.1
statutory exemptions, 2.3.10.2
MEDICAL SUPPLIES
see also MEDICAL DEVICES; MEDICATIONS
UDAP application, 2.3.10.4
MEDICARE
see also HEALTH INSURERS; MANAGED CARE
UDAP preemption, 2.5.8.2
MEDICATIONS
see also MEDICAL SUPPLIES; PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
deceptive marketing, 9.3.2
online sale, unconscionability, 4.4.8
UDAP application, 2.3.10.4, 2.5.8.5
MEMBERSHIP CLUBS
see CAMPGROUND RESORT MEMBERSHIPS; HEALTH CLUB MEMBERSHIPS; TIMESHARES
MEMBERSHIP LISTS
confidentiality, CID, 13.3.7
MENTAL ANGUISH
see also PAIN AND SUFFERING
UDAP damages, 11.4.2.8.1, 12.3.3.9
framing nature of suit, 11.6.3
treble damages, 12.4.2.7.4
MERCHANDISE
see also GOODS OR SERVICES
campground memberships, status, 2.2.7
debt collection, 2.2.2.1.2
defective, class actions, 12.5.4.2.4
definition, 2.1.6
franchise sales, status, 2.2.8.2
insurance, status, 2.3.1.1
mail order, FTC rule, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
prescription drugs, status, 2.3.10
real property, inclusion in definition, 2.2.5.1.1
UDAP statutes, application, 2.1.6
unsolicited, see UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
MERCHANTS
see also NON-CONSUMERS; RETAILERS; SELLERS
bankruptcy, effect on UDAP claims, 10.7
bonded, effect on UDAP recovery, 10.6.1
claims and defenses against, raising against lenders, 10.5
credit card transactions, issuer liability
TILA preconditions, 10.5.4
UDAP violations, 10.4.3
insurance policies, UDAP coverage, 10.6.2
interpretation of term, 2.3.4, 2.3.8
non-merchants, see NON-MERCHANTS
nonpayment of judgment, UDAP violation, 5.6.9
nonprofit organizations, status, 2.3.5
UDAP standing, 2.4.5
MERGER DOCTRINE
UDAP applicability, 4.2.1.5.8
MERRILL DOCTRINE
government agencies’ liability for acts of agents, 10.2.3.5
MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION ACT
UDAP claims, pendent actions, 8.2.9
MIGRANT FARMWORKER CAMPS
injunctive relief, 12.6.3.2.2
UDAP application, 2.2.6.4, 8.2.9
MILITARY PERSONNEL
see also SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
credit agreements, arbitration clause restrictions, 11.5.8.2.3
MILLER ACT
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.5.13
MISAPPROPRIATION
UDAP claims, 2.2.4.11
MISLEADING ADVERTISING
see also ADVERTISEMENTS; MISREPRESENTATIONS
approval or affiliation, 5.4.8.1
assisted living facilities, 9.3.4
audio imagery, 4.2.14
automobile sales, 7.5.2
carpet prices, 8.8.7
clarifications, effect, 4.2.16
class actions, 12.5.4.2.2
conduct and pictures, 4.2.14
constitutional issues, 11.9.2
cosmetics, 2.5.8.5
credit advertising, 6.6.2
credit insurance, 9.5.9.3
deceptive pictures, 4.2.14
disclaimers, effect, 4.2.20.4
endorsements, 5.4.8.3
food labeling, 2.5.9, 8.8.1
freezer meat plans, 8.8.2
furniture prices, 8.8.7
guarantees, 5.6.7.3.1
HMOs, 9.3.7
home improvement sales, 8.4.2
homeopathic drugs, 2.5.8.5
implied claims, 4.2.14
infomercials, 5.4.8.1
insurance coverage, 10.6.2.1
liability of advertising agencies, 10.4.1
literally true statements, 4.2.13
medical cures, 9.3.2
medications, 2.5.8.5, 9.3.2
money-back guarantee, effect, 4.2.19
mortgage loans, 6.7.1
nutritional supplements, 2.5.8.5, 9.3.2
organic food, 2.5.9.3, 8.8.1.3
overall net impression, 4.2.13
packaging, 4.2.14
partial truths, 4.2.13
product or seller, 5.4
rebate offers, 5.3.3.3
tobacco, 8.8.3, 9.3.8
UDAP coverage, 2.2.4.1
unsubstantiated claims, 5.2
visual imagery, 4.2.14
weight loss products, 9.3.2
MISLEADING PRACTICES
see also DECEPTIVE PRACTICES; MISLEADING ADVERTISING; MISREPRESENTATIONS
meaning of term, 4.2.3.2
MISREPRESENTATIONS
see also DECEIT ACTIONS; DECEPTIVE PRACTICES; FRAUD
affiliations, 5.4.8.1
accountants, 9.4.8
agents, vicarious liability, 10.2
assisted living facilities, 9.3.4
automobile leases, 7.6
automobile mileage, 7.4.5
automobile repairs, 7.10.4
automobile sales
new cars, 7.5
used cars, 7.4
campground resort memberships, 9.1.5.1
cancellation rights, 5.7.1, 5.6.6
characteristics, uses or benefits, 5.4.1
clarification, effect, 4.2.16
class actions, 12.5.4.2
common law actions, 4.2.12.1
competitors, 5.4.11
contests, 9.6.4
contract defense, as, 1.7
contract defenses, applicability, 4.2.20
contractors, 5.7.6
contractual, 5.6.4
credit advertising, 6.6.2
credit applications, 6.3.4
credit card finders, 6.8.3.1
credit consultants, 6.2
credit terms, 6.6.1
dance studios, 9.1.4
debt collectors
false threats, 6.10.4
identity or nature of collector, 6.10.3
legal rights or consequences, 6.10.5
debt elimination schemes, 6.14.5
deposit account interest rates, 6.9.1.2
diet plans, 9.3.2
door-to-door sales, 5.5.1
due diligence, application, 4.2.21.1
employment agencies, 9.6.2
employment opportunities, 9.6.2
endorsements, 5.4.8.3
food labeling, 2.5.9, 8.8.1
for-profit schools, 9.1.7.3
freezer meat plans, 8.8.2
future service contracts, 9.1.1
geographic origin, 5.4.7
guarantees, 5.6.7.3
health benefit claims, 9.3.2
health clubs, 9.1.3
hearing aid sales, 9.3.1
home builders, 8.3.6.1
home improvement sales, 8.4.2, 8.4.5
home sales, 8.3.1
household products, 5.7
insurance claims, 2.3.1, 9.5.4.2
insurance coverage, 9.5.4.1
land fraud schemes, 8.3.8
landlords, 8.2.5.3
layaway plans, 5.7.1
legal rights, 5.6.8
licensing, 5.4.8.2
literally true statements, 4.2.13, 4.2.15.3
living trusts, 9.4.5
loan brokers, 6.2.2
loan modification attempts, 6.7.5.3.1
manufactured home sales, 8.1.1.1
manufacturers, 2.3.8, 5.4.7, 5.4.9
manufacturing methods, 5.4.6
materiality, necessity, 4.2.12.2
medical cures, 9.3.2
money-back guarantee, effect, 4.2.19
mortgage advertising, 6.7.1
negligent, penalties, 4.2.4
non-advertised, 4.2.18
nursing facilities, 9.3.3
nutritional supplements, 9.3.2
oral representations, see ORAL REPRESENTATIONS
organic food, 2.5.9.3, 8.8.1.3
overall net impression, 4.2.13
packaging, 5.4.5
partial truths, 4.2.13
precut housing, 8.3.7
prize promotions, 9.6.4
products, 5.4
quality, 5.4.3
quantity and size, 5.4.5
real estate brokers, 8.3.3
real estate sales, 8.3
refund policies, 5.6.6
registration and licensing, 5.4.8.2
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3
rent-to-own transactions, 8.7.3
repair practices, 5.7.6
rustproofing, 7.2.7.2
status of seller or manufacturer, 5.4.9
subsequent clarification, effect, 4.2.16
telemarketing, 10.4.4
termite-free dwelling, 4.2.12.3.1, 4.2.21.1
tort defenses, applicability, 4.2.21
trade name, 5.4.9
uniqueness, 5.4.2
used goods, 5.7.4
used car sales, 7.4
warranties, 5.6.7.3
weight loss products, 9.3.2
MISSING PERSONS
finders, UDAP violations, 9.4.7
MISSTATEMENTS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
MISTAKES
see also GOOD FAITH
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
identity, effect, 2.2.4.10
voluntary payment doctrine and, 4.2.20.5
MITIGATION OF DAMAGES
actual damages, 12.3.6.3
effect on reasonable avoidance of injury, 4.3.2.3.10
MOBILE HOMES
see MANUFACTURED HOME SALES; RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
MONEY
goods, exclusion from definition, 2.1.5
merchandise, inclusion in definition, 2.1.6
transfers, see MONEY TRANSFERS
MONEY TRANSFERS
electronic, see ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFERS
remittances, 6.9.4
MONTREAL CONVENTION
UDAP preemption, 2.5.5.3
MONRONEY STICKER PRICES
see also PRICING GIMMICKS
automobile sales, 7.5.3
MORTGAGE ASSISTANCE
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS; MORTGAGE BROKERS
MORTGAGE BROKERS
see also LOAN BROKERS
appraisal fraud, 8.3.5.1
licensing requirements, 6.2.1
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4
steering, restrictions, 6.7.2.1
UDAP violations, 4.3.10, 6.2
yield spread premiums, restrictions, 6.2.4, 6.7.2.1
MORTGAGE INSURANCE
HPA preemption of state law, 2.5.3.9, 9.5.12
unfair or deceptive practices, 9.5.12
MORTGAGE LENDERS
see also CREDITORS; MORTGAGE LOANS
AMTPA, application, 2.5.3.4
MORTGAGE LOANS
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
ability-to-pay requirements, 6.3.3, 6.7.2.1
advertising rules, 6.7.1
AMTPA, application, 2.5.3.4
arbitration restrictions, 11.5.8.2.1
ARMs, see ADJUSTABLE RATE MORTGAGES (ARMs)
banking regulations, 6.7.2.2
brokers, see MORTGAGE BROKERS
crediting of payments, 6.7.3
deceptive practices, 6.7
derivative liability, 10.5.6.3
escrow, see ESCROW
FTC Holder Rule, application, 10.5.2.2
higher-priced, see HIGHER-PRICED MORTGAGES
HOEPA loans, see HIGH-COST MORTGAGES
federal banking agency guidance, 6.7.2.2
foreclosure rescue scams, see FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
foreclosures, see FORECLOSURES
modification, 6.7.5
breach of agreement to, 6.7.5.3.2
HAMP program, 6.7.5.2
injury from, 6.7.5.4
misrepresentations, 6.7.5.3.1
per se UDAP violations, 6.7.5.2
unfair practices, 6.7.5.3.4
unfair terms, 6.7.5.3.3
mortgage insurance, 2.5.3.9, 9.5.12
payoff of mortgage, 6.7.4
predatory loans, 6.7.2.2, 6.7.2.3
reverse mortgages, see REVERSE MORTGAGES
risky features, 6.7.2.3
servicers, see MORTGAGE SERVICERS
TILA rules, 6.7.2.1
UDAP application, 2.2.1, 2.5.3.4
UDAP violations, 6.7
escrow practices, 6.7.3
foreclosure practices, 6.7.6
foreclosure rescue scams, 6.7.7
loan terms, 6.7.2
modification attempts, 6.7.5
negotiation and closing, 6.7.2
payoff of mortgage, 6.7.4
servicing practices, 6.7.3
yield-spread premiums, 6.2.4
unfair practices, 6.7
vulnerable groups, 4.3.8
MORTGAGE RELIEF ASSISTANCE
see FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
MORTGAGE SERVICERS
state law violations as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6
UDAP application, 2.2.3.3
UDAP violations, 6.7.3
loan modification attempts, 6.7.5
MOTOR VEHICLE INFORMATION AND COST SAVINGS ACT (MVICSA)
odometer mileage misrepresentations, remedies, 7.4.5
MOTOR VEHICLE LAWS
lemon laws, see LEMON VEHICLES
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
MOTOR VEHICLES
see AUTOMOBILES
MOVING COMPANIES
see HOUSEHOLD MOVERS
MULTI-LEVEL MARKETING PROGRAMS
see PYRAMID SALES
MULTIPLE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS
UDAP application, 2.3.6
NAMES
fictitious names
debt collectors, 6.10.3
registration, 5.4.8.2
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT VICTIMS
trade names, see TRADE NAMES
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ATTORNEYS GENERAL (NAAG)
Air Travel Industry Enforcement Guidelines, 9.2.1
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CONSUMER ADVOCATES
joining, 1.5
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE COMMISSIONERS (NAIC)
model UNIP statute, 9.5.2.1
NATIONAL AUTOMOBILE DEALERS ASSOCIATION (NADA)
code of ethics, 7.1.12
NATIONAL BANK ACT
see also BANKS
state law preemption, 2.5.3.2
NATIONAL CONSUMER LAW CENTER (NCLC) RESOURCES
annual Consumer Rights Conference, 1.5
other resources
case law, 1.3.4, 3.4.3
Federal Deception Law treatise, 1.4.1
other treatises, 1.4.2
UDAP regulations, 3.4.4.1
UDAP report, 1.4.2
UDAP treatise, 1.3
case law, 1.3.4, 3.4.3.1, 3.4.3.2
online version, 1.3.1, 1.3.3
organization, 1.3.2, 3.1.1, 3.3.3, 4.1, 10.1.2
pleadings, 1.3.3
primary sources, 1.3.3
print version, 1.3.1
scope, 1.3.2
using to prove violations, 3.1.1
NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION (NCUA)
non-traditional mortgage products, guidance, 6.7.2.2
state law preemption, 2.5.3.6
NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM
UDAP statutes, preemption, 2.5.13
NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
preemption of state law, 2.5.4
requirements, 8.1.1.2
NATIONAL TRAFFIC AND MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY ACT
common law tort claims, preemption, 2.5.4
state law preemption, 2.5.4
NATIVE AMERICANS
trading posts, 6.13.5
NATURAL GAS
see also ENERGY SAVINGS CLAIMS
deregulation abuses, 8.5.2.2
illegal shut-offs, 8.5.2.3
interrupted service, 8.5.2.3
UDAP applicability, 8.5.2.1
NEGATIVE OPTION SALES
coercive sales technique, 5.5.5
online transactions, 4.2.15.3.9
NEGLIGENCE
attorneys, see LEGAL MALPRACTICE
contributory negligence as defense, 4.2.11.2, 4.2.21.1
health professionals, see MEDICAL MALPRACTICE
real estate agents and brokers, 8.3.3
repair work, 5.7.6
UDAP violations, penalties, 4.2.4.1, 4.2.5.2
NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
holders in due course, see HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE
implied FTC Holder Notice, 10.5.3.2
leases, status, 10.5.5
requirements for status, 10.5.6.3.10
NEW CAR SALES
see AUTOMOBILE SALES
900 NUMBERS
see PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
NON-ATTORNEY LEGAL SERVICE PROVIDERS
bankruptcy petition preparers, 9.4.3
immigration consultants or assistants, 9.4.2
living trusts, 9.4.5
unauthorized practice of law, 9.4.4
NON-CONSUMERS
see also MERCHANTS; RETAILERS; SELLERS
UDAP statutes, application, 2.4.5
NONDISCLOSURE
see also OMISSIONS
as misrepresentation, 4.2.15
as unfair, 4.3.7
automatic renewal policies, 5.5.5
bank account interest rates, 6.9.1.2
case law, 4.2.15.3.8
credit terms, 6.6.3
deception, 4.2.15
FTC standard, 4.2.15.2
overview, 4.2.15.1
state precedent, 4.2.15.3
home sales, 8.3.1
insurance practices
claims settlement, 9.5.3.5
sale of insurance, 9.5.5
intent, 4.2.15.3.5
online transactions, 4.2.15.3.9
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3.3, 4.2.15.3.1, 4.2.15.3.5
unfairness, 4.3.7
used car damage, 7.4.6
used car defects, 7.4.6–7.4.9
NON-MERCHANTS
see also CONSUMERS
UDAP application, 2.2.5.1.3, 2.3.4
used cars, 7.3.12
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
FTC Act, application, 2.3.5.1
misrepresentation as, 5.4.9
registration requirements, 9.6.5.1
telemarketing by, see CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS
UDAP application, 2.2.4.12, 2.3.5.1
memberships, 2.1.8.6
schools, 2.3.5.2
NON-PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
household goods, restrictions, 5.6.3.2, 6.11.1, 6.11.3, 6.13.1
NON-SALE TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
UDAP application, 2.2.4
NOTES
see NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS; PROMISSORY NOTES
NOTICE
see also NOTICE LETTERS
class actions, multi-state, 12.5.5
consumer defenses, effect, 10.5.6.3.9
delivery, see SERVICE
enjoined conduct, 13.5.1.5
eviction notices, 8.2.8.1
FTC Holder Rule, 10.5.2.1, 10.5.3.2
injunctions, 13.5.1.5
multiple damages, requests, 12.4.2.3
service, see SERVICE
state UDAP actions, requirement, 13.4.1
UDAP complaints, statutory requirements, 11.4.4
UDAP investigations, 13.4.1
NOTICE LETTERS
see also NOTICE
amended claims, 11.4.4.3
class actions, 11.4.4.1, 11.4.4.8, 12.5.5
contents, 11.4.4.7
counterclaims, 11.4.4.3
delivery, 11.4.4.5, 11.4.4.6
pleading and proof, 11.4.4.9
failure to comply with requirements, effect, 11.4.4.10
form, 11.4.4.4
precondition to UDAP action, 11.4.4.1
purpose, 11.4.4.4, 11.4.4.7
response by seller, 11.4.4.11
statutory exceptions, 11.4.4.2
NURSING FACILITIES
see also ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES (ALFs)
UDAP application, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.10.4
UDAP violations, 9.3.3
NURSING HOME REFORM LAW (NHRL)
standards, 9.3.3
NUTRITIONAL LABELING AND EDUCATION ACT (FEDERAL)
see also FOOD LABELING
UDAP preemption, 2.5.9.1.1, 2.5.9.1.2
violations as UDAP violation, 2.5.9.1.3, 3.2.7.3.6
NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
UDAP application, 2.5.8.5, 9.3.2
OBSCURITY
conditions and restrictions, 4.2.13, 4.2.15.2, 4.2.15.3.9, 4.2.20.4
electronic disclosures, 4.2.15.3.10
hidden fees, 5.3.4
payment deadlines, 5.3.4
ODOMETER LAWS (STATE)
see also STATE LAW
MVICSA preemption, 7.4.5
mileage misrepresentations, remedies, 7.4.5
UDAP preemption, 2.3.3.5.4
ODOMETER READINGS
see also USED CAR PRACTICES
MVICSA disclosure statement, 7.4.5
UDAP violations, 7.4.5
wholesaler liability, 2.3.8
OFF-PREMISES SALES
see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
OFFERS
see CONDITIONAL OFFERS; FREE OFFERS AND TRANSACTIONS
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
see also FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
credit card advisory letter, 6.8.2.2.2
improvident lending rules, 6.3.3
loan broker originated loans, advisory letter, 6.2.1
non-traditional mortgage products, guidance, 6.7.2.2
OTS authority, transfer to, 2.5.3.1, 2.5.3.3.1
predatory lending advisory letter, 6.7.2.2
preemption rules, 2.5.3.2.2, 2.5.3.2.3
unfair banking practices, regulation, 2.2.1.5.1, 2.5.3.2.1
OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION (OTS)
see also FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES; SAVINGS AND LOAN INSTITUTIONS
former preemption regulations, 2.5.3.1, 2.5.3.3
non-traditional mortgage products, guidance, 6.7.2.2
transfer of authority to OCC, 2.5.3.1, 2.5.3.3.1
OFFICERS
see CORPORATE OFFICERS
OFFICIAL SEALS
unauthorized display, 5.4.10
OIL
see UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
OIL AND GAS LEASES
UDAP application, 2.2.8.3
OLDER CONSUMERS
see also CONSUMERS; VULNERABILITY
assisted living facilities, see ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES (ALFs)
minimum statutory damages, 12.4.1.1
nursing homes, see NURSING FACILITIES
special protections and penalties, 13.5.3.7
unfair loans, 4.3.8
OMISSIONS
see also DISCLOSURE
deceptive, 4.2.15
materiality, 4.2.15.3.1
pure omissions, unfairness, 4.2.15.2, 4.3.7
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3.3, 4.2.15.3.5
ONLINE RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
ONLINE SALES AND TRANSACTIONS
see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
OPPORTUNITY SCHEMES
see also BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES; EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES; FRANCHISES
UDAP violations, 9.6
OPPRESSION
see DURESS
OPTOMETRISTS
see also MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.4
ORAL REPRESENTATIONS
see also MISREPRESENTATION
contracts, effect, 4.2.20, 5.6.4.2
credit terms, 6.6.3
disclaimers, effect, 4.2.20.4
integration clauses, unfairness, 4.3.4.2
legal rights or requirements, 5.6.8
not advertised, 4.2.18
UDAP statutes, application,4.2.19
ORGANIC FOODS
sale and labeling, 2.5.9.3, 8.8.1.3
ORGANIZATIONS
nonprofit, see NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
suits on behalf of members, 11.4.2.1.3
OUT-OF-POCKET DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES, ACTUAL; DIRECT DAMAGES
calculation, 12.3.2.4
described, 12.3.2.1
framing nature of suit, 11.6.3
OUT-OF-STATE SELLERS
see also RESIDENCY
jurisdiction, 11.5.2
unregistered, 5.4.8.2
OVERALL NET IMPRESSION
deceptive, 4.2.13, 4.2.16.1
OVERCHARGES
see also BILLING ERRORS; PRICE ERRORS
class actions, 12.5.4.2.5
injury determination, 11.4.2.8.6
misrepresentations, 6.6.1
repairs, 5.7.6
OVERDRAFT LOANS
unfair banking practices, 6.9.1.3
PACKAGING
see also LABELS
deceptive, 4.2.14, 5.4.5
federal preemption of state law, 2.5.9, 2.5.13
food, see FOOD LABELING
higher pricing, 5.3.4
PACKING
auto sales, back-end charges, 7.2.2
insurance, see INSURANCE PACKING
PADDING
see PRICE PADDING
PAIN AND SUFFERING
see also CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
mental anguish, see MENTAL ANGUISH
UDAP damages, 12.3.3.9
PARALEGALS
attorney fees, 12.8.7.2, 12.8.11.6
PARENT COMPANIES
liability
corporate disregard theory, 10.3.4
piercing corporate veil, 10.3.3
out-of-state, jurisdiction, 11.5.2.5
PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
see also EVIDENCE
UDAP claims, application, 3.3.4, 4.2.20.2
PARTIAL TRUTHS
deception, 4.2.13, 4.2.15.3.1
PARTIES
see also DEFENDANTS; THIRD PARTIES
burden of proof, see BURDEN OF PROOF
estate of defendant as, 10.8.3
injunctive actions, 13.5.1.7
multiple plaintiffs, 12.4.1.2
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4.1
seller as plaintiff, 2.2.4.15
UDAP actions
choosing, 10.1.1, 11.6.2
privity considerations, 2.2.4.3, 2.2.4.14, 2.3.8, 2.4.1, 4.2.17
PARTNERSHIPS
multiple damages, liability, 12.4.2.9
self-incrimination, 13.3.4.2
UDAP claims, liability, 10.3.5
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.9
PASSING OFF
deceptive practice, 5.4.10
PAWNBROKERS
per se violations, 3.2.7.4.3
unfair and deceptive practices, 6.13.5
disparate knowledge, 4.3.7
PAYDAY LENDERS
check cashing, 6.9.2
unauthorized funds transfers, 6.9.3
PAYMENT SYSTEMS
aiding and abetting fraud, 10.4.3
cash reload mechanisms, 10.4.3.5
cash-to-cash money transfers, 10.4.3.5
checks, see CHECKS
credit cards, see CREDIT CARDS
debit cards, see DEBIT CARDS
electronic funds transfers, see ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFERS
telechecks, see REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
see also LONG DISTANCE SERVICES
collection by local telephone company, 10.4.5
contests, 9.6.4
cramming, 8.5.3.4
disputed charges, 10.4.5
fraud, 10.4.5
service bureaus, 10.4.5
PECUNIARY LOSS
see also DAMAGES, ACTUAL
proof, 11.4.2.6
PENALTIES
see CIVIL PENALTIES; DAMAGES
PENALTY CLAUSES
see also CONTRACT LAW; DEFAULT PROVISIONS; LIQUIDATED DAMAGES CLAUSES
future service contracts, cancellation provisions, 9.1.2
UDAP violations, 5.6.6
PENDENT JURISDICTION
see also JURISDICTION
UDAP claims, 11.5.5
PER SE VIOLATIONS
see also UDAP VIOLATIONS
credit statutes, 6.4.4
deception, 4.2.1
electronic disclosures, 4.2.15.3.10
FDCPA violations, 3.2.6
fraud, 3.2.4
FTC Rule violations, 3.2.6
credit practices, 6.11.2
franchises and business opportunities, 9.6.1
specific rules listed, 3.2.7.3.6
generally, 3.2, 4.2.1
HAMP violations, 6.7.5.2
landlord-tenant code violations, 8.2
laundry list, 3.2.2.1
pleading, 3.2.1, 3.2.7.4.3
statutory violations, 3.2.6, 3.2.7
TILA violations, 6.4.1
UCC violations, 6.13.4
UDAP regulation violations, 3.2.2.2, 3.4.4.3
UDTPA violations, 3.2.5, 12.2.8.2
UNIP violations, 2.3.1.3
unlicensed activities, 5.4.8.2, 8.2
warranty breach, 5.6.7.1.2, 5.6.7.1.4
PERFORMANCE PRACTICES
deceptive practices, 5.7
unconscionability, 4.4.6
PERSONAL ENDORSEMENTS
see also AFFILIATIONS
misrepresentations, 5.4.8.3, 10.4.6
PERSONAL, FAMILY, OR HOUSEHOLD USE
see CONSUMER GOODS
PERSONAL GUARANTEES
see also ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
corporate loans, UDAP application, 2.2.1, 2.4.3
nursing homes, 9.3.3
PERSONAL INFORMATION
privacy concerns, 5.9
PERSONAL INJURY SUITS
see also PRODUCTS LIABILITY ACTIONS
damages calculations, 12.3.3.8
UDAP claims, limitations, 11.2.1.2
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.10
PERSONAL PROPERTY
see also CONSUMER GOODS; HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PRODUCTS; GOODS OR SERVICES
manufactured homes, status, 2.2.5.1.4
tenants, unauthorized seizure, 8.2.8.4
PERSONS
see also CONSUMERS
definition, 2.4.5.2.1
government entities, status, 2.4.5.3
UDAP statutes, application, 2.4.5.2.1
PEST CONTROL SERVICES
liability to third parties, 4.2.17
UDAP violations, 8.6.3
lack of care by consumer, effect, 4.2.21.1
PETROLEUM MARKETING AND PRACTICES ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.7, 2.5.13
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
see UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
PHOTO PROCESSING PACKAGES
sale of worthless packages, 8.8.10
PHYSICIANS
see DOCTORS
PICTURES
deceptive, 4.2.14
PLAIN ENGLISH STATUTES
overview, 5.6.2
pleading in addition to UDAP violations, 11.6.6
PLAINTIFF
see PARTIES
PLEADINGS
see also COUNTERCLAIMS; PRACTICE TIPS
actual deception, 4.2.9
amendments, limitations, 11.2.4
ascertainable loss, 11.4.2.6
attorney fee request, 12.8.12.1
breach of warranty, UDAP and UCC counts, 5.6.7.1.1
civil conspiracy, 10.4.2.3.2
complying with technical requirements, 11.6.1
consequential damages, 12.3.3.2
dealer as agent of manufacturer, 10.2.3.3
defendant selection, 11.6.2
elements to plead, 11.6.4, 11.6.5
form pleadings, 11.6.5
framing nature of suit, 11.6.3
general, 11.6
minimal damages, 11.4.2.7
multiple damages, requests, 12.4.2.3
NCLC resources, 1.3.3
non-UDAP counts, 11.6.6
notice letter requirements, effect, 11.4.4.3, 11.4.4.4, 11.4.4.9
per se violations, 3.2.1, 4.2.1
plaintiff selection, 11.6.2
practice tips, 11.6
preconditions to private actions, 11.4.1
preemption, avoiding, 2.5.1
preliminary injunctions, 13.5.1.3
Rule 9(b) vs. Rule 9(a), 11.6.5.2
specificity, 11.6.5
statutory violations, 3.2.7.4.3
UDAP application, alleging, 2.1.2, 11.6.1
PMI
see MORTGAGE INSURANCE
POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
see also POLITICAL SPEECH
UDAP application, 2.1.8.6, 2.2.4.12, 2.2.4.13, 2.3.5.1
POLITICAL SPEECH
constitutional protection, 11.9.2.3, 11.9.2.4
distinguished from commercial speech, 11.9.2.3
POST-SALE ACTIVITIES
UDAP application
debt collection, 2.2.2
generally, 2.2.3.1
mortgage servicing, 2.2.3.3
repossession, 2.2.3.2
POSTAL SERVICE (U.S.)
federal preemption of state law, 2.5.13
POULTRY PRODUCTS
packaging and labeling, 2.5.9.2
PRACTICE OF LAW
see also ATTORNEYS; NON-ATTORNEY LEGAL SERVICE PROVIDERS
state definitions, 9.4.4
unauthorized practice, see UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE OF LAW
PRACTICE TIPS
admissible evidence, prior bad acts, 11.8.1.2
attorney fee hearings, 12.8.13
automobile sales cases, 7.1
campground resort memberships, 9.1.5.3
credit applications, falsified by broker or seller, 6.3.4.4
discovery and fact finding, 11.7
see also DISCOVERY
admissions, 11.7.4
automobile sales cases, 7.1
depositions, 11.7.3
document requests, 11.7.4
NCLC resources, 1.3.3
evidence, obtaining, 11.7.5, 11.7.6
for-profit school clients, 9.1.7.6
form pleadings, use, 11.6.5.4
framing the case, 11.6
jury trials, 11.8.2
living trust scams, 9.4.5
merchant bankruptcy, 10.7
NCLC resources, using, 1.3, 3.1.1
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
preparing for UDAP clients, 1.5
price gouging in emergency situations, 4.3.11.3
primary sources, 1.3.3
research aids, see RESEARCH AIDS
settlement, 11.6.8
attorney fees, 12.8.4.5.3
releases, 13.5.7
tape-recording of conversations, 7.1.10
UDAP alternatives, 1.7
UDAP approach, determination, 1.6
UDAP claims
evaluating, 11.6.3
pursuit, determination, 1.8
UDAP statute-by-statute analysis, Appx. A
UDAP violations, proof, 3.1.1, 3.3
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
PREAUTHORIZED DRAFTS
see REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
PRECEDENT
see also CASE LAW; RESEARCH AIDS
automobile rustproofing, 7.2.7.2
CFPB, 3.4.6
corporate officer liability, 10.3.2.3
debt collection abuses, 6.10.2
detailed analysis, 5
for-profit school abuses, 9.1.7.3
FTC case law, 3.4.5
FTC consent agreements, 3.4.5.3
FTC staff letters, 3.4.5.6
FTC trade regulation rules and guides, 3.4.5.6
generally applicable precedent, 4.1
out-of-state, using, 2.1.1
per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3
practice-specific, using, 3.3.3
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4.2
reasonable consumer standard, 4.2.11.2
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3
research aids, 1.5, 3.4.3, 3.4.5.5
sources, 3.4
UDAP actions, litigation approach, 3.3.3
UDAP regulations as, 3.4.4.3
unconscionability, 4.4.3–4.4.9
unfairness definition, 4.3.3.2
unregulated heating fuel, 8.5.1.3
unsubstantiated claims, 5.2.3
PRECUT HOUSING
deceptive practices, 8.3.7
PREDATORY LENDING
see also SUBPRIME MARKET
credit cards, 6.8.2.2
loan broker originated loans, 6.2.1
home mortgage loans, 6.7.2.2, 6.7.2.3
unfair loans, 4.3.2.3.12, 4.3.8
PREEMPTION
see also FEDERAL PREEMPTION
administrative remedy exhaustion, 2.3.3.6
air travel guidelines, 9.2.1
bankruptcy proceedings, 11.5.7
credit regulation, 2.2.1.5
debt collection practices, 2.2.2.1.5
federal preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
filed rate doctrine, see FILED RATE DOCTRINE
insurance regulation, 2.3.1.2, 2.3.1.3, 9.5.2.3.2
landlord-tenant relations, 2.2.6.2
FTC decisions and guides, 2.5.2
FTC Holder Rule, 10.5.2.5
medical services claims, 2.3.10.5
practices permitted by law, 2.3.3.3
primary jurisdiction doctrine, 2.3.3.6.2
regulated industries, 2.3.3
lawyers, 2.3.9.3
UDAP statutes by state law, 2.3.3.5
PREJUDGMENT INTEREST
attorney fee awards, 12.8.11.3.1
multiple damages, 12.4.2.7.6
UDAP claims, 12.3.4
PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS
see also INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
asset freeze, 12.6.3.2.3
deceptive practices, 13.5.1.3
advantages to consumers, 12.6.1
PREPAID CARDS
general-purpose cards, see CASH RELOAD CARDS
telephone cards, UDAP violations, 8.5.3.3
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
see also MEDICATIONS
manufacturers, see DRUG MANUFACTURERS
UDAP statutes, application, 2.3.10.4
FDA-approved drugs, 2.5.8.5
Medicare, 2.5.8.2
employee health insurance, 2.5.8.3
PRESERVATION OF CONSUMER CLAIMS AND DEFENSES RULE (FTC)
see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
PRESUMPTIONS
materiality, 4.2.12.2
reliance, 4.2.12.3.7
PRICE ERRORS
see also OVERCHARGES
deceptive billing practices, 5.7.7
PRICE FIXING
see ANTI-TRUST
PRICE GOUGING
see also PURCHASE PRICE
class actions, 12.5.4.2.4
emergency situations, 4.3.11
home improvement sales, 8.4.5
unconscionability, 4.4.5
unregulated heating fuel, 8.5.1.5
used car sales, 7.4.13
vulnerable consumers, 4.3.8
PRICE PADDING
hidden fees, 5.3.4
PRICING GIMMICKS
see also CONTESTS; PURCHASE PRICE
advertised price, refusal to sell, 5.3.2, 5.3.7
bait and switch, 5.3.1
buy-here, pay-here dealerships, 7.4.14
carpet and furniture prices, 8.8.7
conditions or limitations, nondisclosure, 5.3.9
deceptive pricing, 5.3.3–5.3.5
below cost, 5.3.5
hidden fees, 5.3.4
reference prices, 5.3.3.2
free offers, see FREE OFFERS AND TRANSACTIONS
gross overcharges for repairs, 5.7.6
low balling, 5.3.7
new car sales, 7.5.2
obscure charges, 5.3.4
phony sales, 5.3.3.1
rebate offers, 5.3.3.3
specially selected consumers, 5.3.8
tobacco marketing, 8.8.3, 9.3.8
PRIMARY JURISDICTION DOCTRINE
administrative agencies, 2.3.3.6.2, 13.4.10
insurance regulation, 2.3.1.4, 9.5.2.3.2
PRINCIPALS
see also AGENTS
UDAP liability, 10.2
actions of agent, 10.2.3
actions of independent contractor, 10.2.3.4
multiple damages, 10.2.3.6
punitive damages, 12.4.3.7
PRINTERS
UDAP application, 2.3.7
PRISON INMATES
see INMATES
PRIVACY
see INVASION OF PRIVACY
PRIVATE DISPUTES
consumer transactions, distinction, 11.4.3.8.2
public interest standards, 11.4.3
UDAP statutes, application, 11.4.3
PRIVATE MORTGAGE INSURANCE (PMI)
see MORTGAGE INSURANCE
PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION
see ACTIONS
PRIVILEGE
attorneys general, public disclosure of consent agreements, 13.5.1.10
PRIVITY OF CONTRACT
see also CONTRACT LAW
UDAP actions, application, 2.2.4, 2.4.1, 4.2.20.3, 4.2.17
aiders and abettors, 10.4.2.2.1
debt collectors, 2.2.2.1.4
identity theft victims, 2.2.4.10
insurance recipients, 2.4.1.2
non-purchasers, 2.2.4.14
purchase not from UDAP defendant, 2.2.4.3, 4.2.17
purchase paid for by another, 2.2.4.8
subrogated claims, 2.2.4.9, 2.4.1.2, 2.4.1.5
wholesalers and other indirect parties, 2.3.8
PRIZE PROMOTIONS
see CONTESTS
PROCESS
abuse of process, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
service, see SERVICE
PRODUCTION
see DISCOVERY; SUBPOENAS
PRODUCTS
see GOODS OR SERVICES; MERCHANDISE
PRODUCTS LIABILITY ACTIONS
see also PERSONAL INJURY SUITS
class actions, 12.5.4.2.4
UDAP application, 2.2.10
PROFESSIONALS
see also ACCOUNTANTS; ARCHITECTS; ATTORNEYS; ENGINEERS; MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS; VETERINARIANS
UDAP application, 2.1.4, 2.3.11
PROMISSORY NOTES
see also NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
FTC Holder Notice, 10.5.2.1, 10.5.3.2
PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF; EVIDENCE
PROPANE
see UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
PROPERTY
see PERSONAL PROPERTY; REAL PROPERTY
PROPERTY FLIPPING
see FLIPPING SCHEMES
PROSECUTION
see CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS
PROXIMATE CAUSE
see CAUSATION
PROXIMATE DAMAGES
see CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
PUBLIC BENEFIT
see PUBLIC INTEREST
PUBLIC BODIES
see GOVERNMENT ENTITIES
PUBLIC HOUSING
UDAP coverage, 2.3.3.3.1, 2.3.6
PUBLIC INTEREST
multiple damages, 12.4.2.3
pleading, 11.6.1
precondition to UDAP action, 2.3.4, 11.4.3
Colorado standard, 11.4.3.2
Georgia standard, 11.4.3.3
Minnesota standard, 11.4.3.4
most states reject precondition, 11.4.3.1
New York standard, 11.4.3.6
Nebraska standard, 11.4.3.5
South Carolina standard, 11.4.3.7
state enforcement actions, 13.4.3
Washington state standard, 11.4.3.8
private injunctions, 12.6.3.2
state enforcement actions
attorney fees, 13.5.8
requirement, 13.4.3
statutory violations as per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.4
substantial consumer injury, relationship, 4.3.2.1
unfairness standard, application, 3.2.7.4.1, 4.3.2.5, 4.3.10
PUBLIC INTEREST ATTORNEYS
see LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
PUBLIC OFFICIALS
UDAP application, 2.3.6
PUBLIC POLICY
see PUBLIC INTEREST
PUBLIC SERVICE ATTORNEYS
see LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
see also UTILITIES
filed rate doctrine, see FILED RATE DOCTRINE
primary jurisdiction doctrine, 2.3.3.6.2
UDAP application, 2.3.6
UDAP preemption, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.3.5.3, 2.3.3.6, 8.5.2
PUBLICATIONS
see also MAGAZINE SELLERS; PUBLISHERS
constitutional protections, 11.9.2.4
PUBLISHERS
see also PUBLICATIONS
UDAP application, 2.3.7
PUFFING
generally, 4.2.10
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
PURCHASE AGREEMENTS
see SALES CONTRACTS
PURCHASE PRICE
see also PRICING GIMMICKS
fixing, see ANTI-TRUST
gouging, see PRICE GOUGING
new car sales, 7.5.2
refunds, see REFUNDS
treble price as damages, 12.4.2.7.5
PURCHASE OF LAND
see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
PURCHASES
see SALES
PYRAMID SALES
see also REFERRAL SALES SCHEMES
illegal scheme, FTC definition, 9.6.3
UDAP application, 2.1.8.2, 2.2.8.1
UDAP violations, 9.6.3
QUALITY
misrepresentations, 5.4.2
water quality, see WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT SYSTEMS
QUANTITY
misrepresentations, 5.4.5
QUASI-GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT ENTITIES
RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATION LEGISLATION (RICO)
see RICO ACTIONS
RADON TESTING
UDAP violations, 8.6.5
RAILWAY LABOR ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.13
RAIN CHECKS
unavailable goods, effect, 5.3.2
RATIFICATION DOCTRINE
fraud liability, 10.4.2.4
REAL ESTATE
see REAL PROPERTY; REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
REAL ESTATE AGENTS
see REAL ESTATE BROKERS
REAL ESTATE APPRAISERS
see APPRAISERS
REAL ESTATE BOARDS
UDAP preemption, 2.3.3.5.5
REAL ESTATE BROKERS
see also REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
fraud, 8.3.3
manufactured home sales, 8.1.1.1
UDAP application, 2.2.5.1.1, 2.2.5.2, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.5.5
UDAP violations, 8.3.3
misrepresentations, 8.3.1.1, 8.3.2, 8.3.3
state law violations as per se violations, 3.2.7.3.6
REAL ESTATE FRAUD
see also FLIPPING SCHEMES
brokers, 8.3.3
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.5, 8.3.8
REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (RESPA)
state law preemption, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.5.3.7, 6.4.2
violations, 6.4.2
yield spread premiums, 6.2.4
REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
see also DEVELOPERS; REAL ESTATE BROKERS
appraisers, see APPRAISERS
close-connectedness doctrine, application, 10.4.2.5.1
disclosure requirements, 8.3.1, 8.3.3
FTC Holder Rule, application, 10.5.2.2
goods or services status, 2.2.5.1.2
home inspectors, see HOME INSPECTORS
manufactured home lot, 2.2.5.1.4, 8.1.1.4
merchandise inclusion, 2.1.6
misrepresentations
nature of home, 8.3.1
title, financing, or legal rights, 8.3.2
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4
UDAP application, 2.1.4, 2.2.5.1, 2.3.4, 2.5.3.7, 8.3
related services, 2.2.5.2
REAL PROPERTY
see also CONDOMINIUMS; SUBDIVIDED LAND
foreclosure, see FORECLOSURE
fraudulent schemes, see FLIPPING SCHEMES; REAL ESTATE FRAUD
FTC Holder Rule, application, 10.5.2.2
manufactured homes, status, 2.2.5.1.4
rental, see LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICES
sales, see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
UDAP application, 2.2.5
REALTORS
see DEVELOPERS; REAL ESTATE BROKERS
REBATES
deceptive practices, 5.3.2, 5.3.3.3
manufacturer rebates, 7.5.6
RECEIVERSHIP
UDAP violators, 13.5.6
failed banks, 10.8.2
RECONCILIATION
see ASSURANCES OF VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE
RECORDS
see DOCUMENTS
RECOUPMENT CLAIMS
limitations, 11.2.5
RECOVERY FUNDS
see CONSUMER RECOVERY FUNDS; STUDENT TUITION RECOVERY FUNDS
RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
lemon laundering, 7.4.9.3
rental assistance, UDAP violations, 7.8
trade-in abuses, 7.3.6
RED CROSS
see AMERICAN RED CROSS
REFERRAL SALES SCHEMES
see also PYRAMID SALES
UDAP violations, 5.5.3
REFINANCING PRACTICES
see also DEBT CONSOLIDATION
goods or services, status as, 2.2.1.2
UDAP violations, 6.8
REFUNDS
see also CANCELLATION RIGHTS; REBATES; RESTITUTION; SURPLUSES
delay or non-delivery, 5.7.2
future service contracts, 9.1.1, 9.1.2
layaway plans, 5.7.1
UDAP violations, 5.6.6
REGISTRATION
names, use of unregistered, 5.4.9
unregistered activities, 5.4.8.2
violations as per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
REGULATED INDUSTRIES
see also LICENSED GROUPS; REGULATORY BODIES
filed rate doctrine, see FILED RATE DOCTRINE
UDAP application, 2.2.1.5, 2.3.1.3, 2.3.3
lawyers, 2.3.9.3
water utilities, 8.5.4.2
REGULATIONS
FTC, see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
UDAP, see UDAP REGULATIONS
REGULATORY BODIES
see also ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES; GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
banking agencies
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
FDIC, see FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
FRB, see FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
generally, see FEDERAL BANKING AGENCIES
NCUA, see NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION (NCUA)
OCC, see OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
OTS, see OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION (OTS)
FCC, see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
filed rate doctrine, see FILED RATE DOCTRINE
primary jurisdiction doctrine, 2.3.3.6.2
insurance, 2.3.1.4, 9.5.2.3.2
status, 2.3.3.1
UDAP enforcement agencies, overlap, 13.3.2, 13.3.3, 13.4.4
UDAP preemption, 2.2.1.5, 2.3.1.3, 2.3.3, 2.5.1
requests to take action, 13.2.2
RELIANCE
case law, 4.2.12.3
causation, relationship, 4.2.12.5
class actions, proof, 12.5.4.1
common law deceit actions, necessity, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.12.1
FTC presumption, 4.2.12.2
misrepresentations, necessity, 4.2.12
nondisclosure situations, 4.2.12.3.3
omissions, necessity, 4.2.15.3.5, 4.2.15.4
presumption where material misrepresentation, 4.2.12.3.7
specificity of allegations, 4.2.12.3.8
third-party reliance, 4.2.12.3.6
UDAP actions, necessity, 4.2.12.3, 12.3.5.1
state enforcement actions, 13.2.3
RELIEF
see UDAP REMEDIES
REMITTANCES
money transfer fees, 6.9.4
REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
aiding and abetting fraud, 10.4.3.3
scams, 6.9.3
RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
APR disclosure, 8.7.4
Article 2A, 8.7.7
cooling-off periods, application, 8.7.5
debt collection harassment, remedies, 8.7.6
deceptive practices, 8.7.3
overview, 8.7.1
repossessions, 8.7.6
UDAP statutes, application, 8.7.2
unconscionability, 8.7.7
RENTAL AGREEMENTS
see also LEASING AGREEMENTS
cars, see RENTAL CAR PRACTICES
rent-to-own, see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
tenants, see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
RENTAL CAR PRACTICES
see also AUTOMOBILE LEASES
UDAP violations, 7.7
collision damage waivers, 7.7.2
damage repairs, 7.7.4
GPS abuses, 7.7.5
switching of car models, 7.7.3
undisclosed charges, 7.7.3
RENTAL HOUSING
see LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICES
RENTAL SALES
see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
REPAIR COSTS
see also DAMAGES, ACTUAL; DIRECT DAMAGES
calculation, 12.3.2.3
described, 12.3.2.1
REPAIRS
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
deceptive practices, 5.7.6
defective goods, 5.7.3
free repairs, UDAP application, 2.2.4.6
unconscionable performance practices, 4.4.6
REPOSSESSION PRACTICES
buy-here, pay-here dealerships, 7.4.14.3
churning schemes, 6.13.4
contract provisions
deceptive provisions, 6.13.2
unfair provisions, 6.13.1
rent-to-own firms, 8.7.6
revolving repossession schemes, 6.13.4
UDAP application, 2.2.3.2
unfair or deceptive practices, 6.13
REPRESENTATIONS
see also MISREPRESENTATIONS
overall net impression, 4.2.13
RES JUDICATA
judgment on debt, effect on UDAP claim, 11.6.7
RESCISSION
see CANCELLATION RIGHTS; COOLING-OFF PERIODS
RESEARCH AIDS
see also PRACTICE TIPS; PRECEDENT
consumer law, 1.5
evidence, obtaining, 11.7.6
FTC case law, 3.4.5.5
FTC rules, guides and advisory opinions, 3.4.5.6
FTC website, 3.4.5.5
NCLC treatises, 1.3, 1.4
case law, 3.4.3.1, 3.4.3.2
companion treatise, 1.4.1
organization of this treatise, 1.3.2, 3.1.1, 3.3.3, 4.1, 10.1.2
other treatises, 1.4.2, 6.1
scope of this treatise, 1.3.2
UDAP regulations, 3.4.4.1
NCLC UDAP report, 1.4.2
UDAP precedent, 1.5, 3.4.3
unreported cases, 1.3.4, 3.4.3.1
UDAP regulations, 3.4.4.1
UDAP statutes, 3.4.1, Appx. A
UDAP treatises, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
RESIDENCY
out-of-state sellers, see OUT-OF-STATE SELLERS
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.11.2, 2.4.3
RESIDENTIAL LEASE FORMS
see also LEASE FORMS; RESIDENTIAL LEASES
plain English, 5.6.2
RESIDENTIAL LEASES
see also LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICES; TENANTS
lease forms, see RESIDENTIAL LEASE FORMS
manufactured home communities, 2.2.6, 8.1.2.4
UDAP application, 2.2.6, 8.2.4
RESIDENTIAL SIDING
see HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
RESORT MEMBERSHIPS
see CAMPGROUND RESORT MEMBERSHIPS; TIMESHARES
RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR DOCTRINE
UDAP liability of principals, 10.2.3.1
RESTITUTION
see also OUT-OF-POCKET DAMAGES; REFUNDS
bankruptcy, application, 13.5.4.7.1
California remedy, 12.2.5, 12.3.2.4.3
calculating amount, 13.5.4.5
civil penalties, awarding in addition, 13.5.4.8
class actions
actual deception, necessity, 4.2.9
who may benefit, 13.5.4.2
common law actions, 1.7
corporate officers, 10.3.2.3
damages distinguished, 12.3.2.4.1
deduction of product value, 12.3.2.4.2
described, 12.3.2.4.1
enforcement, 13.5.4.7.2, 13.5.5
equitable remedy, 13.5.4.1
FTC standards, 10.3.2.3
government and state suits, relationship, 13.5.4.9
private UDAP remedies, 12.3.2.4, 13.5.4.9
relation to other remedies, 13.5.4.8
scope of order
non-victimized entities, 13.5.4.3
which consumers, 13.5.4.2
who is liable, 13.5.4.4
state authority, 13.5.4.1, 13.5.4.9
statutory authorization, 12.3.2.1
types of awards, 13.5.4.6
RESTORE ONLINE SHOPPERS’ CONFIDENCE ACT
disclosure requirements, 4.2.15.3.9
RETAIL ENERGY MARKETERS
see ENERGY MARKETERS
RETAIL FOOD STORE ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
unavailable items, advertising, prohibition, 5.3.2
RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
RETAILERS
see also MERCHANTS; SELLERS
credit balances, unfair or deceptive practices, 6.8.3.3
RETIREMENT COMMUNITIES
see ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES (ALFs); OLDER CONSUMERS
REVERSE MORTGAGES
derivative liability, 10.5.6.3.4
REVOLVING REPOSSESSION SCHEMES
see also REPOSSESSION PRACTICES
UDAP violations, 6.13.4
RICO ACTIONS
alternative to UDAP action, 1.7
joinder with UDAP claims, 11.6.6
appraisal fraud, 8.3.5.1
churning schemes, 6.13.4
credit repair organizations, 6.14.2
credit card finders, 6.8.3.1
evidence of bad acts, 11.8.1.2
for-profit school abuses, 9.1.7.5
live check solicitations, 6.9.5
living trusts, 9.4.5
property flipping schemes, 8.3.4.4
pyramid schemes, 9.6.3
telephone companies, 10.4.5
unlawful debts, collection, 6.10.1
work-at-home schemes, 2.2.8.4
RIGHT TO COUNSEL
asset freeze denying right to, 13.5.5
civil penalty actions, 13.5.2.1
ROOFING
see HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
RULES (FTC)
see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
Federal Rule 68, 12.8.11.8
UDAP enforcement provisions, conflicts, 13.3.8
RUSTPROOFING PRACTICES
UDAP violations, 7.2.7.2
SAFETY HAZARDS
see also DESIGN AND SAFETY DEFECTS
nondisclosure, 5.4.4
rental housing, 8.2.5
water and sewer services, 8.5.4.2, 8.5.4.3
SAFETY STANDARDS
see also STANDARDS
building codes, 8.4.4
manufactured homes, 8.1.1.2
SALE-LEASEBACK SCAMS
foreclosure rescue scams, 6.7.7.3
SALES
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE SALES; USED CAR PRACTICES
bargain sales, see BARGAIN SALES
barter transactions, status, 2.2.4.4
deceptive pricing, 5.3.3
distress sales, see DISTRESS SALES
door-to-door, see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
financing, see CREDIT SALES
high-pressure, see HIGH-PRESSURE SALES
isolated occurrences, 2.3.4
leases, status, 2.2.6
loans, status as, 2.2.1.2
mail orders, see MAIL ORDER SALES
manufactured homes, 8.1.1, 8.1.2.3
out-of-state, UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.11
out-of-state residents, 2.2.11.2

out-of-state transactions, 2.2.11.3

post-sale activities, see POST-SALE ACTIVITIES
referral sales, see REFERRAL SALES SCHEMES
repossession provisions, 6.13.1, 6.13.2
resort sales, see CAMPGROUND RESORT MEMBERSHIPS; TIMESHARES
telephone sales, see TELEPHONE SALES
UDAP liability, requirement, 2.2.4
UDAP statutes
application, 2.2
scope, 2.1
SALES CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS
automatic renewal provisions, 5.5.5
damages, provisions limiting, 12.3.6.1
home improvement sales, 8.4.3
live check solicitations, 6.9.5
rescission, 12.7
used cars, see USED CAR PRACTICES
voiding, 12.7
SALES REPRESENTATIONS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
SALES TAX
deceptive practices
charging without remitting, 5.7.7
overcharging, 5.3.7
SALES TRANSACTIONS
see SALES
SALESPERSONS
see SELLERS
SALVAGE CARS
UDAP violations
sales, 7.4.6
wreck chasing, 7.10.8
SAVINGS ACCOUNTS
see BANK ACCOUNTS
SAVINGS AND LOAN INSTITUTIONS
see also FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
federal institutions, see FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS
UDAP application, 2.3.3.2, 2.5.3.3
SCHOLARSHIP LOCATION SERVICES
deceptive practices, 9.6.6
SCHOOL DISTRICTS
UDAP application, 2.3.6, 2.4.5.3
SCHOOLS
see EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
SCIENTER
common law deceit actions, necessity, 4.2.3.1
deception, necessity, 4.2.5.2
multiple damages, necessity, 12.4.2.3.1
nondisclosure, 4.2.15.3.4
unconscionability, necessity, 4.4.2
used goods, sale as new, 5.7.4
SCOPE
FTC Act, 2.2.1.5.1, 2.3.5.1
injunctions, 13.5.1.5, 13.5.1.6
pleading, 2.1.2, 11.6.1
preliminary injunctions, 13.5.1.3
state enforcement actions, 13.2.2
state enforcement authority, 13.4.4
state enforcement investigations, 13.3
UDAP statutes, 2, 3.2.7.2, 13.2.2
waiver of scope issues, 2.1.2
SEARCH AND SEIZURE
see also CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
compulsory process, protections, 13.3.4.3
SECONDS
see also DEFECTIVE GOODS
phony sales, 5.3.3.1
SECRET WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES
automobile industry, 7.5.10.2
SECURITIES
UDAP application, 2.2.8.3, 2.3.3, 2.5.7
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (FEDERAL)
UDAP preemption, 2.3.3
SECURITIES DEALERS
UDAP application, 2.3.3.2
SECURITIES LEGISLATION (STATE)
see also STATE LAW
UDAP preemption, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.5.5
SECURITIES LITIGATION UNIFORM STANDARDS ACT
state law preemption, 2.5.7
SECURITIZATION TRANSACTIONS
holder-in-due course defense, 10.5.6.3.7
SECURITY BREACHES
UDAP actions, 11.4.2.8.10
SECURITY DEPOSITS
see also DEPOSITS
UDAP violations, 8.2.3
SECURITY INTERESTS
credit cards, 6.8.2.2.1, 6.8.2.2.2
household goods, 6.13.1
SELF-HELP KITS
unauthorized practice of law, 9.4.4
living trusts, 9.4.5
SELF-INCRIMINATION
see also CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
civil UDAP suits, 11.9.4.2
compulsory process, protections, 13.3.4.2
SELLERS
see also CREDITORS; MERCHANTS; NON-CONSUMERS; RETAILERS; SALES CONTRACTS; WHOLESALERS
attorney fees, entitlement, 12.8.10
bankruptcy, see BANKRUPTCY
bonding, see BONDING
credit applications, falsification, 6.3.4
curbstoners, 7.3.12
disclosure duty, limits, 4.2.15.3.4
fictitious names, 5.4.8.2
FTC Holder Rule, application, 10.5
independent contractors, status, 10.2.3.4
interstate, UDAP application, 2.2.11
isolated occurrences, 2.3.4
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
online third-party transactions, 4.2.15.3.9
out-of-state, effect, 11.5.2
private sellers, 2.2.5.1.3, 2.3.4, 7.3.12
registration requirements, 5.4.8.2
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.4.15, 2.3
SENIORS
see OLDER CONSUMERS
SERVICE
notice letters, UDAP complaints, 11.4.4.5, 11.4.4.6, 11.4.4.9
“sewer service,” 6.10.9
SERVICE BUREAUS
see also PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
telephone scams, liability, 10.4.5
SERVICE CHARGES
deceptive billing practices, 5.7.7
SERVICE CONTRACTS
automobile sales, 7.2.4
undisclosed dealer profit, 7.2.4.1
undisclosed inspection fees, 7.2.4.4
UDAP violations, 5.6.7.2
SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
see also MILITARY PERSONNEL
UDAP preemption, 2.5.13
violations as per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
SERVICERS
see MORTGAGE SERVICERS
SERVICES
see GOODS OR SERVICES
SET-OFFS
see also COUNTERCLAIMS
multiple damages, effect, 12.4.2.7.1
recoupment claims, 11.2.5
SETTLEMENT
attorney fee considerations, 12.8.2.1, 12.8.4.5
class actions, 12.5.1
insurance claims, unfair practices, 9.5.3, 9.5.4
multiple damages
effect on calculation, 12.4.2.7.2
refusal as grounds for, 12.4.2.3.2
notice letter requirements, 11.4.4.1, 11.4.4.4, 11.4.4.7, 11.4.4.11
preparing for settlement, 11.6.8
punitive damages, considerations, 12.4.3.6
reasonable offers, effect on liability, 11.4.4.11
state enforcement actions
consent agreements, see CONSENT AGREEMENTS
releases, 13.5.7
treble damages, offers, effect, 12.4.2.3
SEWER SERVICE
UDAP violations, 8.5.4
SHAREHOLDERS
see also CORPORATIONS
UDAP claims, liability, 10.3.3
UDAP statutes, application, 2.2.9
SHIP MORTGAGE ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.13
SHIPPERS
see also HOUSEHOLD MOVERS
UDAP application, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.3.5.5, 2.5.5
SHIPPERS ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.5.4
SHOPLIFTERS
UDAP application, 2.2.4.11
SIGNATURES
electronic signatures, 4.2.15.3.10
SLACK-FILL PRACTICES
deceptive practices, 5.4.5
UDAP application, 2.3.3.5.4
SLAMMING
service provider change without consent, 8.5.3.2
SMALL CLAIMS COURTS
UDAP actions, 11.5.4
SMOKE DETECTORS
deceptive practices, 8.6.2
SOFTWARE SELLERS
see also COMPUTER EQUIPMENT
UDAP liability, 2.1.5, 10.4.1
SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY DOCTRINE
government agencies, 2.3.6
SPAM E-MAIL
coercive sales technique, 5.5.6
UDAP application, 2.2.4.1
SPAS
see HEALTH CLUB MEMBERSHIPS
SPECIAL MASTERS
class actions, proof of damages, 12.5.4.2.1
SPECIALTIES ACTIONS
UDAP claims, limitations, 11.2.1.2
SPEECH
see also COMMERCIAL SPEECH; FIRST AMENDMENT; POLITICAL SPEECH
political v. commercial speech, 11.9.2.3
unfair or deceptive, constitutional protections, 11.9.2
SPOT DELIVERY
see YO-YO SALES
STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
see also ADHESION CONTRACTS
class actions, 12.5.4.2.6
systematic breaches, 4.3.5, 5.6.5.2
unfair provisions, 4.3.4, 6.13.1, 5.6.3
ability to avoid, 4.3.2.3.4
STANDARD OF PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF
STANDARDS
attorney fees and costs, 12.8.11.3
building permits, 8.4.4
civil investigation demands, 13.3.3, 13.3.5
compulsory process reviews, 13.3.3
consequential damages, 12.3.3.2
deception, 3.3.4, 3.4.5.4, 4.2, 13.2.3
expansive application, 1.6.3, 3.1.2
fraud
common law, 4.2.1
statutory, 4.2.3.2
manufactured homes, HUD, 8.1.1.2
materiality, 4.2.12.2
misleading, 4.2.3.2
misrepresentations, 4.2.12
multiple damages, 12.4.2.3
nondisclosure, 4.2.15.2, 4.2.15.3
public interest test, 11.4.3
punitive damages, 12.4.3.3
reasonable cause, 13.3.5.1
reasonable consumer, 4.2.11
reliance, 4.2.12.3, 13.2.3
state enforcement actions
attorney fee awards, 13.5.8
special standards, 13.2.3, 13.2.4
subpoenas, state UDAP investigations, 13.3.3, 13.3.5
substantiation, 13.2.4
UDAP violations, litigation approach, 3.3.4
unconscionability, 3.3.4, 4.4, 13.2.4
unfairness, 3.2.7.4.1, 3.3.4, 4.3, 13.2.4
UNIP, 9.5.2.3.1
STANDING
antitrust claims, 5.8.2
Article III standing, 11.4.2.1.4, 12.6.3.2.1
assignees, 2.4.1.5
bankruptcy court litigation, 11.5.7
businesses and corporations, 2.4.5.2
CID challenges, 13.3.3
damage preconditions, 11.4.2
estate of defendant, 2.4.2
government entities, 2.4.5.3
identity theft victims, 2.2.4.10
injunctions, private actions, 11.4.2.1.2, 12.6.1, 12.6.3
insurance companies, 2.2.4.9, 2.2.4.15
investigators, 2.4.6
lenders, 2.2.4.15
loan guarantors, 2.4.3
out-of-state residents, 2.4.4
privity, necessity, 2.2.4
residents associations, 8.1.2.6.3
sellers, 2.2.4.15
state enforcement agencies, 13.4.4
third parties, 2.4.1
UDTPA actions, 12.2.8.1
STATE AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
UDAP regulations, promulgation, 3.4.4.2
STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see also ATTORNEYS GENERAL (STATE); GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
administrative proceedings, 13.4.6
asset attachment orders, 13.5.5
banks, enforcement against, 2.2.2
cease and desist orders, 13.5.1
civil penalties, 13.5.3
CIDs, see CIVIL INVESTIGATION DEMANDS (CIDs)
complaint as alternative to UDAP action, 1.7
confidentiality, 13.3.7
discovery against, 13.3.11
due process, 11.9.4.3, 13.3.4.1, 13.5.2.1
evidence, use to obtain, 7.1.6, 11.7.6
FTC investigational records, access, 13.3.10
injunctive relief, 13.5.1
investigative issues, 13.3
orders, violation, 13.5.2
pre-trial disclosures, 13.4.9
public access to investigation results, 13.3.12
receivership orders, 13.5.6
regulatory agency overlap, 13.3.2, 13.3.3, 13.4.4
remedies, 13.5
restitution orders, 13.5.4
seeking, 13.5.4.1
scope of authority
non-UDAP claims, 13.4.4
UDAAP enforcement, 13.2.6.3
UDAP enforcement, 13.1
search and seizure, 13.3.4.3
selective enforcement, 13.4.5
sovereign immunity, 13.4.10
special counsel, 13.4.12
subpoenas, see SUBPOENAS
test purchases, 13.3.9
UDAP actions
attorney fees, 13.5.8
challenges to, 13.4
civil penalties, 13.5.3
counterclaims, 13.4.10
due process, 11.9.4.3, 13.5.2.1
investigations, 13.3
persons liable, 13.2.5
preconditions, 13.4
removal to federal court, 13.4.7
right to counsel, 13.4.11
scope issues, 13.2.2
settlement releases, 13.5.7
special standards, 13.2.3, 13.2.4
standing, 13.4.4
status as criminal action, 13.3.4.2, 13.5.3.1
statute of limitations, 13.4.8
STATE FUNDS
see CONSUMER RECOVERY FUNDS
STATE LAW
anti-trust, 5.8.2
binding arbitration provisions, restrictions, 11.5.8.2.4, 11.5.8.2.5
campground membership, 9.1.5.2
cooling-off periods, 7.3.9
credit repair laws, 6.14.2
dealer charges, 7.2.6.5
debt collection abuses, application, 2.2.2.1, 6.10
federal preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
health clubs, application, 9.1.3.1
holder statutes, 10.5.3.2
homesavers, 6.7.7
immigration consultants, 9.4.2.2
improvident extension of credit, 6.3.2
lemon vehicles, see LEMON VEHICLES
lessors, raising dealer-related claims, 10.5.5
loan brokers, 6.2.1
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2.6.1
motor vehicles, generally, see MOTOR VEHICLE LAWS
plain English statutes, 5.6.2
price gouging in emergencies, 4.3.11.2
punitive damage caps, 12.4.3.6.2
pyramid selling schemes, 9.6.3
rent-to-own transactions, 8.7.1
repossession provisions, violation, 6.13.4
deceptive contract provisions, 6.13.2
rules and guides, UDAP standards, relationship, 3.3.4
securities, see SECURITIES LEGISLATION (STATE)
UDAP preemption, 2.2.1.5, 2.2.6.2, 2.3.1.3, 2.3.3
UDAP regulations, see UDAP REGULATIONS
UDAP statutes, see UDAP STATUTES
UNIP legislation, see UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP) LEGISLATION
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.2.2, 3.2.6, 3.2.7, 4.3.9
STATUTE OF FRAUDS
UDAP claims, application, 4.2.20.7
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
retroactive application, 11.3
statute barred debts, collection, 6.10.7
subpoena for records prior to, 13.3.3
UDAP claims, 11.2
adding new parties, 11.2.4
amendment of pleadings, 11.2.4
applicable limitations period, 11.2.1
commencement of time period, 11.2.2
counterclaims, 11.2.5
extension of time period, 11.2.2.2, 11.2.2.3, 11.2.2.4
notice letters, effect, 11.4.4.2
obstacle to suing, 9.1.7.6
recoupment claims, 11.2.5
state actions, 13.4.8
tolling, 11.2.3, 13.4.8
STATUTES
see also FEDERAL LAW; STATE LAW
specific statutes, see specific headings
UDAP, see UDAP STATUTES
violation as per se UDAP violation, 3.2.7, 4.2.1
STATUTORY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
bankruptcy stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
UDAP actions
exhaustion of administrative remedies, 2.3.3.6
pending criminal proceedings, 13.3.4.2
pending FTC decisions, 2.5.2
STOCK CERTIFICATES
UDAP application, 2.2.8.3
STOCKHOLDERS
see SHAREHOLDERS
STORAGE COMPANIES
UDAP violations, 6.13.3, 8.6.1
STORM WINDOWS
see HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTS
STUDENT LOANS AND ASSISTANCE
see also STUDENTS
diploma mills, restrictions, 9.6.7
non-profit school abuses, 9.1.7.1
defense to loan repayment, 9.1.7.7
scholarship and grant location services, 9.6.6
STUDENT TUITION RECOVERY FUNDS
UDAP claims, application, 10.6.3
STUDENTS
see also EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
consumer status, 2.3.5.2
diploma mills, 9.6.7
financial assistance, see STUDENT LOANS AND ASSISTANCE
for-profit schools, see FOR-PROFIT SCHOOLS
scholarship location services, 9.6.6
tuition recovery funds, see STUDENT TUITION RECOVERY FUNDS
SUBDIVIDED LAND
UDAP violations, 8.3.8
SUBPOENAS
see also CIVIL INVESTIGATION DEMANDS (CIDs); DISCOVERY
business documents, 13.3.4.2
CID distinguished, 13.3.8
form, technical defects, 13.3.6
state enforcement agencies, 13.3
circumstances, 13.3.2
confidential information, 13.3.7
constitutional issues, 13.3.4
preconditions, 13.3.5
standards for review, 13.3.3
SUBPRIME MARKET
see also PAWNBROKERS; PREDATORY LENDING; RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
credit cards, 6.8.2.2
unfair loans, 4.3.2.3.12, 4.3.8
SUBROGATED CLAIMS
UDAP application, 2.2.4.9, 2.4.1.2, 2.4.1.5
SUBSTANTIAL CONSUMER INJURY
see also DAMAGES; INJURY
definition, 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.2
high-pressure sales, 5.5.2
statutory violations, 3.2.7.4.1, 4.3.9
unfairness requirement, 4.3.2
generally, 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.2
not outweighed by benefits, 4.3.2.4
not reasonably avoidable, 4.3.2.3
public policy relationship, 4.3.2.5
SUBSTANTIATION
see UNSUBSTANTIATED CLAIMS
SUBSTITUTE VEHICLES
see also CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
status as consequential damages, 12.3.1, 12.3.3.5
SUBSTITUTION
deceptive practices, 5.7.5
SUCCESSOR CORPORATIONS
UDAP liability, 10.8.1
SUITS
see ACTIONS; PERSONAL INJURY SUITS
SUPPLEMENTAL JURISDICTION
see also JURISDICTION
UDAP claims, 11.5.5
SUPPLIERS
see also WHOLESALERS
debt collectors, status, 2.2.2.1.3
UDAP application, 2.1, 2.3.4, 2.3.8
SURETIES
see ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
SURPLUSES
failure to account, 6.8.3.3
SURVIVAL OF ACTIONS
UDAP claims, 2.4.2, 10.8.3
restitution, 13.5.4.2
SURVIVAL SUITS
see EMERGENCY DEVICES
SWEEPSTAKES
see CONTESTS
SWITCH
see BAIT AND SWITCH
SYMPATHY PRESENTATIONS
deceptive practices, 5.5.1
TAILOR-MADE
misrepresentations, 5.4.6
TAPE-RECORDING
conversations between dealer and consumer, 7.1.10
TELECHECKS
see REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
see also TELEPHONE COMPANIES; UTILITIES
cable television, see CABLE TELEVISION SYSTEMS
cramming, see CRAMMING
filed rate doctrine, see FILED RATE DOCTRINE
Internet services, see INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS (ISPs)
long distance telephone, see LONG DISTANCE SERVICES
1-900 numbers, see PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
prepaid phone cards, 8.5.3.3
slamming, 8.5.3.2
UDAP application, 2.3.3, 8.5.3.1
UDAP violations, 8.5.3
voice over Internet (VoIP), 8.5.3.6
wireless services, 8.5.3.5
TELEMARKETING
see also TELEPHONE SALES
aiding and abetting fraud, 10.4.4
payment methods, 10.4.3
billing practices, deceptive practices, 5.7.7
cash reload card transfers, 10.4.3.5
cash-to-cash money transfers, 10.4.3.5
charitable solicitations, see CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS
coercive sales technique, 5.5.6
credit card chargebacks, 10.4.3.2
credit card laundering, 10.4.3.2
credit card marketing, 6.8.1.3
credit card payment protection products, 6.8.2.1
FTC rule, see TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
remotely created checks, prohibition on use, 6.9.3, 10.4.3.3
TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
see also TELEMARKETING; TRADE REGULATIONS RULES (FTC)
advance fee brokers, restrictions, 6.2.3
assisting violations, 10.4.3.2, 10.4.3.3, 10.4.4
cash reload cards, 10.4.3.5
cash-to-cash money transfers, 10.4.3.5
charitable solicitations, application, 9.6.5.1
contests and promotions, requirements, 9.6.4
credit card laundering, 10.4.3.2
credit card marketing, 6.8.1.3
credit repair clinics, application, 6.14.2
debt relief services, requirements, 6.14.4
deceptive billing practices, 5.7.7
disclosures, restrictions or conditions, 5.3.9, 6.6.3.2
electronic funds transfers, application, 6.9.3
grant location services, application, 9.6.6
remotely created checks, prohibition, 6.9.3, 10.4.3.3
unauthorized charges, prohibition, 6.8.3.2
TELEPHONE COMPANIES
see also TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES; UTILITIES
cell phone companies, see WIRELESS SERVICES
cramming, 5.7.7, 8.5.3.4, 10.4.5
filed rate doctrine, application, 8.5.3.1
inside wiring maintenance contracts, 5.6.7.2.2
long distance services, see LONG DISTANCE SERVICES
900-numbers, see PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
prepaid phone cards, 8.5.3.3
slamming, 8.5.3.2
third-party charges, 10.4.5
UDAP violations, 8.5.3
unauthorized charges
ability to avoid, 4.3.2.3.9
helping to collect, 5.7.7, 10.4.5
UDAP violations, 5.7.7, 8.5.3.4
wireless service, see WIRELESS SERVICES
TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.5
TELEPHONE DISCLOSURE AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION ACT
900-number regulation, 10.4.5
TELEPHONE ORDER RULE (FTC)
see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
TELEPHONE SALES
see also MAIL ORDER SALES
cancellation rights, 8.7.5.3
FTC rule, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
high-pressure sales techniques, 5.5.1
1-900 numbers, see PAY-PER-CALL (900) SERVICES
solicitations, see TELEMARKETING
TELEPHONE SERVICES
see TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES; TELEPHONE COMPANIES
TELEPHONE SOLICITATIONS
see TELEMARKETING
TELEVISION
see CABLE TELEVISION SYSTEMS; COMMUNITY ANTENNA TELEVISION
TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDERS
see PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS
TENANTS
see also LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICES
early termination, 8.2.7
evictions, see EVICTIONS
migrant farmworker camps, 2.2.6.4, 8.2.9
manufactured home communities, 2.2.6, 8.1.2
possessions, seizure, 8.2.8.4
security deposits, 8.2.3
sublet authority, misrepresenting, 8.2.5.2
UDAP application, 2.2.6, 8.2
TERMITE CONTROL SERVICES
see PEST CONTROL SERVICES
TESTERS
state enforcement agencies, 13.3.9
reasonable cause, 13.3.5.1
UDAP violation investigators, 2.4.6
TESTIMONIALS
see PERSONAL ENDORSEMENTS
TEXT MESSAGES
see also WIRELESS SERVICES
premium text messaging services, 10.4.5
unauthorized charges, 10.4.5
THEFT
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
shoplifters, see SHOPLIFTERS
UDAP application, 2.2.4.11
THIRD PARTIES
payment for services by, effect, 2.2.4.8
post-transaction online sellers, 4.2.15.3.9
reliance by, effect, 4.2.12.3.6
UDAP claims
asserting, 2.4.1, 4.2.17
liability, 10.1.1, 10.4
THIRD-PARTY BENEFICIARIES
UDAP statutes, application, 2.4.1.4
THIRD-PARTY PAYORS
see also INSURANCE COMPANIES
UDAP claims, asserting, 2.2.4.9, 2.4.1.2, 2.4.1.5
THREATS
see also HARASSMENT
debt collectors
false threats, 6.10.4
harassment, 6.10.6
TIED SALES
challenging, 5.8.1
manufactured homes, 5.8.1, 8.1.2.2
TIMESHARES
see also CAMPGROUND RESORT MEMBERSHIPS
UDAP application, 2.1.7, 2.2.7
UDAP violations, 8.3.9
TITLE PAPERS
automobile sales, 7.1.4
processing, UDAP application, 2.2.1.3
real estate sales, misrepresentations, 8.3.2
used car sales, misrepresentations, 7.4.10
TITLE SEARCHES
used cars, 7.1.4, 7.4.4
TOBACCO COMPANIES
see also CIGARETTE LABELING AND ADVERTISING ACT (FEDERAL)
advertisements, 8.8.3, 9.3.8
third-party claims against, 2.4.1.5
UDAP violations, 8.8.3, 9.3.8
TOLLING
statute of limitations, 11.2.3
TORTS
assignments, 2.4.1.5
breach of good faith, see under GOOD FAITH
civil conspiracy, 10.4.2.3
common law actions
NTMVSA preemption, 2.5.4
UDAP alternative, 1.7
contributory negligence, see CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE
deceit actions, see DECEIT ACTIONS
economic loss rule, 4.2.21.2
fraud, see FRAUD
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE
theories, UDAP application, 10.1.2
deception defenses, 4.2.21
UDAP claims
availability, 2.2.4.13
out-of-state defendants, 11.5.2
statute of limitations, 11.2.1.2
TOWING PRACTICES
UDAP violations, 7.10.8
wreck chasing, 7.10.8
TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
source of information, 7.1.8
UDAP application, 2.3.5.1
TRADE-INS
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES
negative equity, 7.3.4
UDAP violations, 7.3.3–7.3.6
“unhorsing,” 7.3.3
TRADE NAMES
deceptive, 5.4.9
fictitious, 5.4.8.2
unregistered, 5.4.8.2
TRADE OR COMMERCE
attorney services, status, 2.3.9
charitable enterprises, status, 2.3.5.1
credit counseling, status, 2.2.1.3
credit practices, status, 2.2.1.1
debt collection, status, 2.2.2.1.1
debt pooling services, status, 2.2.1.3
definition, 2.1.4
educational institutions, status, 2.3.5.2
franchise sales, status, 2.2.8.2
insurance claims, status, 2.3.1
interstate, see INTERSTATE COMMERCE
medical services, status, 2.3.10
memberships, status, 2.2.7
non-merchants, status, 2.3.4
post-sale activities, status, 2.2.3.1
professionals, status, 2.3.11
real estate sales, status, 2.2.5.1.1
sales by consumers, status, 2.3.4
UDAP statutes, scope, 2.1.4
TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
appliance labeling, see APPLIANCE LABELING RULE (FTC)
business opportunities, see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES RULE (FTC)
cooling-off period for door-to-door sales, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
credit practices, see CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
franchises, see FRANCHISING RULE (FTC)
funeral practices, see FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
holders in due course, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
home insulation, see LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION RULE (FTC)
issuance, 3.4.5.6
mail order sales, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
mortgage advertising, 6.7.1
mortgage relief assistance services, 6.7.7.1
online transactions, application, 4.2.15.3.9
precedential value, 3.4.5.6
state adoption, 3.4.4.2
telemarketing, see TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
telephone order sales, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
UDAP standards, relationship, 3.3.4
unavailable items, see RETAIL FOOD STORE ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
used cars, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.6, 3.2.7.3.6, 4.2.1
TRADE SCHOOLS
see FOR-PROFIT SCHOOLS
TRADE SECRETS
compulsory process, exemptions, 13.3.7
FTC investigational records, disclosure, 13.3.10
TRADEMARKS
see also LANHAM TRADEMARK ACT (FEDERAL)
federal preemption, 2.5.7
unauthorized display, 5.4.10
TRADING POSTS
deceptive practices, 6.13.5
TRAVEL INDUSTRY
see also HOTEL LODGINGS
deceptive practices, 9.2
air travel, 9.2.1
cruises, 9.2.2
international driver’s permits, 9.2.5
travel agents, 9.2.4
travel packages, 9.2.3
TRAVELERS CHECKS
UDAP coverage, 2.2.1.3
TREBLE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
TRICKERY
see also MISREPRESENTATIONS
repossession practices, 6.13.3
TRUCK DRIVERS
UDAP application, 2.1.8.5, 2.1.8.6, 2.5.5.4
TRUE STATEMENTS
deceptive implications, 4.2.13
TRUSTEES
see also FIDUCIARIES
UDAP application, 2.2.4.14, 2.4.1.4
UDAP violations, 9.4.6
TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
see also BANKRUPTCY
UDAP claims, standing, 11.5.7
TRUTH IN LEASING ACT
see CONSUMER LEASING ACT (CLA)
TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA); CONSUMER LEASING ACT (CLA); HOME OWNERSHIP AND EQUITY PROTECTION ACT (HOEPA)
appraiser independence, 8.3.5.3
assignee liability, 10.5.2.5
claims, joinder of UDAP claims, 11.5.5
credit advertising requirements, 6.6.2
credit cards, 6.8.1.3
credit balance refunds, 6.8.3.3
credit card charges, protections, 6.8.3.2
dealer fees, application, 7.2.6.3
for-profit schools, application, 9.1.7.5
FTC Holder Rule, relationship, 10.5.2.5
glass etching, application, 7.2.7.3
home mortgage loan rules, 6.7.2.1
layaway plans, application, 5.7.1
price manipulations, application, 6.3.4.3
rulemaking authority under, 6.7.2.1
state law preemption, 2.2.1.5.3, 2.3.3.3.1, 2.5.3.8
violations as UDAP violation, 2.2.1.5.3, 2.3.3.2, 3.2.7.3.4, 3.2.7.3.6, 3.2.7.4.1, 6.4.1
VSI, violations, 7.2.5
yo-yo sales, application, 7.3.10
TRUTH IN SAVINGS ACT
preemption of state law, 2.5.3.9
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
TUITION RECOVERY FUNDS
see STUDENT TUITION RECOVERY FUNDS
TURNOVER SYSTEM
dealer negotiation tactic, 7.3.1
TWISTING
insurance practices, 9.5.5
UDAAP
see UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
UDAP
see UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
UDAP ACTIONS
see also INJUNCTIVE RELIEF; UDAP REMEDIES
administrative remedies, exhaustion first, 2.3.3.6
alternatives, 1.7
amended claims, 11.4.4.3
appraisers, against, 8.3.5.3
assignment of claims, 2.4.1.5
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
bad faith actions, 12.8.10.4
bankruptcy, effect, 10.7
bars, generally, 11.1
burden of proof, see BURDEN OF PROOF
businesses, status as plaintiff, 2.4.5.2
choice of law issues, 11.5.3
civil penalties, see CIVIL PENALTIES
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
classification, 1.2
common law theories, application, 10.1.2
compulsory process, state use, 13.3
constitutional challenges, 11.9.4
consumer recovery funds, claims against, 10.6.3
contract law, application, 4.2.20, 10.1.2
counterclaims, as, 11.5.4, 11.6.3, 11.6.5.1
criminals, by, 4.2.12.5
damage precondition, 11.4.2
damages, see DAMAGES
death of defendant, effect, 10.8.3
defendants, see DEFENDANTS
defenses, see DEFENSES
due process, 11.9.4.3
economic loss doctrine, application, 12.3.2.1
elements, 11.6.4
Washington State, 11.4.3.8.1
estates, by, 2.4.2
evaluating, 11.6.3
evidence, see EVIDENCE
failed banks, against, 10.8.2
filing after collection action, 11.6.7
framing the nature of, 11.6.3
frivolous claims, 12.8.10.4
FTC Rule violations, 6.11.2
general applicability, 3.1.1
groundless claims, 12.8.10.4
immunity, effect, 13.3.4.2
insurance practices, UNIP effect, 9.5.2.3
jurisdiction, 11.5
jury trials, 11.8.2
liability, see LIABILITY
limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
merchant insurance coverage, 10.6.2
notice letter precondition, 11.4.4
parties, see PARTIES
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
practice tips, see PRACTICE TIPS
primary jurisdiction doctrine, application, 2.3.3.6.2
private right of action
availability, 12.2
preconditions, 11.4
proof issues, 11.8.1
actual damages and causation, 12.3.5.1
public interest precondition, 11.4.3
pursuit, determination, 1.8
remoteness, 4.2.20.3
removal to federal court, 11.5.6, 13.4.7
res judicata, 11.6.7
right to counsel, 13.4.11
self-incrimination, rights, 11.9.4.2
seller as plaintiff, 2.2.4.15
settlement, see SETTLEMENT
standing, see STANDING
state enforcement actions, see under STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
Statute of Frauds, application, 4.2.20
statutory cause of action, 1.2
survival of actions, 2.4.2, 10.8.3
tort theories, application, 10.1.2
UNIP effect, 9.5.2.3
venue, 2.4.4, 11.5.4
witnesses, right to confront, 11.9.4.2
UDAP CLAIMS
see UDAP ACTIONS; UDAP REMEDIES
UDAP LIABILITY
see LIABILITY
UDAP PRECEDENT
see PRECEDENT
UDAP REGULATIONS
authority to enact, 3.4.4.2
constitutional challenges, 3.4.4.2, 11.9.5
generally, 3.4.4
handguns, 3.4.4.2, 8.8.8
liberal construction, 3.2.2.2
obtaining, 3.4.4.1
per se violations, finding, 3.2.7.3.3
precedential effect, 3.4.4.3
promulgation, 3.4.4.2
state agencies, adoption, 13.2.4
state summaries, Appx. A
substantial compliance, 3.2.2.2
unregulated heating fuel, 8.5.1.4
violations as UDAP violations, 3.2.2.2, 3.4.4.3, 4.2.1
UDAP REMEDIES
see also UDAP ACTIONS
administrative remedies, exhaustion first, 2.3.3.6
alternative remedies, 1.7
anti-trust cases, application, 5.8
arbitration clauses, effect, 11.5.8
asset attachment orders, 13.5.5
assurances of voluntary compliance, 13.5.1.10
violations, 13.5.2.2
cease and desist orders, 13.5.1.1
see also INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
violations, 13.5.2
choice of law issues, 11.5.3
civil penalties, see CIVIL PENALTIES
constitutionality, 11.9.4
contract provisions, application, 12.3.6.1
damages, see DAMAGES
dissolution orders, 13.5.6
equitable relief, 12.6
generally, 12.1
injunctions, see INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
liberal interpretation, 12.1
nature of, 12.1
private remedies, 11.4, 12
California issues, 12.2.5, 12.3.2.4.3
Delaware issues, 12.2.2
exists in every state, 12.2.1
Hawaii issues, 12.2.3
Iowa issues, 12.2.7
limitations on, 12.2.1
Maine issues, 12.2.6
New York issues, 12.2.6
UDTPA-type statutes, 12.2.8
Wisconsin issues, 12.2.4
privity of contract, requirement, 2.2.4, 2.3.8
receivership, 13.5.6
rescission, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS
residency, effect, 2.2.11.2, 2.4.4
restitution, see RESTITUTION
retroactivity, 11.3
state and federal laws, incorporation, 3.2.7.1
state remedies, 13
UDAP STATUTES
see also UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
amendments, retroactivity, 2.1.1, 11.3
anti-competitive conduct, application, 5.8.3
application generally, 1.6.1
excluded persons, 2.4
expansive, liberal approach, 1.6.3, 3.1.2
exempted sellers, 2.3
exempted transactions, 2.2
scope, 2.1
attorney fees, authorization, 12.8.1, 12.8.2.1
attorneys, application, 2.3.9
broad interpretation, 2.1.3, 10.1.2
class action provisions, 12.5.1
constitutional challenges, 11.9
credit transactions, application, 2.2.1
state-by-state survey, 2.2.1.7
damage preconditions, 11.4.2
California, 11.4.2.3
dispensing with, 11.4.2.4
nature of, 11.4.2.1.1
types of preconditions, 11.4.2.2
debt collection, application, 2.2.2
state-by-state survey, 2.2.2.2
electric service, application, 8.5.2.1
enforcement, see STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
exemptions, 2.2, 2.3
federal preemption, 2.5
see also FEDERAL PREEMPTION
FTC case law and guidelines, 3.4.5
general standards, 3.3.4
improvident extension of credit, 6.3.2
insurance transactions, application, 2.3.1
state-by-state survey, 2.3.1.5
large transaction exemption, Texas, 2.2.12
laundry list of deceptive practices, 3.2.1, 3.2.2.1
practices outside specific prohibitions, 3.2.3, 3.3.4
lawyers, application, 2.3.9
legislative history, 3.4.2
liberal interpretation, 2.1.3, 10.1.2, 11.1, 12.1
limitations period, 11.2.1.1
manufactured homes, application, 2.2.5.1.4
manufacturers, application, 2.3.8
migrant farmworkers, application, 8.2.9
model legislation, 3.4.2
natural gas service, application, 8.5.2.1
nature and strength, 1.2
nonprofit organizations, application, 2.3.5.1
non-sale transactions, application, 2.2.4
oral representations, application, 4.2.18
overview, 1.2
post-sale activities, application, 2.2.3
preemption, 2.2.1.5, 2.2.6.2, 2.3.1, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.3, 2.5
private injunctive relief, authorization, 12.6.2
private right of action, authorization, 12.2.1
public utilities, application, 8.5.2
real property, application, 2.2.5
regulated industries, application, 2.3.3
regulations, see UDAP REGULATIONS
remedies under, see UDAP REMEDIES
rent-to-own transactions, application, 8.7.2
residential leases, application, 2.2.6
retroactivity, 11.3
scope, 2, 3.2.7.2, 13.2.2
state agency enforcement, see STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
state law displacement, 2.3.3
statute-by-statute analysis, Appx. A
summary, 3.4.1, Appx. A
telecommunications services, application, 8.5.3.1
terminology, 1.1
unfair practice provisions, 4.3.1, 4.3.3
unregulated heating fuels, application, 8.5.1.2
utilities, application, 2.3.2
state-by-state survey, 2.3.2.2
unregulated utilities, 8.5.4.3
validity, 3.4.4.2
violations, see UDAP VIOLATIONS
voiding contracts, provisions, 12.7.2, 12.7.3
wholesalers, application, 2.3.8
UDAP VIOLATIONS
actions, see UDAP ACTIONS
alarm devices, 8.6.2
alleging in notice letter, 11.4.4.10
apartment finders, 8.2.2
appraisers, 8.3.5
assurance of voluntary compliance, 13.4.1
violation of assurance, 13.5.2.2
automobiles, 5.4
burden of proof, evidence, 13.5.1.4
business opportunities, 9.6.1
buying clubs, 9.1.6
campground resorts, 9.1.5
civil penalties, 13.5.3
co-conspirators, liability, 2.1.9, 2.3.6
coercive credit tactics, 6.6.4
consent agreements, see CONSENT AGREEMENTS
contracts, 5.6
continuing violations
limitations, 11.2.2.3
statutory amendments, application, 11.3
consumer complaints, 1.7
credit and collections, 6
credit application falsification, 6.3.4.2
credit cards and related services, 6.8
credit counselors, 6.14.3
credit repair abuses, 6.14.2
creditor remedies as, 6.12
damages, see DAMAGES
dance studios, 9.1.4
dealer fees, 7.2.6.2
dealer kickbacks, 7.2.3.3
debt collection, 6.10
debt consolidation services, 6.14.3
debt elimination schemes, 6.14.5
debt settlement services, 6.14.4
deceptive practices, see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
derivative liability, 2.1.9, 2.2.1.6
electric service, 8.5.2
electronic disclosures, 4.2.15.3.10
electronic funds transfers, 6.9.3
energy savings claims, 8.8.4
fiduciaries, 9.4
for-profit schools, 9.1.7
foreclosures, 6.7.6
rescue scams, 6.7.7
FTC Holder Rule violations as, 10.5.3.2
future service contracts, 9.1
gas service, 8.5.2
guidelines, 3.4
health and nutrition, 9.3
health clubs, 9.1.3
heating fuels, unregulated, 8.5
holders-in-due course, 5.6.10
home builders, 8.3.6
home improvements, 8.4
home mortgage loans, 6.7
home sales, 8.3
household movers, 8.6.1
household products, 8.8
household services, 8.6
immigration consultants, 9.4.2
improvident extension of credit, 6.3
incomprehensible disclosures, 11.6.6
insurance, 9.5
insurance claims, 9.5.3
injunctions, see INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
knowledge, necessity, 4.2.5
landlord-tenant practices, 8.2
liability for, see LIABILITY
land sales, 8.3
loan brokers, 6.2
loan modification attempts, 6.7.5
manufactured homes
lot leases, 8.1.2
sales, 8.1.1
migrant farmworker camps, 8.2.9
mortgage servicers, 6.7.3, 6.7.5
multiple violations, damage calculations, 12.4.2.7.3
notification, 13.4.1
opportunity schemes, 9.6
pawnbrokers, 6.13.5
penalties, 13.5.3
per se violations, see PER SE VIOLATIONS
pest control services, 8.6.3
practices outside specific prohibitions, 3.2.3, 3.3.4
proving, 3.3
public interest precondition, 11.4.3
public utilities
gas and electric service, 8.5.2
telecommunications, 8.5.3
water and sewer service, 8.5.4
radon testing, 8.6.5
real estate sales, 8.3
reasonable cause for belief, 13.3.5.1, 13.4.2
recoupment claims, 11.2.5
referral sales plans, 5.5.3
remedies, see UDAP REMEDIES
repossessions, 6.13
restitution, see RESTITUTION
scienter, necessity, 4.2.5
statutory violations as
own right, 3.2.7.4.3
per se, see PER SE VIOLATIONS
storage of goods, 8.6.1
telechecks, 6.9.3
telecommunications services, 8.5.3
test purchases, 2.4.6, 13.3.9
third-party liability, 10.1
travel, 9.2
trickery, 6.13.3
unfair practices, see UNFAIR PRACTICES
utilities, 8.5
yo-yo sales, 7.3.10
warranties, 5.6.7
water and sewer service, 8.5.4
water quality improvement systems, 8.6.4
willfulness, see WILLFULNESS
UDTPA
see UNIFORM DECEPTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT (UDTPA)
UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE OF LAW
see also NON-ATTORNEY LEGAL SERVICE PROVIDERS
bankruptcy petition preparers, 9.4.3
debt relief services, 9.4.4
immigration services, 9.4.2.1
living trusts, 9.4.5
self-help kits and services, 9.4.4, 9.4.5
state law, 9.4.4
UDAP application, 2.3.9.4
UNAVAILABLE ITEMS
see also RAIN CHECKS
advertising for sale, 5.3.2
UNCONSCIONABLE PRACTICES
see also DECEPTIVE PRACTICES; UNFAIR PRACTICES
arbitration clauses,
class-wide arbitration bans,
automobile leases, 7.6.5
bank fees, 6.9.1.4
see also UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
broad standard, 3.3.4
buying clubs, 9.1.6
campground resort contracts, 9.1.5.1
case law, 4.4.3, 4.4.8, 4.4.9
collection practices, 4.4.7
consumer credit contracts, 6.12.2
creditor remedies, 6.12.2
deceptive practices, relationship, 4.2.2, 4.4.1
deposits, 5.7.1
enforcement practices, 4.4.7
exorbitant credit charges, 6.5.2
flexible standard, 3.3.4
foreclosure rescue scams, 6.7.7.3
FTC Credit Practices Rule violations, 6.11.2
home improvement sales, 8.4.5
home mortgage loans, 6.7
improvident extension of credit, 6.3
liberal interpretation, 4.4.1
pain and suffering damages, 12.3.3.9.4
performance practices, 4.4.6
price unconscionability, 4.4.5
see also PRICE GOUGING
regulations, effect, 13.2.4
rent-to-own transactions, 8.7.7
repairs, 5.7.6
standards
evolving, expansive concepts, 3.3.4
objective standard, 4.4.2
state enforcement actions, 13.2.4
state enforcement actions, 13.2.4
statutory definitions, 4.4.2
UCC unconscionability, 4.4.9.1
specific findings, 4.4.9.2
UDAP definition
case law, 4.4.3
statutes and regulations, 4.4.2
unfairness, relationship, 4.3.2.3.3, 4.3.12, 4.4.1
vulnerable consumers, 4.4.4
UNDUE INFLUENCE
unfairness, 4.3.2.3.5
UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
acronym, use of term UDAP, 1.1
actions, see UDAP ACTIONS
case law, see CASE LAW
checklists, see PRACTICE TIPS
claims, see UDAP ACTIONS; UDAP REMEDIES
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
deceptive practices, see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
expansive, liberal application, 1.6.3, 3.1.2
general standards, 3.3.4
NCLC report, 1.4.2
NCLC treatise, 1.3
case law, source of, 1.3.4, 3.4.3.1, 3.4.3.2
companion treatise, 1.4.1
online version, 1.3.1
organization, 1.3.2, 3.1.1, 3.3.3, 4.1, 10.1.2
other treatises, 1.4.2
pleadings, 1.3.3
primary sources, 1.3.3
print version, 1.3.1
scope, 1.3.2
using to prove violations, 3.1.1
practice tips, see PRACTICE TIPS
precedent, see CASE LAW; PRECEDENT
regulations, see UDAP REGULATIONS
remedies, see UDAP REMEDIES
research aids, see RESEARCH AIDS
scope issues, see SCOPE
standards, see STANDARDS
statutes, see UDAP STATUTES; UNIFORM DECEPTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT (UDTPA)
UDAAP distinguished, 1.1
unconscionable practices, see UNCONSCIONABLE PRACTICES
unfair practice, see UNFAIR PRACTICES
violations, see UDAP VIOLATIONS
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
see also BANKS; CHECKS; UNFAIR PRACTICES
arbitration, 11.5.8.2.2
credit card marketing, 6.8.1.3, 6.8.2.1
deposit accounts, 6.9.1
electronic fund transfers, 6.9.1.5
fees, 6.9.1.4
interest rates, 6.9.1.2
overdrafts, 6.9.1.3
federal agency guidelines, 6.6.6
federal preemption, 2.5.3
interest calculations, 4.2.8
mortgage loans, 6.7
regulation, 2.2.1.5.1
UDAP application, 2.3.3.3.1
national banks, 2.2.1.5.2, 2.5.3.2
UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
CFPB rulemaking authority, 3.4.6, 13.2.6.1
state enforcement authority, 13.2.6
scope issues, 13.2.6.3
substantive meaning, 13.2.6.2
UDAP distinguished, 1.1
UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP) LEGISLATION
see also INSURANCE CODES (STATE)
administrative remedies, exhaustion as UDAP precondition, 9.5.2.3.2
credit insurance, 9.5.9.5
described, 9.5.2.1
employees, application, 10.2.2
ERISA, preemption, 2.5.10.2
pattern of unfair claims practices, 9.5.2.4
private UNIP actions, 9.5.2.2
advantages and disadvantages, 9.5.2.2.2
availability, 9.5.2.2.1
standards, 9.5.2.3.1
UDAP actions, preemption, 2.3.1.2, 2.3.1.3, 9.5.2.3.2
UDAP relationship, 9.5.2.3
violations as per se UDAP violations, 9.5.2.3.1
UNFAIR PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
adhesion contracts, 4.3.4
automobiles, 5.4
bait-and-switch tactics, 5.3.1
banks, see UNFAIR BANKING PRACTICES
broad standard, 3.3.4, 4.3.3.1
coercive collection tactics, 4.3.6
coercive sales tactics, 5.5
commercial speech, 11.9.2.2
constitutional issues, 11.9
contract language, 5.6.1, 5.6.2
contract provisions, 5.6.3
credit terms, 6.6
creditor remedies, 6.13.1
contracts, 5.6
credit balances, 6.8.3.3
credit cards, 6.8
credit charges, exorbitant, 6.5
credit counselors, 6.14.3
credit insurance, 9.5.9
credit repair clinics, 6.14.2
credit terms, 6.6
creditor remedies, 6.12
debt collection practices, 6.10
deception, comparison, 4.2.2, 4.3.3.1
default judgments, 6.10.10
discrimination, 4.3.9
disparate knowledge, 4.3.7
emergency situations, 4.3.11
energy-related practices, 8.5
factual question, 3.3.2
fiduciaries, 9.4
flexible standard, 3.3.4
food advertising, see MISLEADING ADVERTISING
force-placed auto insurance, 9.5.10
foreclosures, 6.7.6
FTC definition, 3.2.7.4.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.3.2, 6.12.1
future service contracts, 9.1
gift cards and certificates, 6.9.6
health and nutrition, 9.3
high-pressure sales tactics, 4.3.6, 5.5.2
home mortgages, 6.7
home-related services, 8.4
household products, 8.8
household services, 8.6
illegal conduct, 4.3.9
immigration consultants, 9.4.2.1
improvident extension of credit, 6.3
insurance, 9.5
intrusive sales techniques, 5.5.6
judicial standard, 3.2.7.4.1
landlord-tenant practices, 8.2
laundry list, 3.2.2.1
practices outside list, 3.2.3, 3.3.4
litigation misconduct, 6.10.10
loan brokers, 6.2
loan modification, 6.7.5.3
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2
manufactured home sales, 8.1.1
medical cures, 9.3.2
migrant farm workers, 8.2.9
negative option sales, 5.5.5
nursing facilities, 9.3.3
opportunity schemes, 9.6
oppressive credit practices, 6.8
overview, 4.3
pain and suffering damages, 12.3.3.9
pawnbrokers, 6.13.5
per se practices, see PER SE VIOLATIONS
performance practices, 5.7
practices outside specific prohibitions, 3.2.3
predatory mortgage loans, 6.7.2.3
proving, 3.3
pure omissions, 4.3.7
question of fact, 11.8.2.3
real estate sales, 8.3
regulations, see UDAP REGULATIONS
repairs, 5.7.6
repossessions, 6.13.3
secured credit cards, 6.8.2.2.2
special status, misuse, 4.3.10
specific practices, see specific headings
standards
CFPB standard, 4.3.2.1
FTC standard, 4.3.2, 4.3.3.3.2
generally, 3.3.4, 4.3.1, 13.2
public policy relationship, 3.2.7.4.1, 4.3.2.5
reliance, necessity, 4.2.12.3.2
S&H” standard, 3.2.7.4.1, 4.3.3.3, 4.3.3.4
state enforcement actions, 13.2.4
state standards, 4.3.3
state enforcement actions, 13.2.4
state UDAP definitions, 4.3.3
storage practices, 8.6.1
subprime credit cards, 6.8.2.2
substantial consumer injury, 4.3.2.2
see also SUBSTANTIAL CONSUMER INJURY
not outweighed by benefits, 4.3.2.4
not reasonably avoidable, 4.3.2.3
public policy relationship, 4.3.2.5
systematic breach of contract, 4.3.5
travel, 9.2
unconscionability, relationship, 4.3.2.3.3, 4.3.12, 4.4.1
unsubstantiated claims, 5.2.1
used car sales, 7.4
venue, inconvenient, 6.10.9
vulnerable groups, 4.3.8
warranties, 5.6.7
UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES ACTS
see UDAP STATUTES; UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES AND CONSUMER PROTECTION LAW; UNIFORM DECEPTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT (UDTPA)
UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES AND CONSUMER PROTECTION LAW
UDAP statutes, model legislation, 3.4.2.2
UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES
see UNFAIR PRACTICES
UNFAIRNESS
see UNFAIR PRACTICES
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
automobile leases, application, 7.6.5
consumer credit contracts, unconscionable provisions, 6.12.2
rent-to-own transactions, application, 8.7.7
repossession conduct violating, 6.13.3, 6.13.4
telechecks, unauthorized, application, 6.9.3
UDAP displacement, 2.3.3.5.5
unconscionability standards, 4.4.9.1
specific findings, 4.4.9.2
violations as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6, 6.13.4
warranties, application, 5.6.7.1.1
UNIFORM CONSUMER CREDIT CODE (UCCC)
unconscionability findings, 4.4.9.2
UNIFORM CONSUMER SALES PRACTICES ACT
UDAP statutes, model legislation, 3.4.2.3
unconscionability, definition, 4.4.2
UNIFORM DECEPTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT (UDTPA)
attorney fees, authorization, 12.8.2.1
laundry list of deceptive practices, 4.2.1
private actions, 12.2.8
available relief, 12.2.8.2
injunctive relief, 12.6.2.1, 12.6.3.2.2
standing, 12.2.8.1
UDAP statutes, model legislation, 3.4.2.4
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.5, 12.2.8.2
UNIFORM ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ACT (UETA)
E-Sign opt out, 4.2.15.3.10
UNIFORM PARTNERSHIP ACT
UDAP claims, liability, 10.3.5
UNION-MADE
misrepresentations, 5.4.6
UNIONS
see LABOR UNIONS
UNIQUENESS
misrepresentations, 5.4.2
UNJUST ENRICHMENT
successor corporations, 10.8.1
UDAP alternative claim, 1.7
voluntary payments made under mistake of law, 4.2.20.5
UNLICENSED ACTIVITIES
generally, 5.4.8.2
rental property, UDAP violations, 8.2
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2.4
violations as per se UDAP violations, 3.2.7.3.6
UNORDERED MERCHANDISE
see UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
UDAP principles, 8.5.1.6
UDAP regulations, 8.5.1.4
price gouging, 8.5.1.5
UDAP violations, 8.5.1
UNREQUESTED SERVICES
see also UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
junk faxes, see JUNK FAXES
UDAP application, 2.2.4.7
UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
see also UNREQUESTED SERVICES
deceptive practices
live check solicitations, 6.9.5
magazine sales, 8.8.9
sending through mail, 5.5.4
UDAP application, 2.2.4.7
UDAP violations, 5.5.4
UNSUBSTANTIATED CLAIMS
generally, 5.2.1
FTC standards, 5.2.2
safety, 5.4.4
state enforcement actions, 13.2.4
state UDAP precedent, 5.2.3
USED CAR PRACTICES
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES; ODOMETER READINGS
buy-here, pay-here vehicles, 7.4.14
car finders, 7.8
cooling-off periods, 7.3.9
tent sales, 7.3.11
curbstoners, 7.3.12
discovery tips, 7.1
uncovering hidden assets, 7.1.13
excessive price, 7.4.13
FTC rule, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
good will buybacks, 7.4.8
hired guns, 7.3.11
lemon laundering, 7.4.7
mileage misrepresentations, 7.4.5
off-premises sales, 7.3.11
promotional events, 7.3.11
private sellers, 7.3.12
nature of prior use, 7.4.4
sale as new, 7.4.3
salvage car sales, 7.4.6
short-term sales events, 7.3.11
spot delivery, 7.3.10
tent sales, 7.3.11
thirty-day, “50-50” warranties, 5.6.7.3.2
title misrepresentations, 7.4.10
UDAP violations, 7.4
undisclosed body damage, 7.4.6
undisclosed prior sale, 7.4.7
unfair negotiation practices, 7.3
vehicle characteristics, misrepresentations, 7.4.11
warranty misrepresentations, 7.4.12
yo-yo sales, 7.3.10
USED CAR RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
overview, 7.4.2
private sellers, application, 7.3.12
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6
USED GOODS
see also USED CAR PRACTICES
deceptive practices, 5.7.4
USURY LAWS (STATE)
see also INTEREST RATES
attempts to evade as UDAP violation, 6.4.5
violation as UDAP violation, 3.2.7.3.6, 3.2.7.4.1
UTILITIES
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs); TELEPHONE COMPANIES
deregulation, 8.5.2.2, 8.5.4.3
filed tariff doctrine, see FILED RATE DOCTRINE
gas and electric service, 8.5.2
illegal shutoffs, 8.5.2.3
interrupted service, 8.5.2.3
landlord liability, 8.2.6
manufactured home communities, 8.1.2.2
slamming, 8.5.3.2
telecommunications services, 8.5.3
UDAP application, 2.3.2, 2.3.3.2, 8.5.2.1, 8.5.3.1
water and sewer service, 8.5.4
VACATION PACKAGES
deceptive practices, 9.2.3
VACCINES
federal preemption, 2.5.13
VAGUENESS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
injunctions, 13.5.1.5, 13.5.1.3
UDAP statutes, 11.9.3
VALUE
valueless services, charges as unfair, 4.3.2.3.6
VEHICLES
see AUTOMOBILES; RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
VENDOR’S SINGLE-INTEREST INSURANCE (VSI)
see also CREDIT INSURANCE
UDAP claims, 7.2.5
VENUE
inconvenient or improper, UDAP violation, 2.3.3.4, 6.10.9
forum non conveniens, 11.5.2.6
UDAP actions, 2.4.4, 11.5.4
VETERINARIANS
UDAP application, 2.3.10.2, 2.3.11
VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS
see FOR-PROFIT SCHOOLS
VOICE OVER INTERNET (VoIP)
UDAP applicability, 8.5.3.6
VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE
see ASSURANCES OF VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE
VOLUNTARY PAYMENT DOCTRINE
UDAP claims, application, 4.2.20.5
VULNERABILITY
see also DISABLED CONSUMERS; OLDER CONSUMERS
deception standards, 4.2.11
enhanced penalties, 13.5.3.7
hearing aid abuses, effect, 9.3.1
unconscionability, effect, 4.4.4, 4.4.9.2
unfairness standards, 4.3.8
undue influence, 4.3.2.3.5
WAGE GARNISHMENT
federal violations, UDAP actions, 2.2.1.5.3
WAIVER
attorney fees, 12.8.4.5.2
class actions, minimum or multiple damages, 12.5.7
collision damage waivers, 7.7.2
contract clauses, UDAP application, 4.2.20.4
insurance claims, unfair practices, 9.5.3.6
notice letters, 11.4.4.9
post-transaction waivers, effect, 4.2.20.6
UDAP scope limitations, 2.1.2
UDAP remedies
failure to plead, 11.6.5.3
subsequent conduct, 4.2.16.2
voluntary payment doctrine, 4.2.20.5
WARDS
see GUARDIANS
WARRANTIES
see also GUARANTEES; MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
breach of warranty
see also LOSS-OF-BARGAIN DAMAGES
claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
contract provisions limiting damages, 12.3.6.1
defective goods, 5.7.3
necessity for UDAP claim, 4.2.20.1
substitution of displayed product, 5.7.5
UDAP violations, 5.6.7.1, 7.5.10.3
used goods as new, 5.7.3
disclaimers
“as is,” 5.6.7.3.2
effect on UDAP claims, 4.2.20.4
extended warranties, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
home builders, 8.3.6.2
home improvement sales, 8.4.3
misrepresentations, 5.6.7.3
used car sales, 7.4.12
new car sales
breach of warranty, 7.5.10.3
“burned” vehicles, 7.5.9
disclosure, 7.5.9
extended warranties, 7.2.4
secret warranties, 7.5.10.2
UDAP application, 2.2.3.1
used car sales
misrepresentations, 7.4.12
thirty-day, “50-50” warranties, 5.6.7.3.2
WARRANTY CLAIMS
see also WARRANTIES
Magnuson-Moss claims, see MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
UDAP alternative, 1.7, 11.6.6
WARSAW CONVENTION
UDAP preemption, 2.5.5.3
WATER COMMISSIONS
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
UDAP application, 2.3.6
WATER FILTRATION SYSTEMS
see WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT SYSTEMS
WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT SYSTEMS
deceptive practices, 8.6.4
non-regulated utilities, 8.5.4.3
WATER SERVICE PROVIDERS
UDAP violations, 8.5.4
overview, 8.5.4.1
regulated utilities, 8.5.4.2
unregulated providers, 8.5.4.3
WATER SOFTENERS
see WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT SYSTEMS
WEB RESOURCES
automobile sales and repairs, 7.1.11
title chain, 7.1.4
trade associations, 7.1.8
consumer advocacy sites, 1.5, 11.7.6
enforcement statements, 3.4.4.1
evidence, use to obtain, 11.7.6
FTC precedent, 3.4.5.5, 3.4.5.6
NCLC resources, 1.3.3
pleadings, 1.3.3
primary sources, 1.3.3
public record information on corporations, 11.7.6
UDAP precedent, 1.5
unreported cases, 1.3.4
UDAP regulations, 3.4.4.1
useful websites, Appx. B
WEB TRANSACTIONS
see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
WEBSITE PUBLISHERS
defamation liability, 11.9.2.5
UDAP liability, 4.2.15.3.9
WEIGHT LOSS PRODUCTS
misrepresentations, 9.3.2
WHOLESALE SALES
see BARGAIN SALES
WHOLESALERS
see also MANUFACTURERS; SELLERS; SUPPLIERS
UDAP application, 2.3.8
WILLFULNESS
see also INTENT
attorney fees, prerequisite, 12.8.2.1
consequential damages, requirement, 12.3.3
mental anguish damages, 12.3.3.9.4
multiple damages, 12.4.2.3.1
punitive damages, 12.4.3.3, 12.4.3.6
treble damages, precondition, 12.4.2.3
WIRE FRAUD
see RICO ACTIONS
WIRELESS SERVICES
see also TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES; TELEPHONE COMPANIES
cramming, 8.5.3.4, 10.4.5
text messaging, see TEXT MESSAGES
third-party charges, 8.5.3.4, 10.4.5
UDAP violations, 8.5.3.5
WITNESS FEES
see also ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
expert witness fees, reimbursement, 12.8.7.3
state enforcement actions, 13.5.8
WITNESSES
see also EVIDENCE; WITNESS FEES
Attorney General staff, calling as, 13.4.10
expert witnesses, see EXPERT EVIDENCE
UDAP actions, 3.3.2
right to confront, 11.9.4.2
WOOD
see UNREGULATED HEATING FUEL
WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT
UDAP preemption, 2.5.13
WORK-AT-HOME SCHEMES
see also BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES; EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
FTC Business Opportunities Rule, application, 9.6.2
UDAP application, 2.2.8.4
UDAP violations, 9.6.2
WRECKED CARS
see SALVAGE CARS
YIELD SPREAD PREMIUMS
ECOA violations, 7.2.3.4
mortgage loans, restrictions, 6.2.4, 6.7.2.1
TILA challenges,
UDAP violations, 6.2.4, 7.2.3.3
YO-YO SALES
described, 7.3.10