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ABBREVIATIONS
debt collector codes, 2.4.5, Appx. E.4
ABUSE OF PROCESS
examples in collection context, 9.6.3.4
malicious prosecution distinguished, 9.6.1, 9.6.3.1
process, defined, 9.6.3.2
SLAPP laws, 9.1.3.3
tort actions, 9.6.3
elements of claim, 9.6.3.1
ulterior purpose, 9.6.3.3
ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
see also DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES; UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
actions re, see FDCPA ACTIONS; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
applicable law, 1.10.1
bankruptcy situations, 2.2, 8.11.3, 8.11.4
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.3
CFPB standards, 10.3.7
check collectors, 1.5.8.1
checklist, Appx. E.3.5
community education, 2.10
complaints re, 1.4.5
administrative agencies, 2.10
CFPB, 1.4.5, 1.9
consumer protection agencies, 2.3.5
FTC, 1.9
judicial, see FDCPA ACTIONS; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
creditor responsibility, 1.5.1, 2.8
debt buyers, 1.5.4
decedent’s debts, 1.5.14
FTC policy on, 3.3.7.3, 5.3.7
demand letters, 2.4.7.6
evidence, gathering, 2.4.1, 2.4.5, 5.5.2.9
fake courtrooms, 1.4.4
fake debt collectors, 1.5.11
FDCPA prohibitions, 5.4
fee-harvesters, 1.5.10.2, 1.5.10.3
foreclosures, 1.10.7
government officials, 8.12
industry overview, 1.4.3, 1.5
injunctive relief, 2.10, 10.7
landlords, 1.10.2.7
legal representation, see LEGAL REPRESENTATION
medical debts, 1.5.15
payday loans, fake collectors, 1.5.11
RICO claims, 8.5
shoplifting penalties, 1.5.12
skip tracers, 1.5.6, 1.8.2
state law restrictions, 10.2.4.3
state or local officials, 8.12
state remedies, see STATE REMEDIES
stopping without litigation or bankruptcy, 2.3
demand letters, 2.4.7.6
right to stop communications, 5.3.9
susceptible consumer standard, 5.4.1
tape recording, 2.4.1, 2.4.9.3
tax collection, private collectors, 8.10
telephone harassment, see TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
tort remedies, see TORT CLAIMS
unreasonable conduct, 9.2.4, 9.3.1
vicarious liability, 2.8
written requests to stop, 2.3.2, 2.3.7, 5.3.9
ABUSIVE LENDING PRACTICES
collection of illegal charges, 1.10.3.3
false threats of criminal prosecution, 1.10.3.4
FDCPA, using to contest, 1.10.3.1
overview, 1.10.3.1
statutory coverage, 1.10.3.2
ACA INTERNATIONAL
professional liability insurance, 2.7
ACCUSATIONS
see FALSE ACCUSATIONS
ACH
see AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE (ACH) NETWORK
ACTIONS
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
abusive practices, see FDCPA ACTIONS; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
appeals, see APPEALS
bankruptcy discharge violations, 8.11.2.6, 8.11.4.2
bankruptcy forum, 8.11.3.5
bankruptcy stay violations, 8.11.2.4, 8.11.4.2
civil rights, see CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
credit repair laws
CROA, 8.9.1, 8.9.5
state law, 10.4.4
debt collection, see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
debt harassment, see FDCPA ACTIONS; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
discriminatory collection tactics, 8.8
FDCPA, see FDCPA ACTIONS
offers of judgment, 2.4.13
RICO, see RICO ACTIONS
state law, see STATE REMEDIES
tax collection abuses, 8.10
TCPA violations, 8.3.2.1, 8.3.2.6
tort, see TORT REMEDIES
UDAP, see UDAP REMEDIES
unordered merchandise, 8.2
ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
see also DEBT COLLECTION
abusive conduct, 1.10.4
arbitration alternative, see MANDATORY ARBITRATION
attorney fee recovery
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.6.4
false representations, 5.5.4.3.3
bankruptcy stay, 8.11.4.4
compulsory counterclaims, 7.4.2
counterclaim to FDCPA action, 7.6
deceptive practices, 5.5.4, 5.5.2.13.4, 10.2.4.4.3
defenses, see DEFENSES
false representations, 5.5.4
false threats, 5.2.7.2, 5.2.7.3, 5.5.2.11, 10.2.4.4.3
time-barred suits, 5.5.2.13.3
FDCPA application, 4.6.4, 4.6.7, 4.6.8, 5.5.2.13.4
communications to consumer’s attorney, 4.6.6
FDCPA issues, 5.2.6
litigation immunity, 7.4.6
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.6
long-arm jurisdiction, 7.1
mass filing, 5.5.6.4
rubber-stamping by courts, 1.7
settlement of FDCPA claims, 2.5.2.3
statute of limitations, 5.5.2.13.3.3
threatening during verification period, 5.7.2.7.3
time-barred suits, 5.5.2.13.3
validity of debt, determining, 2.1.3
venue, 5.2.6.2, 5.9
verification notices, requirement, 4.6.4, 5.2.6.4, 5.7.2.5
verification of the debt, 5.7.3.4
verification rights, failure to exercise not admission, 5.7.4
witness immunity, 7.4.6
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.6
ACTUAL DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
ADDRESSES
creditors, requesting, 5.7.3
debtors, see LOCATION INFORMATION
return addresses, unfair practices, Appx. J.2.5.5
ADJUSTMENT BUREAUS
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES
federal agencies, see FEDERAL AGENCIES
state agencies, see STATE AGENCIES
ADMINISTRATORS
see TRUSTEES
ADVERSE PARTY RULE
attorneys, protection, 9.8
ADVERTISEMENTS
debts for sale, FDCPA restrictions, 5.4.5
AFFILIATES
see CORPORATE AFFILIATES
AGENCY
creditors and collectors, relationship, 2.8
AGENTS
FDCPA violations, liability, 2.8, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.2, 4.2.3.3
AGREEMENTS
see CREDIT AGREEMENTS; WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
ALIASES
see also FALSE NAMES
debt collectors, use by, 5.4.7.3, 5.5.13, 5.5.17
ALIMONY
see CHILD SUPPORT
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE MECHANISMS (ADR)
see MANDATORY ARBITRATION
AMERICAN COLLECTOR’S ASSOCIATION (ACA)
see ACA INTERNATIONAL
ANSWERING MACHINES
see VOICEMAIL MESSAGES; TELEPHONE CALLS
ANTI-TRUST LAWS
debt collection, application, 8.13
APPEALS
FDCPA actions
attorney fee awards, 6.8.10
attorney fees for, 6.8.6.2.4
ARBITRATION
see MANDATORY ARBITRATION CLAUSES
ARREST
see also FALSE ARREST OR IMPRISONMENT
deceptive threats, 5.5.7
ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
prior express consent to, 8.3.2.4.2
revocation of consent, 8.3.2.4.4
who may give consent, 8.3.2.4.3
federal regulation, 8.3.2.1
exceptions, 8.3.2.4, 8.3.2.5
scope, 8.3.2.2
state regulation, 10.8.5
wrong numbers, 8.3.2.6
ASSAULT
see also CRIMINAL CONDUCT; VIOLENCE
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.1
ASSIGNEES
see also DEBT BUYERS; SALE OF DEBTS
FDCPA application, 4.1, 4.2.2, 4.3.9, 4.3.10
ASSIGNMENT OF DEBTS
see DEBT BUYERS; SALE OF DEBTS
ASSOCIATION OF CREDIT AND COLLECTION PROFESSIONALS
see ACA INTERNATIONAL
ATTACHMENT
see also GARNISHMENT; SEIZURE AND SALE
deceptive threats, 5.5.7
excessive, 9.6.3
exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
see also ATTORNEYS
bankruptcy actions, 8.11.2.6
collection as unauthorized practice of law, 10.5.1
collection suits
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.6.4
false representations, 5.5.4.3.3
class actions, common fund approach, 6.8.5
FDCPA actions, 6.8
accurate records, keeping, 2.9
allowable hours, 6.8.6.2
appealing award, 6.8.10
appellate work, 6.8.6.2.4
calculation, 6.8.6
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.3
class actions, 6.8.5, 6.8.9.1
costs, 6.8.7, 7.7.4, Appx. J.3.3.4
defendant, awards to, 2.11, 7.7.1, 7.7.4
fee applications, 6.8.6.2.4, 6.8.9
hourly rate, 6.8.6.3
jury trial, 2.5.6
mandatory award, 6.8.2
multiplying proceedings, 7.7.3
negotiating, 6.8.3.2
nonprofit legal aid offices, 2.4.3, 6.8.6.3
offers of judgment, 2.4.13.4
postjudgment, 6.8.6.2.4
prejudgment interest, 6.8.8
prevailing consumer, 6.8.1, 6.8.6.2.3
retainer agreements, 2.9
right to, 6.8.2, 6.8.3.1, 6.8.4
rule 11 sanctions, 7.7.2
settlement, 6.8.3
supplemental awards, 6.8.6.2.4
tax liability, 2.1.4
injunctions, 2.10
lodestar approach, 6.8.6
offsets, 6.8.4
outstanding receivables
credit reporting, 8.6.6.3
FDCPA application, 4.4.2.2
unethical collection, 10.5.4
ownership of award, 6.8.4
sample documents, Appx. I
declaration in support of award, Appx. I.2
memorandum in support of fee award, Appx. I.4
motion for fee award, Appx. I.1
motion in limine, Appx. H.5.2
order for fee award, Appx. I.3
sanctions
multiplying proceedings, 7.7.3
rule 11, 7.7.2
setoffs, 6.8.4
state law actions, 10.2.5.2.4
survey evidence, recovery of costs, 2.4.14.2
tax liability, 2.1.4
written fee agreement, 6.8.4
ATTORNEYS
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS; PRACTICE OF LAW
co-counseling with other attorneys, 1.1.3, 1.3
collection attorneys, see COLLECTION ATTORNEYS
communications to, FDCPA application, 4.6.6
continuing education, 1.2
CROA, application, 8.9.2
eviction attorneys, FDCPA application, 4.2.6.4
fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
foreclosure attorneys, see FORECLOSURE LAW FIRMS
impersonation, 5.5.6, Appx. J.2.4.4
letterhead as deceptive threat, 5.5.2.11.3
practice aids, see PRACTICE AIDS
referrals from debt settlement companies, 1.3
representation of debtor, effect, 2.3.7, 5.3.3, 5.3.7
sanctions
multiplying proceedings, 7.7.3
rule 11, 7.7.2
specialization in fair debt collection law, 1.3
developing a plaintiffs’ practice, 2.1.6
NACA membership, 1.1.3, 1.3, 2.4.7.6
training and conferences, 1.2
tort actions against, 9.8
unethical practices, 5.2.7
debt collection for others, 10.5.3
debt collection for self, 10.5.4
pro se defendants, 5.2.7.6
remedies, 10.5.5.2
tape recording of conversations, 2.4.1, 2.4.9.3
tort actions, 9.8
AUTODIALER SYSTEMS
see AUTOMATED DIALING SYSTEMS
AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE (ACH) NETWORK
electronic transactions, rules, 8.7.2.3
NSF fees, collection via, 8.7.3
AUTOMATED DIALING SYSTEMS
definition, 8.3.2.3
predictive dialers, 8.3.2.3
preview dialing, 8.3.2.3
prior express consent to calls, 8.3.2.4.2
revocation of consent, 8.3.2.4.4
who may give consent, 8.3.2.4.3
state law, 10.8.5
TCPA prohibitions, 8.3.2.1
exceptions, 8.3.2.4, 8.3.2.5
scope, 8.3.2.2
technological changes, 1.8.1
TeleZappers, 1.8.2
wrong numbers, 8.3.2.6
AUTOMATIC NUMBER IDENTIFICATION (ANI)
toll-free number subscribers, 8.3.3.4
AUTOMATIC PAYMENT PLANS
see ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS
AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.3
BAD CHECKS
see also POSTDATED CHECKS
collections, see CHECK COLLECTORS
criminal prosecution, threatening, 9.6.2, 9.6.3
dishonored list, publication, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4
FDCPA, application, 4.3.12, 4.4.2.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.1.3
NSF fees, electronic collection, 8.7.3
re-presentment, 8.7.4
unauthorized charges, collecting, 5.6.3
BAD FAITH
see also MALICE
credit reporting agencies, actions against, necessity, 9.5
defamation, necessity, 9.5
FDCPA claims
attorney fee awards, 7.7.1
rule 11 sanctions, 7.7.2
invasion of privacy claims, necessity, 9.3.1
prosecutions, see MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
punitive damages, 2.6.1
BANK ACCOUNTS
see also BANKS
electronic fund transfers, see ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS
exemption from seizure, notice to collector, 2.3.3
garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
remotely created checks, see REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
BANKRUPTCY
advantages and disadvantages, 8.11.2.3
adversary proceedings, 8.11.3.5
automatic stay of debt collection, 8.11.2.4
violation of stay, 8.11.2.4, 8.11.4.2
basics, 8.11.2
chapter 7, 8.11.2.1
chapter 13, 8.11.2.2
considerations, 8.11.2.3, 8.11.2.5
debt collectors, preservation of insurer’s liability, 2.7
debt harassment, stopping without resorting to, 2.3, 8.11.3.1
discharge of debts, 8.11.2.6
violation of discharge, 8.11.2.6, 8.11.4.2
exemptions, 8.11.2.5
fair debt collection claims and, 2.2, 8.11.3, 8.11.4
application, 4.6.8
attorney fees, 8.11.3.6
claims arising after, 8.11.3.4
claims arising before, 8.11.3.2
claims arising during, 8.11.3.3
claims relating to, 8.11.4
collateral estoppel, 7.4.2
defense, as, 7.4.1
generally, 8.11.3.1
jurisdiction, 6.11.1
litigating, 8.11.3.5
preemption, 8.11.4.4
raising, 7.4.1, 8.11.3
jurisdictional issues, Appx. J.3.7.5
liquidations, 8.11.2.1
overview, 8.11.2
proof of claim, 8.11.4.3
inflated claims, 8.11.4.3.2
overview of process, 8.11.4.3.1
property of the estate, 8.11.2.5
reorganizations, 8.11.2.2
state collection statutes, preemption, 8.11.4.4, 10.1.2
tort claims in context of, 9.1.2.2
privilege defense, 9.1.3.1
violations of Code, 8.11.4
discharge violations, 8.11.2.6, 8.11.4.2
stay violations, 8.11.2.4, 8.11.4.2
voluntary repayments, 8.11.2.1, 8.11.2.6
BANKS
see also BANK ACCOUNTS; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
credit cards, see CREDIT CARDS
electronic fund transfers, error procedures, 8.7.6
FDCPA, application, 4.3.1
debt collector status, 4.2.3.4
harassment complaints against, 2.3.5
national banks, see NATIONAL BANKS
state collection laws, application, 10.1.2, 10.2.3.3.8
stop payments, 8.7.5
failure to honor, 8.7.6
BATTERY
see also VIOLENCE
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.1
BILLING ERRORS
see also ERRORS
correction, written requests for, 2.3.6
TILA protections, 8.4.2
BONA FIDE ERROR DEFENSE
see also DEFENSES
amount owing, mistakes, 5.5.4.3.1
bona fide, 7.2.5
clerical mistakes, 7.2.4
factual mistakes, 7.2.4
mistakes of law
FDCPA interpretation, 7.2.2
state or other federal law, 7.2.3
overview, 7.2.1
reasonable procedures, 7.2.8
reasonable reliance on creditor’s information, 7.2.6
state law, 10.2.5.3
unintentional, 7.2.7
BOUNCED CHECKS
see BAD CHECKS
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
arbitration agreement, 2.4.8.3
attorney fee applications, 6.8.9.1
defendant debt collector, by, 7.7.1
bona fide error defense, 7.2.1
consumer debt, 4.4.2.1
defamation, 9.5.6
jurisdiction, 6.11.2.1
TCPA exceptions, 8.3.2.5
verification notice, failure to provide, 5.7.2.5
BUSINESS DEBTS
FDCPA, application, 4.1, 4.3.11, 4.4.2, Appx. J.1.1.6.2
state collection statutes, application, 10.2.3.1.3
UDAP statutes, application, 10.3.3.3, 10.3.3.5
BUYERS OF DEBT
see DEBT BUYERS
CALLER ID TELEPHONE SERVICES
see also TELEPHONE CALLS
accuracy of information, 8.3.3.1
ANI services, 8.3.3.4
blocking, 8.3.3.4
fake or misleading IDs, 1.8.2, 2.4.1, 8.3.3.2
meaningful disclosure, 8.3.3.3
privacy issues, 1.8.2, 8.3.3.4
spoofing, 8.3.3.2
toll-free numbers, 8.3.3.4
Truth in Caller ID Act, 8.3.3.2
CAMPGROUND MEMBERSHIPS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2
CANCELLATION OF DEBT
see also DEBT SETTLEMENT
tax consequences, 1.5.13
IRS Form 1099-C, 1.5.13
CASE LAW
see also STATE LAW
fair debt collection
developments, 3.3.3
online resources, 1.1.2, 3.3.3
summaries, Appx. J
CEASE COMMUNICATION
see STOP CONTACT
CELLULAR PHONES
see also TELEPHONE CALLS
CAN SPAM Act, 8.3.4
causing expenses by concealing purpose, 5.6.5
e-mail messages, 8.3.4
harassing calls, 1.8.2, 8.3.2
see also TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
inconvenient time or place, 5.3.2.7
TCPA restrictions, 5.3.2.7, 8.3.2
autodialed or prerecorded calls, 8.3.2.1
exceptions, 8.3.2.4
scope of restrictions, 8.3.2.2
text messages, see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
CHARGE-OFFS
tax implications, 1.5.13
CHARGES
see COLLECTION FEES
CHECK COLLECTORS
see also BAD CHECKS
FDCPA, application, 4.1, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.10.5
operating in name of district attorney, see CHECK DIVERSION PROGRAMS
overview, 1.5.8.1
CHECK DIVERSION PROGRAMS
see also CHECK COLLECTORS
operating in name of district attorney, 1.5.8.2
FDCPA exemption, 3.3.2.4, 4.3.12, Appx. J.1.1.3.3, Appx. J.1.2.2.8
CHECK GUARANTEE SERVICES
see also BAD CHECKS
FDCPA, application, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.10.5, Appx. J.1.2.2.5
CHECKLISTS
see PRACTICE AIDS
CHECKS
see BAD CHECKS; CHECK COLLECTORS; CHECK GUARANTEE SERVICES; POSTDATED CHECKS
CHILD SUPPORT
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.3
case summaries, Appx. J.1.1.5.2.2
state debt collection statutes, application, 10.2.3.3.5
CHILDREN
see also THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
collection contact, 5.3.5.3
leaving messages, 5.3.5.6
FDCPA application, 4.5
CIVIL ACTIONS
see ACTIONS
CIVIL CONSPIRACY
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.5
CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 8.12, 9.7.8
discriminatory or bad faith collection tactics, 8.8
state action, 8.12.2
CLAIMS
see ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
CLASS ACTIONS
see also FDCPA ACTIONS; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
adequacy of representation, 6.6.2.2.5
arbitrations, 2.4.8.11
attorney fee awards
common fund approach, 6.8.5
court approval, 6.8.9.1
bankruptcy discharge violations, 8.11.2.6
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.2
class certification requirements, 6.6.2
commonality, 6.6.2.2.3
cy pres awards, 6.6.2.3.4
damages, 6.2.2.2, 6.6.3
actual damages, 6.6.2.3.5
statutory damages, 6.6.3
declaratory relief, 6.2.2.3, 6.6.2.3.3, 6.7.1
defense tactics, 6.6.4
counterclaims, 6.6.4.3
offers of judgment, 6.6.4.2
merits, request to consider first, 6.6.4.4
FDCPA violations, 6.2.2.2, 6.2.2.3
generally, 6.6.1
harassment actions, considerations, 2.4.7.5
increasing recoveries, 6.6.3.3
injunctive relief, 2.10, 6.2.2.3, 6.6.2.3.3, 10.7
manageability, 6.6.2.3.4
numerosity, 6.6.2.2.2
offers of judgment, 6.6.4.2
practical considerations, 6.6.1
predominance, 6.6.2.3.4
rule 23 requirements, 6.6.2
rule 23(a), 6.6.2.2
rule 23(b), 6.6.2.3
sample discovery, Appx. G.4
interrogatories, Appx. G.4.1
requests for admissions, Appx. G.4.2
requests for production, Appx. G.4.3
settlement, 6.6.5
offers of settlement, 6.6.4.2
superiority, 6.6.2.3.4
supplemental state claims, 6.6.3.3
typicality, 6.6.2.2.4
UDAP class actions, 10.3.8
unauthorized practice of law, 10.5.5
CODED LISTS
publication, 5.4.4.3
CODES
debt collectors, 2.4.5, Appx. E.4
COERCION
see THREATS
COLLATERAL
see SECURITY INTERESTS
COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
FDCPA claims, 7.4.2
COLLECTION ACTIONS
see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
COLLECTION AGENCIES
see also DEBT COLLECTORS; DEBT COLLECTION
abusive practices, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
attorney relationships, 5.2.7.5
auto dialer systems, TeleZappers, 1.8.2
caller ID services, use, 1.8.2
check diversion programs, 1.5.8.2, 4.3.12, Appx. J.1.2.2.8
child support collection, 1.5.9
collection contacts, see COLLECTION CONTACTS
consumer reporting agencies
reporting to, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
status as, 8.6.5
contingent fee agencies, 1.5.2
credit bureau, restriction on use of term, 1.6.1, 2.5.7, 5.5.19, 8.6.6.1, Appx. J.2.4.6
credit reports, obtaining and use, 8.6.3
debt purchases by, 1.5.4
deceptive conduct, see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
direct liability, 4.2.3.3
employees
FDCPA actions, joinder as party, 6.2.4.5
FDCPA application, 4.3.1
FDCPA violations, liability, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.2, 6.2.4.1
torts, liability, 9.9
use of aliases, 5.4.7.3
wrongs by, liability, 2.8
FCRA, application, 8.6
FDCPA application, 4.1, 4.2.3.4
debt collector status, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.1
FDCPA compliance, creditor responsibility, 1.5.1, 2.8
FDCPA liability, 2.8, 4.2.3
FDCPA violations, see FDCPA VIOLATIONS
fees, see COLLECTION FEES
flat-rating, 1.5.5, 4.2.7.1, 4.2.7.2
FTC frequent complaints, 1.9
independent contractor or agent, 2.8
large agencies, see MAJOR DEBT COLLECTORS
licensing
case summaries, Appx. J.2.4.5
FDCPA application, 5.5.8.4
state law, 10.2.1, 10.2.4.5
unlicensed collection, 5.5.8.5, 10.2.4.5
lists of debtors, publication, 5.4.4, 8.6.6.1
shame lists, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2, 8.6.1
officers, liability, 6.2.4.1
overseeing by creditors, 1.5.1
overview, 1.5.2
owners, vicarious liability
FDCPA, 4.2.3.3, 6.2.4.2
tort claims, 9.9
reasonable procedures, 7.2.8
specialized agencies, 1.5.2
state law, application, 10.2.3.3
tax collections, 8.10
true name, use, 5.5.17
unauthorized practice of law by, 10.5.2
remedies, 10.5.5
unfair or unconscionable practices, see UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
vicarious liability, 2.8, 4.2.3.3
COLLECTION ATTORNEYS
see also ATTORNEYS
abusive conduct, 8.4.1
agency relationship to creditor, 2.8
arbitration clauses, enforcement, 2.4.8.5
conferences, 1.2
deceptive practices, 4.2.7.3, 5.2.7, 5.5.6, 5.5.12
false threats, 5.2.7, 5.5.2.11
FDCPA application, 4.2.8, 4.6.6, 4.6.8, 5.2.6.1, 5.9.2
debt collector status, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.1, 4.3.7, Appx. J.1.2.2.1
FDCPA liability, 4.2.3.2, 4.2.3.3
FDCPA suits against, 6.2.4.1, 6.2.4.3
fees, false representations, 5.5.4.3.3
flat-rating, see FLAT-RATING
form letters, 4.2.7.3, 5.5.6, 5.5.12
immunity, 7.4.6, Appx. J.3.6.6
involvement in process, 1.5.3, 4.2.7.3, 5.5.6
lawsuit threats, 5.2.7, 5.4.1, 5.5.2.11
litigation activities, 4.6.4, 4.6.8, 5.2.6, 7.4.6, 10.1.3
mass filing of lawsuits, 5.5.6.4
negligence, liability, 9.8
overview, 1.5.3
pitfalls to avoid, 5.2.6.5
privilege, 7.4.6, 9.1.3.1, 10.1.3, Appx. J.3.6.6
“regularly collects,” 4.2.8.4
relationship with collection agency, 5.2.7.5, 5.5.6.1
review of file, 4.2.7.3, 5.5.6.2, 5.5.6.3, 5.5.12
self-represented persons, dealing with, 5.2.7.6
state collection laws, application, 10.2.3.3.3
UDAP application, 10.3.3.4
unethical activities, 5.2.6.5, 5.2.7, 5.5.6, 10.5.3
remedies, 10.5.5.2
tort actions, 9.8
unique issues, 5.2.6
written requests to stop dunning, 2.3.2, 2.3.7
wrongdoing, creditor liability, 2.8
COLLECTION CALLS
see TELEPHONE CALLS
COLLECTION CONTACTS
see also COLLECTION LETTERS
abusive, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
attorneys, 5.5.6
bankruptcy filing, after, 8.11.2.4
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.2
charges for, FDCPA restrictions, 5.6.5
chronology of contacts, 2.4.4, Appx. E.2
deceptive, see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
definition, 4.6.4, 5.3.5.7, 5.3.6
disclosure requirements, 5.3.5.8, 5.5.14
envelopes, restrictions, 5.3.7, 5.6.8
false credit information, 5.5.11
FDCPA application, 4.6.4, 4.6.6
case summaries, Appx. J.1.5
FDCPA violations, checklist, Appx. E.3.6
identification requirements, 5.3.5.8, 5.4.7, 5.5.13
messages, 5.5.14.1
inconvenient time or place, 5.3.2, Appx. J.2.2.1
cellular phones, 5.3.2.7
collector inquiry as to convenience, 5.3.2.5
communications broadly covered, 5.3.2.2
inconvenient places, 5.3.2.4
inconvenient times, 5.3.2.3
other provisions, 5.3.2.6
waiver of protections, 5.3.2.6
legal proceedings, 5.2.6.3, 4.6.4, 4.6.6, 4.6.8
location information, obtaining, 5.3.6, 5.3.7, 5.4.7.2
postcards, prohibition, 5.6.7
reasonable and civil treatment, 5.2.5
revealing indebtedness to others, 5.3.5
records
discovery, 2.4.9
use as evidence, 2.4.5
represented debtors, 2.3.7, 4.6.6, 5.3.3, 5.3.7, 10.2.4.3.3, Appx. J.2.2.2
right to stop, 5.3.9, Appx. J.2.2.5
demand letters, 2.3.2, 2.4.7.6
notice of right, 5.3.9.4, 5.7.2.6.2.2
state rights, 5.3.9.4
state laws, application, 10.2.3.2
subsequent collection agencies, 5.3.9.3
telephone harassment, see TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
third-party contacts, see THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
unreasonable, 9.2.4
verification of debt after, 5.7.2
verification period, during, 5.7.3.4
verification right period, during, 5.7.2.7
waiver of protections, 5.3.8
workplace contacts, 5.3.2.4, 5.3.4, Appx. J.2.2.3
COLLECTION FEES
communication charges, 5.6.5
illegal service charges, 5.5.5
incorrect statements, 5.5.4.3.2
unauthorized, collecting, 5.6.3
COLLECTION FORMS
see also COLLECTION LETTERS
deceptive forms, 4.2.7, 5.5.4, 5.5.6, 5.5.12, 5.10, Appx. J.2.8
flat-rating, 4.2.7.1, 4.2.7.2, Appx. J.1.3
legal process, simulating, 5.5.12
suppliers and designers, debt collector status, 4.1, 4.2.7.1, Appx. J.1.2.2.4
COLLECTION LETTERS
see also COLLECTION CONTACTS; COLLECTION FORMS
attorney violations, 4.2.7.3, 5.2.7, 5.5.6, 5.5.12
bankruptcy filing, after, 8.11.2.4
deceptive statements, 5.5.2
disclosure requirements, 5.5.14
envelopes, restrictions, 5.3.7, 5.6.8
flat-rating, see FLAT-RATING
interstate letters, 5.2.7.3
legal letterhead, 5.5.2.11.3
legal process, simulating, 5.5.12, 5.5.13, 5.5.16
postcards, restrictions, 5.6.7
review of file by attorney prior to, 4.2.7.3, 5.5.6.2, 5.5.6.3, 5.5.12
COLLECTION SUITS
see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
COLLECTORS
see DEBT COLLECTORS
COLORADO RIVER DOCTRINE
comity, 7.4.3
COMMERCIAL CREDIT
see BUSINESS DEBTS
COMMUNICATION
see COLLECTION CONTACTS
COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT
telephone harassment, prohibition, 8.3.1
COMMUNITY EDUCATION
debt harassment, rights, 2.10
COMPLAINTS
CFPB, to, 1.4.5, 1.9, 2.10
collection harassment, 2.3.2, 2.3.5
civil, see PLEADINGS
FTC, to, 2.3.5
frequent allegations, 1.9
state agencies, to, 2.3.5, 2.10
COMPUTER-ASSISTED DUNNING
technological changes, 1.8.1
CONDOMINIUM AND CO-OP FEES
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.1.2
CONFIDENTIALITY CLAUSES
settlements, 2.5.2.3
CONSENT
autodialed or prerecorded calls, 8.3.2.4.2
burden of proof, 8.3.2.5
revocation of consent, 8.3.2.4.4
who may give consent, 8.3.2.4.3
third-party collection contacts, 5.3.5, 5.3.8
CONSPIRACY
see CIVIL CONSPIRACY
CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
see also DUE PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
FDCPA, 3.2
punitive damages, 2.6.1
state debt collection statutes, 10.2.2
state or local officials, abuses by, 8.12
CONSUMER DEBTS
amount, misrepresentation, 5.5.4.3, 5.6.3, 5.7.2.6.4, 5.7.2.6.5, 10.2.4.4.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.10
bankruptcy discharge, 8.11.2.6
buyers, see DEBT BUYERS
character, misrepresentation, 5.5.4.2
charged-off debts, 1.5.13
collection, see DEBT COLLECTION
counseling services, see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
date of delinquency, 8.6.2.2
default status, 4.3.10
definition, 4.1, 4.2.2, 4.4.2
disputing, 5.7.2.6.3, 5.7.3. 9.6.3
failure to dispute, effect, 5.7.4
FDCPA, application, 4.4.1, 4.4.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.1
federal agencies, to, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
forgiven debts, 1.5.13
fraud or identity theft, 8.6.4
installment payments, see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
legal status, misrepresentation, 5.5.4.4, 10.2.4.4.7
medical debts, 1.5.15
misrepresentations, 5.5.4
multiple, application of payments, 5.8
nonpayment, false accusations, 9.5.3
overview of consumer credit, 1.4.1
financially distressed consumers, 1.4.2
publicizing
FDCPA restrictions, 5.4.5, 8.6.6.1
shame lists, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2, 8.6.1
purchasing by collection agencies, 1.5.4
reinvestigations, 8.6.2.3
RICO claims, 8.5
settlement, see DEBT SETTLEMENT
state collection statutes, application, 10.2.3.1.3
surviving debt guide, 1.11
TILA disclosures, 8.4
time-barred debts, 5.5.2.13
transfer, see SALE OF DEBTS
unlawful debt, defined, 8.5.2
validity, examination, 2.1.3
verification notices, see VERIFICATION NOTICES
verification rights, 2.3.6, 5.7.1, 5.7.3
CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
creation, 3.3.6.1
debt collection complaints, 1.4.5, 1.9, 2.3.5, 2.10
templates, 2.3.2
FDCPA
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.7.3
enforcement authority, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.2.6, 6.13.3
interpretations, 3.3.6.3
rule making authority, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.6.2, 6.13.1
funding, 3.3.6.1
supervisory authority, 3.3.6.1
unfair, deceptive, or abusive practices, examples, 10.3.7
CONSUMER LOCATING SERVICES
see SKIP TRACING
CONSUMER PROTECTION AGENCIES
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
FTC, see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
harassment complaints to, 2.3.5, 2.10
CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
see also CREDIT REPORTS
actions against, malice or willful intent, 9.3.1, 9.5
credit bureau, use of term by non-reporting agency, 1.6.1, 2.5.7, 5.5.19, 8.6.6.1
case summaries, Appx. J.2.4.6
credit reports, provision, 5.4.4.3
free annual report, 8.6.6.3
deceptive representations, 5.5.2.6.2
definition, 5.5.19
Fair Credit Reporting Act
limited immunity, 9.1.4
requirements 9.6
file disclosure, 8.6.6.3
fraud or identity theft, special duties, 8.6.4
inaccurate information, 5.5.11, 8.6.2, 8.6.2.3
examples, 8.6.2.2
liability of furnishers, 8.6.2, 8.6.2.3
notice of dispute, 8.6.2.3.1
reinvestigations, 8.6.2.3.2, 8.6.2.3.3
invasion of privacy claims, 9.3.1
limited immunity, 9.1.4
misrepresentation as, 5.5.19
overview, 1.6.1
privilege, 9.1.3.2
reinvestigations, 8.6.2.3
furnisher’s duty, 8.6.2.3.2
notice of dispute, 8.6.2.3.1
time limits, 8.6.2.3.3
reinsertion of deleted information, 8.6.2.3.4
reporting debts to, 5.4.4.3
case summaries, Appx. J.2.4.8
debt settlement, 8.6.7
deceptive threats, 5.5.13, 8.6.6.3
disputed debts, 5.5.11, 5.7.3.2, 8.6.6.2
false information, 5.5.11
FCRA, application, 8.6.1
inaccuracies, 2.3.6, 8.6.2, 8.6.2.3
threats during verification period, 5.7.2.7.4
verification period, during, 5.7.3.4, 8.6.6.2
CONSUMER REPORTS
see CREDIT REPORTS
CONSUMERS
see also DEBTORS
debts, see CONSUMER DEBTS
definition, 4.4.1
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2
financially distressed, 1.4.2
harassment, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
least sophisticated standard, 5.2.1, 5.5.2.5, 5.5.8.2, 5.6.1
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.1.1
location information, see LOCATION INFORMATION
reasonable and civil treatment, 5.2.5
represented by attorney, see LEGAL REPRESENTATION; REPRESENTED DEBTORS
self-representation, 2.11, 5.2.7.6
state law, application, 10.2.3.1.3, 10.2.3.4, 10.3.3.5
surviving debt guide, 1.11
susceptible consumer standard, 5.4.1
CONTACT
see COLLECTION CONTACTS
CONTESTS
debt collection by, 5.5.13, 5.5.14.1
CONTRACTS
see CREDIT AGREEMENTS
CONTRACTUAL RELATIONSHIPS
tortious interference, 9.4
CONVERSION
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.3
CORPORATE AFFILIATES
collecting of debts
collection agency for parent, 4.2.5, 4.3.10.5
non-collection agencies, 4.3.3, Appx. J.1.2.3.2
use of own name, 4.3.3, 5.5.17
FDCPA violations, application, 4.2.3.3, 6.2.4.2
CORPORATE OFFICERS
liability for collection abuses
FDCPA, 4.2.3.2, 6.2.4.1
tort claims, 9.9
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
COUNSELING
see also CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
harassed debtors, by attorneys, 2.1.4
COUNTERCLAIMS
class actions, 6.6.4.3
compulsory counterclaims, 7.4.2
FDCPA suits
attorney fee applications by way of, 7.7.1
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.6
defense tactic, 6.6.4.3
underlying debt, 7.6
harassment claims as, 2.4.7.5
jurisdiction, 6.11.1
statute of limitations, 6.10
recoupment claims, 6.10.8
supplemental jurisdiction, 7.6
CREDIT
see CONSUMER DEBTS
CREDIT AGREEMENTS
arbitration clauses, 2.4.8
new payment schedules, see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
CREDIT BUREAUS
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
CREDIT CARDS
billing disputes, TILA protections, 8.4.2
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2
“fee-harvester” cards, 1.5.10
use as debt collection device, 1.5.10.3
CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
see also COUNSELING
collection contacts, 5.3.5.3
FDCPA, application, 4.1, 4.2.2, 4.3.6, Appx. J.1.2.3.5
scams, 1.6.2
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
coverage, 8.9.2
overview, 8.9.1
remedies, 8.9.5
restrictions on CROs, 8.9.3
substantive prohibitions, 8.9.4
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS STATUTES (STATE)
see also CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
generally, 10.4.1
prohibitions, 10.4.3
remedies, 10.4.4
scope, 10.4.2
CREDIT REPORTING AGENCIES
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
CREDIT REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
collection agencies, obtaining, 8.6.3
debt settlement, 8.6.7
debts arising from fraud or identity theft, 8.6.4
deleted information, reinsertion, 8.6.2.3.4
FCRA, application, 8.6
FDCPA, application, 4.6.7
FDCPA prohibitions, 8.6.6
free annual report, 8.6.6.3
harmful information, rectification, 2.5.2.3
improper acquisition, 8.6.3
inaccurate information
correction, 2.3.6, 8.6.2.3
FDCPA, application, 5.5.11
liability, 8.6.1, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
punitive damages, 2.6.2
intentional interference with contractual relationships, 9.4
limited immunity, 9.1.4
obsolete information, 8.6.2.2
provision by reporting agencies, 5.4.4.3
state law, application, 10.2.4.2,2
use by credit industry, 1.6.1
CREDIT SERVICES ORGANIZATIONS ACTS (STATE)
see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS STATUTES (STATE)
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER DEBTS
FDCPA, application, 1.10.3, 4.4
intentional interference with contractual relationships, 9.4
TILA claims, collector liability, 8.4.2
CREDITORS
abusive collection practices, 1.5.1
abusive lending practices, 1.10.3
affiliated collectors, FDCPA exclusion, 4.3.3
alternative dispute mechanisms, see MANDATORY ARBITRATION
bankruptcy stay violations, 8.11.2.4
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
caller ID services, use, 1.8.2
cancellation of debt, 1.5.13
collection agency abuses, liability, 1.5.1, 2.8
consumer reporting agencies
reporting to, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
status as, 8.6.5
credit repair organization statutes
CROA, application, 8.9.1, 8.9.2
state statutes, application, 10.4.2
credit reports
inaccurate information, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
obtaining, 8.6.3
debt collection, see DEBT COLLECTION
debt collector status, 4.2.2–4.2.5
deceptive forms, liability, 4.2.7.1
definition, 4.1, 4.3.2, 8.9.2
disputed debts, reinvestigations
notice of dispute, 8.6.2.3.1
reasonable investigations, 8.6.2.3.2
time limits, 8.6.2.3.3
employees, FDCPA exclusion, 4.3.2
false names, use, 4.2.5, 4.3.2, 4.3.10.6, 5.5.6.1
FCRA, application, 8.6
FDCPA
application, 1.10.3.2, 2.8, 4.1, 4.2.2–4.2.5, 4.2.7.1, 4.3.9
exclusion, 4.3.2, Appx. J.1.2.3.1
liability, 4.2.3.3
FDCPA actions
defenses, see DEFENSES
joinder, 6.2.4.5, 6.11.5
fraud or identity theft, duties, 8.6.4
intentional interference with contractual relationships, 9.4
IRS Form 1099-C, sending, 1.5.13
litigation misconduct, 1.10.4, 7.4.6
mistaken information, reliance by collector, 7.2.6
name and address, requesting, 5.7.3
overview of collection process, 1.5.1
servicing agents, see SERVICING COMPANIES
state remedies against, 1.10.3.2, 10.2.3.3.1
UDAP statutes, application, 1.10.3.2, 10.3.3.4
unauthorized practice of law, 10.5.1, 10.5.5
vicarious liability
attorney wrongdoing, 2.8
collector’s wrongdoing, 1.5.1, 2.8, 9.9
generally, 2.8
tort claims, 9.9
CRIMINAL CONDUCT
false accusations of, 5.5.10
FDCPA prohibition, 5.4.2
tortious, as, 9.7.6
CRIMINAL PENALTIES
see FINES
CRIMINAL PROSECUTION
see also MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
abusive collection practices, 1.10.3.4, 10.2.1, 10.2.4.3.2, 10.6
bad check laws, threats, 1.10.3.4
DAMAGES
actual damages, see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
bankruptcy
discharge violations, 8.11.2.6
stay violations, 8.11.2.4
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.1
causation, proof, 2.5.5, 6.3.4
checklist, FDCPA violations, Appx. E.3.8
class actions, 6.6
compensable damages, 2.5.4
credit repair violations
CROA remedies, 8.9.1, 8.9.5
state law remedies, 10.4.4
debt harassment, uncovering, 2.1.2
expectations, 2.1.4
defamation, 9.5
EFTA violations, 8.7.6
emotional distress, 6.3.2, 9.2.6
evidence, 2.5.3
FDCPA actions, increasing awards, 6.2.2.1
leveraging other relief, 2.5.2.3
multiple damages, 6.4.8
often overlooked damages, 2.5.2
prejudgment interest, 6.8.8
punitive damages, see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
state law violations, 10.2.5.2
statutory damages, see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
tax collectors, code violations, 8.10
TCPA violations, 8.3.2.1
tortious interference with a contract, 9.4.2
UDAP remedies, 10.3.8
DAMAGES, ACTUAL
see also DAMAGES
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.1.1
causation, 2.5.5, 6.3.4
class actions, 6.2.2.2, 6.6.2.3.5
common types of injuries and losses, 2.5.2.2
definition, 6.3.1
election of damages, 6.3.5
emotional distress, 6.3.2
evidence, 2.5.3
FDCPA violations, 2.5.2, 6.3
general principles, 2.5.2.1
maximum award benefits, 2.5.1
other awards, relationship, 6.3.5
statutory damages, 6.4.4
out-of-pocket losses, 2.5.2.2.3, 2.5.4
personal relations, injuries to, 2.5.2.2.4
proof, 6.3.3
state law remedies, 10.2.5.2.1
stress-related injuries, 2.5.2.2.2, 2.5.4
DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
see also DAMAGES
actual damages in addition, 6.3.5
arbitration, 2.4.8.10
availability, 6.5.1
bankruptcy situations
discharge violations, 8.11.2.6
stay violations, 8.11.2.4
CROA violations, 8.9.1, 8.9.5
debt buyers, against, 2.6.2
FCRA claims, 2.6.2
FDCPA claims, 2.6.1, 6.5
harassment actions, 2.5.2.1, 2.6.1
state law violations, 10.2.5.2.3
supplemental claims, 6.5.2
DAMAGES, STATUTORY
see also DAMAGES
actual damages
in addition, 6.3.5, 6.4.1
no requirement, 6.4.1, 6.4.2, 6.4.4
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.1.2
class actions, 6.6.3
amount, 6.6.3.1
computing, 6.6.3.2
factors, 6.6.3.4
FDCPA suits, 6.2.2.2
maximizing, 6.6.3.3
supplemental state claims, 6.6.3.3
EFTA, 8.7.6
enhancing awards, 6.4.5, 6.6.3.3
factors, 6.4.2, 6.6.3.4
individual actions, 6.4
intent, effect, 6.9
mandatory award, 6.4.3
maximum award, 6.4.1, 6.4.5, 6.4.8
multiple awards, 6.4.8
maximum award, 6.4.8.1
multiple defendants, 6.4.8.2
multiple plaintiffs, 6.4.8.1
multiple wrongful acts, 6.4.8.3
other awards, relationship, 6.4.7
prejudgment interest, 6.8.8
reducing awards, 6.4.6
state law violations, 10.2.5.2.2
TCPA violations, 8.3.2.1
TILA actions, compared, 6.6.3.1
DATABASES
debt collectors, 1.5.2
NCLC publications, 1.1.1, 1.1.2
use to establish false suit threats, 5.5.2.11.2.2
DEAD BEAT LISTS
publication, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2
DEAD PERSONS
see DECEDENTS’ DEBTS
DEBT BUYERS
see also SALE OF DEBT
abusive conduct, 1.5.4
invalid claims, 1.5.4.4
lack of information, 1.5.4.5
long-term pressure, 1.5.4.3
rogue debt buyers, 1.5.4.2
arbitration clauses, enforcing, 2.4.8.4
FDCPA, application, 4.2.4, 4.3.10
case summaries, Appx. J.1.2.2.6
debt collector status, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.1
IRS Form 1099-C, sending, 1.5.13
law suits, mass filing, 5.5.6.4
overview, 1.5.4.1
punitive damages, against, 2.6.2
state collection statutes, application, 10.2.3.3.1
DEBT COLLECTION
see also COLLECTION AGENCIES; DEBT COLLECTORS; FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
abusive conduct, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
actions, see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
“alleged” debts, 4.6.3
anti-trust laws, application, 8.13
arbitration techniques, see MANDATORY ARBITRATION
attorneys, see ATTORNEYS, collection attorneys
auto dialer systems, TeleZappers, 1.8.2
bankruptcy and, 8.11
automatic stay, 8.11.2.4
claims arising out of, 8.11.4
claims re, impact, 8.11.3
discharged debts, 8.11.2.6
caller ID services, use, 1.8.2
canceled debts, 1.5.13
computer-assisted, 1.8.1
contacts, see COLLECTION CONTACTS
credit cards as collection device, 1.5.10.3
debt servicing distinguished, 4.3.10
decedent’s debts, 1.5.14
FTC policy on, 3.3.7.3, 5.3.7
deceptive conduct, see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
disclosure requirements, 5.5.14
third parties, 5.3.5.8
discriminatory tactics, 8.8
extortionate methods, 8.5
fake courtrooms, 1.4.4
faxes, by, 1.8.2
FCRA, application, 8.6
FDCPA, application, 4
activities in connection with, 4.6.7
attempted collections, 4.6.1, 4.6.2
communications, 4.6.4, 4.6.6
indirect collections, 4.6.1, 4.6.7
litigation activities, 4.6.8, 7.4.6
mistaken collections, 4.6.1, 4.6.3
federal agencies, see TAX COLLECTIONS
fees, see COLLECTION FEES
fraud or identity theft, debts arising from, 8.6.4
garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
harassment, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
interstate, see INTERSTATE DEBT COLLECTION
mails, fraudulent use, 8.1
medical debts, 1.5.15
NCLC treatise, organization, 1.1.1
overview of industry, 1.4.1
overview of process and players, 1.5
practice of law, unauthorized or unethical, 10.5
reasonable and civil treatment, 5.2.5
regulatory history, 1.4.5
related businesses, 1.6
RICO claims, 8.5
servicing companies, by, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.6.3, 4.3.10.1, 4.3.10.3
state governmental immunity, 10.1.4
state restrictions, see STATE LAW
technological changes, 1.8.1
telephone harassment, see TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
tort actions, 9
UDAP statutes, application, 10.3.3
state-by-state survey, 10.3.3.6
unfair or unconscionable activities, see UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
unlawful debts, 8.5.2
unlicensed, 5.5.8.5, 10.2.4.5
unordered merchandise, 8.2
verification period, during, 5.7.2.7, 5.7.3.4
websites, Appx. K
workout agreements, see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
DEBT COLLECTORS
see also COLLECTION AGENCIES; DEBT COLLECTION
abusive conduct, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
arbitration clauses
application, 2.4.8.6
enforcement, 2.4.8.5
assigned debts, 4.3.10
attorney impersonation, 5.5.6, 5.5.12
attorneys as, 1.5.3, 4.2.7.3, 4.2.8, 5.2.6, 5.5.6
auto dialer systems, TeleZappers, 1.8.2
bona fide errors, 5.5.4.3.1, 7.2, Appx. J.3.6.1
caller ID services
misleading IDs, 8.3.3.2, 8.3.3.3
use, 1.8.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.2
check collectors, 1.5.8
child support collectors, 1.5.9
codes frequently used, 2.4.5, Appx. E.4
collection contacts, see COLLECTION CONTACTS
collection suits, see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
consumer reporting agencies
reporting to, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
status as, 8.6.5
counterclaims, see COUNTERCLAIMS
credit bureau, use of term, 1.6.1, 2.5.7, 5.5.19, 8.6.6.1, Appx. J.2.4.6
credit repair organization statutes
CROA, application, 8.9.1, 8.9.2
state statutes, application, 10.4.2
credit reports
inaccurate information, furnishing, 2.6.2, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
obtaining and use, 8.6.3
notice of dispute, 8.6.2.3.1
databases, 1.5.2
deceptive conduct, see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
defenses, see DEFENSES
definition, 1.1.4, 4.2.1, 4.2.3.1
exclusions, 4.3
describing oneself as, effect, 4.2.3.5, 4.2.5
direct liability, 4.2.3.3
dunning, see COLLECTION CONTACTS; DEBT COLLECTION
electronic fund transfers, 8.7
see also ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS
employees
FDCPA actions, joinder as party, 6.2.4.5
FDCPA application, 4.3.1
FDCPA violations, liability, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.2, 6.2.4.1
torts, liability, 9.9
use of aliases, 5.4.7.3
erroneous information
liability, 5.2.3, 5.5.4
reliance on, 7.2.6
fake collectors, 1.5.11
fake courtrooms, 1.4.4
false representations, see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
FCRA
application, 8.6
violations, punitive damages, 2.6.2
FDCPA
application, 4.2
exclusions, 4.3
violations, see FDCPA VIOLATIONS
fee-harvesters, 1.5.10
fees, see COLLECTION FEES
flat-rate collectors, see FLAT-RATING
fraud or identity theft, duties, 8.6.4
FTC complaints re, 1.9
good faith error defense, applicability, 5.5.4.3.1, 7.2
harassment by, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
identification requirements, 5.4.7, 5.5.13
larger collectors, see MAJOR DEBT COLLECTORS
legal proceedings, see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
liability insurance, see PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE
loan broker, acting as, 10.8.4
location information, see LOCATION INFORMATION
mails, fraudulent or defamatory use, 8.1
misrepresentations, see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
multiple debts, application of payments, 5.8
objectives, 1.4.3
offers of judgment, 2.4.13
out-of-state collectors
see also INTERSTATE DEBT COLLECTION
long-arm jurisdiction, 6.11.2
service, 6.11.2.1
state law application, 10.2.3.3.6
overseeing by creditors, 1.5.1, 2.8
overview, 1.5.2
payments to, applicable law, 8.7
publicizing indebtedness
reporting to third parties, 8.6.6.2
restrictions, 8.6.6.1
shame lists, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2, 8.6.1
reasonable procedures, 7.2.8
records
obtaining, 2.4.9
use as evidence, 2.4.5
regulatory history, 1.4.5
remotely created checks, 8.7.1, 8.7.2.1
seizure of third-party money, see GARNISHMENT
servicing companies as, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.6.3, 4.3.10.1, 4.3.10.3
shoplifting penalties, 1.5.12
specialized collectors, 1.5.2
state collection laws, application, 10.2.3.3
status as, 4.2
tax collections, 8.10
TILA, 8.4
disclosure requirements, 8.4.1
liability under, 8.4.2
true name, use, 5.5.17
UDAP statutes, application, 10.3.3
unlicensed, 5.5.8.5, 10.2.4.5
verification notices, provision, 5.7.2
verification of debt, obtaining, 5.7.3
DEBT COUNSELING SERVICES
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
DEBT ELIMINATION
see DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
DEBT HARASSMENT
see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; HARASSMENT ACTIONS; TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
DEBT POOLING
FDCPA, application, 1.10.5, 4.1
state law, application, 1.10.5
DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
counseling, see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
debt settlement or negotiation, see DEBT SETTLEMENT
DEBT NEGOTIATION
see DEBT SETTLEMENT
DEBT SELLING
see DEBT BUYERS; SALE OF DEBT
DEBT SERVICING
see SERVICING COMPANIES
DEBT SETTLEMENT
case summaries, Appx. J.2.4.16
credit reporting issues, 8.6.7
IRS Form 1099-C, 1.5.13
scams, 1.6.3
referral relationships, 1.3
tax liability, 1.5.13, 2.5.2.3
DEBTORS
see also CONSUMER DEBTS; CONSUMERS
counseling
by attorneys, 2.1.4
services, see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
harassment, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
judgment proof, 1.5.1
location information, see LOCATION INFORMATION
publicizing of indebtedness, restrictions, 5.4.4, 8.6.6.1
shame lists, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2, 8.6.1
representation by attorney, see LEGAL REPRESENTATION
self-representation, 2.11
surviving debt guide, 1.11
DEBTS
see BUSINESS DEBTS; CONSUMER DEBTS; DECEDENTS’ DEBTS
DECEDENTS’ DEBTS
abusive collection conduct, 1.5.14
FDCPA application, 4.5
FTC enforcement policy, 1.5.14, 3.3.7.3, 5.3.7
liability for, 1.5.14
DECEPTION
see also DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
CROA prohibitions, 8.9.4
expert evidence, 2.4.14, 5.5.2.9
fact or law, 5.5.2.7
FDCPA standard, 5.5.2
FTC standard, 5.5.2.3
half-truths, 5.5.2.6
least sophisticated consumer standard, 5.2.1, 5.5.2.4, 5.5.2.5
materiality, 5.5.2.8
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.1.2
surveys and experts, use to establish, 2.4.14, 2.5.7
DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
see also ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
attorney, impersonation, 5.5.6, 5.5.12
attorney debt collectors, 4.2.7.3, 5.2.7, 5.5.6, 5.5.12
broad construction, 5.5.2.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4
CFPB standards, 10.3.7
checklist, Appx. E.3.3
claims re
actual deception not required, 5.5.2.4
base on specific provisions, 5.5.2.10
materiality, 5.5.2.8
credit reporting agencies, misrepresentation as, 5.5.19
debt collection purposes, failure to disclose, 5.5.14
deceptive statements
amount of debt, 5.5.4.3, 10.2.4.4.2
amount of fees, 5.5.4.3
character of debt, 5.5.4.2, 10.2.4.4.2
collection suits, 5.5.2.13.4, 10.2.4.4.3
examples, 5.5.2.13.1
generally, 5.5.2.6, 5.5.2.13.1
legal status of debt, 5.5.4.4, 10.2.4.4.7
letters to consumer representative, 5.5.2.5
materiality, 5.5.2.8, Appx. J.2.4.1.2
settlement offers, 5.5.2.13.2
time-barred debts, 5.5.2.13.3
deceptive threats
credit reporting, 8.6.6.3
creditor remedy before judgment, 5.5.2.11.3
examples, 5.5.2.12
foreclosure threats, 5.6.6
illegal threats, 5.5.7, 5.5.8.6
law suit, 5.5.2.11, 5.5.8.3, Appx. J.2.4.2
least sophisticated consumer standard, 5.5.8.2
on-line data bases, use to establish, 5.5.2.11.2.2
other threats, 5.5.2.12, Appx. J.2.4.3
repossession threats, 5.6.6
state law violations, 10.2.4.4.3
time-barred suits, 5.5.2.13.3
transfer of debt, 5.5.9
unintended acts, 5.5.7, 5.5.8
experts, use to establish, 2.4.14, 2.5.7, 5.5.2.9
fake courtrooms, 1.4.4
false accusations of criminal conduct, 5.5.10
false accusations of nonpayment, 9.5.3
false impression of source or authorization, 5.5.12
false information, communicating, 5.5.11
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4
false names, using, 5.5.13, 5.5.17, 10.2.4.4.4
false representation of debt, 5.5.4
amount owing, 5.5.4.3, 10.2.4.4.2
character of debt, 5.5.4.2, 10.2.4.4.2
legal status of debt, 5.5.4.4, 10.2.4.4.7
nonpayment of debt, 9.5.3
false representation of services or compensation, 5.5.5
false representations, generally, 5.5.13
FDCPA, general prohibition, 5.5.2, 5.5.13
FDCPA, specific prohibitions, 5.5
FDCPA standards
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4
difficulties in applying, 5.5.2.6.2
fact or law, 5.5.2.7
generally, 5.5.2.3
least sophisticated consumer, 5.5.2.4, 5.5.2.5
legislative history, 5.5.2.14
materiality, 5.5.2.8, Appx. J.2.4.1.2
strict liability, 5.2.3, 6.9, Appx. J.2.4.1.3
flat-rate collectors, 4.2.7.1, 4.2.7.2
foreclosures, 5.5.2.13.5
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.20
FTC standards, 5.5.2.3
generally, 5.5.13
government affiliation, falsely implying, 5.5.3, 5.5.12
half-truths, 5.5.2.6
information, obtaining through deception, 5.5.13
innocent purchaser, misrepresentation as, 5.5.15
lawsuit threat, 5.5.2.11, 5.5.8.3, 10.2.4.4.3
legal process
concealment, 5.5.18
simulating, 5.5.12, 5.5.16
legal representation, see LEGAL REPRESENTATION
legislative history, 5.5.2.14
misrepresentation of debt, 5.5.4, 10.2.4.4.2
misrepresentation of services or charges, 5.5.5
process servers, 1.6.6
state prohibitions, 10.2.4.4
surveys, use to establish, 2.4.14, 2.5.7, 5.5.2.9
time-barred suits, 5.5.2.13.3
tort actions, 9.7.5
UDAP violations, 10.3.4, 10.3.8
unlicensed debt collection, 5.5.8.5, 10.2.4.5
DECLARATORY RELIEF
FDCPA actions
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.4
class actions, 6.2.2.3, 6.6.2.3.3, 6.7.1
individual actions, 6.7.1, 10.7
DEFAMATION
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.5
holding up to false light, distinguished, 9.3.3
FCRA limited immunity, 9.1.4
immunity, 9.5.5
mails, use for, 8.1
malice requirement, 9.5.5
nonpayment of debt, false statements, 9.5.3
nontrader rule, 9.5.3
overview of elements, 9.5.1
per quod, 9.5.2
per se, 9.5.2
pleading, 9.5.6
privilege defense, 9.1.3, 9.5.5
proof, 9.5.6
truth as defense, 9.5.4
underlying debt, proof of invalidity, 2.1.3
DEFAULT JUDGMENT
deceptively obtaining, 5.5.18
reopening by collector, 2.4.7.9
DEFENDANTS
see also DEFENSES
collection actions, see CONSUMERS
FDCPA actions, 6.2.4
attorney fee awards to, 7.7.1
costs awards to, 7.7.4
joining exempt parties, 6.2.4.5
multiple defendants, statutory damages, 6.4.8.2
DEFENSES
actions on the debt
examining, 2.1.3
transfer of debt, loss of, false threats, 5.5.9
arbitration clauses, enforceability, 2.4.8.8
bankruptcy issues, see BANKRUPTCY
bona fide error defense, see BONA FIDE ERROR DEFENSE
class actions, 6.6.4
constitutional issues, see CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
defamation claims, 9.5
immunity and privilege, 9.5.5
truth, 9.5.4
FCRA limited immunity, 9.1.4
FDCPA claims
bad faith, 7.2
bankruptcy law, 7.4.1
bona fide error, 7.2, Appx. J.3.6.1
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.6
collateral estoppel, 7.4.2
comity, 7.4.3
compulsory counterclaim rule, 7.4.2
deception claims, 5.5.2.6
FTC opinion conformity, 7.3
generally, 2.4.7.9, 7.1
harassment by debtor, 7.7.1
litigation related, 7.4
other defenses and strategies, 7.5
overview, 7.1
res judicata, 7.4.2, Appx. J.3.11
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, 7.4.4, Appx. J.3.7.7
sovereign immunity, 7.4.5
statute of limitations, 6.10
technicality defense, 7.5
unsuccessful defenses, 7.5
federal preemption, see PREEMPTION
jurisdiction, see JURISDICTION
justification, 9.4.4
malicious defense, tort of, 9.6.1
malicious prosecution, 9.6.2
mistake of law as, 7.2.2, 7.2.3
offers of judgment, see OFFERS OF JUDGMENT
preemption, see PREEMPTION
privilege, 9.1.3, 10.1.3
SLAPP laws, 9.1.3.3
standing, see STANDING
state law claims, 10.2.5.3
statute of limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
tortious interference claims, 9.4.4
truth, 5.5.2.6
venue, see VENUE
DEFINITIONS
abuse, 5.4.1, 5.4.3
actual damages, 6.3.1
adverse action, 8.8
automated telephone dialing system, 8.3.2.3
bona fide error, 7.2.5
communication, 4.6.4, 5.3.2.2, 5.3.5.7, 5.3.6
consumer, 4.4.1
consumer reporting agency, 5.5.19
credit, 8.4.1
credit repair organization, 8.9.2
creditor, 4.3.2, 8.8, 8.9.2
debt, 4.2.2, 4.4.2, Appx. J.1.1
debt collector, 1.1.4, 4.2.1, 4.2.3.1, Appx. J.1.2
default, 4.3.10.5
harass, 5.4.1
location information, 5.3.6
obscene, 5.4.3
oppress, 5.4.1
pattern of racketeering activity, 8.5.2
process, 9.6.3.2
profane, 5.4.3
transaction, 4.4.2.3
unconscionable, 5.6.1
unfairness, 5.6.1
unlawful debt, 8.5.2
DEMAND LETTERS
see COLLECTION LETTERS
DISCLOSURE
credit reports, 8.6.6.3
debt collection purposes, 5.5.14, 5.6.5
third parties, 5.3.5.8
debt collector identity, 5.4.7, 5.5.13
true name, 5.4.7.3, 5.5.17
indebtedness, 5.4.5, 8.6.6.1
public disclosure of private facts, tort action, 9.3.4
telephone caller ID, 8.3.3.3
TILA, workout agreements, 8.4.1
verification notice, see VERIFICATION NOTICES
DISCOVERY
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.9
class actions, numerosity, 6.6.2
FDCPA, application, 5.2.6.3
harassment actions, 2.4.9, Appx. G
creditor’s documentation, 2.4.5
delayed production of abusive recordings, 2.4.9.3
initial focus, 2.4.9.1
liability insurance, existence, 2.7
other victims, 2.4.5
permitted areas of inquiry, 2.4.9.2
sample class action, Appx. G.4
sample interrogatories, Appx. G.1, Appx. G.4.1
sample request for admissions, Appx. G.3, Appx. G.4.2
sample request for production, Appx. G.2, Appx. G.4.3
protection orders, 2.4.9.2
tape-recorded conversations, 2.4.9.3
DISCRIMINATION
see also CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
debt collection tactics, 8.8
DISHONORED CHECKS
see BAD CHECKS
DISPUTED DEBTS
collection activities, 5.7.2.7, 5.7.3.4
credit reports, 5.5.11, 8.6.2.3
information responses, 5.3.9.2
oral disputes of, 5.7.2.6.3, 5.7.3.2
reporting to third parties, 5.5.11, 5.7.3.2, 5.7.3.4, 8.6.6.2
verification notice, see VERIFICATION NOTICES
verification of debt, see VERIFICATION OF DEBT
DISTANT FORUMS
see VENUE
DISTRICT ATTORNEYS
check collectors operating under supervision of, see CHECK DIVERSION PROGRAMS
DUE PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
government officials, debt collection abuses, 8.12.3
DUNNING
see COLLECTION LETTERS; DEBT COLLECTION
EARNINGS
garnishment, see WAGE GARNISHMENT
tortious interference, 9.4.2
ECONOMIC RELATIONS
tortious interference, 9.4
contracts, 9.4.2
prospective relations, 9.4.3
EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see STUDENT LOANS
ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS
acceptance by collector, restrictions, 5.6.4
applicable law, 8.7.1
EFTA, 8.7.2.2
authorization, 8.7.2.2
NACHA rules, 8.7.2.3
revocation, 8.7.5
telephone authorization, 8.7.2.2, 8.7.2.3
NSF fees, 8.7.3
remedies, 8.7.6
re-presentment, 8.7.4
unauthorized, remedies, 8.7.6
ELECTRONIC MESSAGES
see E-MAIL SPAM
E-MAIL SPAM
see also TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
CAN SPAM Act, 8.3.4
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
see also TORT CLAIMS
bankruptcy discharge violations, 8.11.2.6
common stress-related injuries, 2.5.2.2.2
corroborative evidence, 2.5.2.1, 2.5.3
damages, 2.5.3, 6.3.2, 9.2.6
compensable damages, 2.5.4
debt harassment, 2.1.2, 2.4.12, 2.5.2.1, 2.5.5
expert evidence, 2.4.12
FDCPA actions, 6.3.2
intentional infliction
actionable conduct, 9.2.4
actionable distress, 9.2.2
elements, 9.2.1
physical injury, necessity, 9.2.3
negligent infliction, 9.2.5
notice to defense, 2.5.2.1
personal relations, injuries to, 2.5.2.2.4
proximate cause, 2.5.5
severe distress, 9.2.2
tort actions, 9.2
UDAP remedies, 10.3.8
EMPLOYEES
see also EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS; WORKPLACES
collection contacts, protections, 5.3.2.4, 5.3.4
FDCPA exclusion, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, Appx. J.1.2.2.7
FDCPA violations, liability, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.2, 6.2.4.1
joining as defendant, 6.2.4.5
government employees, see GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
state law violations, 10.2.3.3.7
torts, liability, 9.9
wage garnishment, see WAGE GARNISHMENTS
EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS
see also WORKPLACES
FDCPA application, 4.4.2.3
FDCPA protections, 5.3.4, 5.3.5.2
intentional interference, tort actions, 9.4.2
state law protections, 10.2.4.2.3
ENVELOPES
see also POSTCARDS
debt collectors, FDCPA restrictions, 5.3.7, 5.6.8
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
discriminatory collection tactics, application, 8.8
EQUAL PROTECTION
see CIVIL RIGHTS CLAIMS; CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES; DISCRIMINATION
EQUITABLE RELIEF
see DECLARATORY RELIEF; INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
ERRORS
see also BILLING ERRORS
amount owing, false representation, 5.5.4.3
bona fide error, 7.2.5
see also BONA FIDE ERROR DEFENSE
clerical mistakes, 7.2.4
creditors, liability, 5.2.3, 5.5.4
debt collectors, bona fide, 7.2, 10.2.5.3
reasonable procedures, 7.2.8
electronic fund transfers, 8.7.6
factual errors, 7.2.4
FDCPA, application, 4.6.3
mistake of law
FDCPA interpretation, 7.2.2
state or other federal law, 7.2.3
unintentional error, 7.2.7
ESCROW COMPANIES
FDCPA, exclusion, 4.3.8
ESTATES
see DECEDENTS’ DEBTS
ESTOPPEL
FDCPA claims, 7.4.2
bankruptcy situations, 8.11.3.2.3
EVICTIONS
see also LANDLORDS; RENT
FDCPA, application, 1.10.2.2, 1.10.2.3, 4.2.6.4, 4.4.2.2, 4.6.7
verification notice requirement, 5.7.2.5
EVIDENCE
see also WITNESSES
actual damage, 6.3.3
business records, 2.4.5
debt harassment
collection record, 2.4.5
damages, 2.5.3
deception, 2.4.14, 2.5.7, 5.5.2.9
emotional distress, 2.4.12, 2.5.2.1, 6.3.3
expert evidence, 2.4.12, 2.4.14, 2.5.7
gathering, 2.4.1, 2.4.5, 2.4.9
malice, 2.6
pattern or practice evidence, 2.4.6
preserving, community education, 2.10
telephone abuse, 2.4.5, 8.3
deception, 5.5.2.9
discovery, see DISCOVERY
expert, see EXPERT WITNESSES
malice, 9.6.2.4
survey evidence, see SURVEY EVIDENCE
EXECUTIONS
see SEIZURE AND SALE
EXECUTORS
see TRUSTEES
EXEMPT PROPERTY
see also SEIZURE AND SALE
bank accounts, notice to collectors, 2.3.3
EXPENSES
collection expenses, see COLLECTION FEES
EXPERT WITNESSES
see also EVIDENCE; WITNESSES
debt harassment actions, 2.4.12, 2.5.3
deception, use to establish, 2.4.14, 2.5.7, 5.5.2.9
rejection of evidence, 2.4.14.2
sources for experts, 2.4.14.3
emotional distress, 2.4.12
EXTORTION
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.6
debt collection methods, 8.5
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
accuracy standards, 8.6.2
consumer reporting agency definition, 8.6.5
credit reports
free annual reports, 8.6.6.3
permissible uses, 8.6.3
fraud or identity theft, 8.6.4
inaccurate reports, liability, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
limited immunity, 9.1.4
overview, 8.6.1
punitive damages, 2.6.2
reinvestigations, 8.6.2.3
state law preemption, 10.1.2, 10.2.4.2.2
verification of debts, 5.7.1
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION
see also FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
broad application, 1.10
continuing legal education, 1.2
lawyer specialization, 1.3
developing a plaintiffs’ practice, 2.1.6
NCLC co-counseling, 1.1.3
NCLC treatise, 1.1
on-line materials, 1.1.2, Appx. L
on-line searches, 1.1.1
organization, 1.1.1, 3.3.8
using for FDCPA issues, 3.3.8
training events, 1.2
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
see also DEBT COLLECTION; FAIR DEBT COLLECTION
abusive lending practices, application, 1.10.3.1, 1.10.3.2
administrative enforcement, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.2.6, 6.13
amendments, 3.1, 3.3.2
bankruptcy proceedings and, 2.2, 8.11.3, 8.11.4
bona fide error defense, 7.2
caller ID, application, 8.3.3.3
case law, 3.3.3, Appx. J
CFPB authority and expertise
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.7.3
enforcement, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.2.6, 6.13.3
interpretations, 3.3.6.3
rulemaking, 3.3.6.2
claims under, see FDCPA ACTIONS
compliance, creditor responsibility, 1.5.1, 2.8
conformity defense, 7.3
constitutionality, 3.2
construction, 3.3.1, 5.2
mistaken interpretation, 7.2.2
coverage, 1.1.4, 4
attorneys, 5.2.6.1
broad scope, 4.6
case summaries, Appx. J.1
consumers and persons, 4.5
debt collectors, 4.2
exemptions, 4.3
transactions, 4.4
credit reports, application, 8.6.6
cross-reference table, Appx. A.1
debt pooling, application, 1.10.5
deception standard, 5.5.2.3
declaratory relief, 6.7.1
effective date, 3.1
enforcement authority, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.2.6, 6.1, 6.13
exclusions, 4.1, 4.3
exempt states, 6.12.2
federal agency enforcement, 6.13
CFPB, 3.3.2.6, 6.13.3
FTC, 3.3.4, 6.13.2
other agencies, 6.13.4
flat-rate collectors, application, 4.2.7.1
foreclosures, application, 1.10.7
fringe lenders, application, 1.10.3.1
FTC authority and expertise, case law summaries, Appx. J.1.7.2
FTC enforcement, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.2.6, 3.3.7.3, 6.13.2
decedents’ debt, policy on collecting, 3.3.7.3, 5.3.7
FTC formal advisory opinions
generally, 3.3.4, 6.13.1
reliance on, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.4
text, Appx. B.1
FTC informal staff letters
generally, 3.3.5, 6.13.1
text, Appx. B.2
FTC Staff Commentary
authority to issue, 3.3.7.2
generally, 3.3.7.1, 6.13.1
text, Appx. C
FTC recommendations, 3.3.2.7
general validity, Appx. J.1.7
history, 1.4.5
injunctive relief, 6.7.2, 10.7
interpretation, Appx. J.1.7
landlords, application, 1.10.2
language of the Act, 3.3.1
least sophisticated consumer standard, 5.2.1, Appx. J.2.6.1
legislative history, 3.3.2, 4.2.8.3
1977 Act, 3.3.2.1
1986 amendments, 3.3.2.2, 4.2.8.2
1996 amendments, 3.3.2.3
2006 amendments, 3.3.2.4
2010 amendment, 3.3.2.5
FTC proposals, 3.3.2.7
deceptive practices, 5.5.2.14
Senate Report, Appx. A.3
lending practices, application, 1.10.3
liberal construction, 5.2.4
litigation misconduct, application, 1.10.4, 7.4.6
mistaken interpretation, 7.2.2
mortgage foreclosures, application, 1.10.7
NCLC treatise, 1.1.1
noncontractual obligations, application, 4.4.2.3
overview, 3, 5.1
plain meaning, 5.2.4
preemption, 6.12.1
case summaries, Appx. J.1.7.4
principles of construction, 5.2
private enforcement, 6.1, 6.13.4
Public Law/U.S.C. cross-reference, Appx. A.1
purpose, 3.1
case summaries, Appx. J.1.7.1
relationship to other federal statutes, 6.12.3
research aids, 3.3
rights under
encouraging exercise, 5.1
reasonable and civil treatment, 5.2.5
waiver, 5.2.2
rule making authority. 3.3.2.5, 6.13.1
scope, 3.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6
case summaries, Appx. J.1
Senate Report No. 95-382, Appx. A.3
state law, relationship, 6.12
exemptions, 6.12.2
preemption, 6.12.1
statute of limitations, 6.10
statutory damages, see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
tax collections, application, 8.10
text, Appx. A.2
violations
remedies, see FDCPA ACTIONS
strict liability, 5.2.3, 6.4.3, 6.9, Appx. J.2.4.1.3
UDAP violation, as, 10.3.6
FAIRNESS
see UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
FALSE ACCUSATIONS
criminal conduct, of, 5.5.10
nonpayment of debt, 9.5.3
FALSE ARREST OR IMPRISONMENT
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.1
FALSE LIGHT
defamation, distinguished, 9.3.3
tort actions, 9.3.3
underlying debt, proof of invalidity, 2.1.3
FALSE NAMES
see also ALIASES; DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
creditors, FDCPA application, 4.2.5, 4.3.2, 4.3.10.6, 5.5.6.1
FDCPA restrictions, 5.5.13, 5.5.17
party defendants, naming persons using, 6.2.4.1
FALSE REPRESENTATIONS
see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
FALSE THREATS
see THREATS
FAMILY MEMBERS
see CHILDREN; PARENTS; THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
FAXES
debt collection by, privacy issues, 1.8.2, 5.3.5.5
FDCPA ACTIONS
see also FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA); HARASSMENT ACTIONS
actual damages, 6.3
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
bankruptcy proceedings, 2.2
application, 4.6.8
attorney fees, 8.11.3.6
claims arising prior to, 8.11.3
claims arising out of, 8.11.4
defense, as, 7.4.1
litigating claims in, 8.11.3.5
preemption, 8.11.4
raising, 8.11.3
case summaries, Appx. J.3
class actions, 6.6
see also CLASS ACTIONS
attorney fees, 6.8.5
damages, 6.2.2.2
declaratory relief, 6.2.2.3, 6.7.1
defense tactics, 6.6.4
injunctive relief, 6.2.2.3
sample discovery, Appx. G.4
settlements, 6.6.5
counterclaims
attorney fee applications by way of, 7.7.1
underlying debt, 7.6
deceptive conduct, 5.5.2.4, 5.5.2.10
materiality, 5.5.2.8, Appx. J.2.4.1.2
declaratory relief, 6.7.1
defendants, 6.2.4
defenses, see DEFENSES
discovery, see DISCOVERY
evaluation and strategy, 6.2
class actions, 6.2.2.2, 6.2.2.3
increasing awards, 6.2.2.1
overview, 6.2.1
filing date, 6.10.7
injunctive relief, 6.7.2, 10.7
joinder of exempt parties, 6.2.4.5
jurisdiction, 6.11
jury trials, 2.5.6, 6.2.5
non-consumers, application, 4.5
on-line databases, use, 5.5.2.11.2.2
plaintiffs, 6.2.3
pleading, 4.1
private remedy as primary enforcement, 6.1
pro se litigants, 2.11, 5.2.7.6
punitive damages, 6.5
rule 11 sanctions, 7.7.2
sample complaints, Appx. F
self-representation, 2.11, 5.2.7.6
statute of limitations, 6.10
statutory damages, 6.4
supplemental state claims, 6.11.4
surveys and experts, use to prove deception, 2.4.14
tax collection abuses, 8.10
underlying debt, settlement, 2.5.2.3
venue, 6.11.3
witness immunity defense, 7.4.6, Appx. J.3.6.6
FDCPA LIABILITY
see LIABILITY
FDCPA VIOLATIONS
see also FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
abusive conduct, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
action for, see FDCPA ACTIONS
attorneys, 4.2.3.2, 4.2.7.3, 5.2.6, 5.2.7
bankruptcy situations, 8.11.3, 8.11.4
arising after bankruptcy, 8.11.3.4
arising before bankruptcy, 8.11.3.2
arising during bankruptcy, 8.11.3.3
arising out of, 8.11.4.1, 8.11.4.2
inflated proof of claim as, 8.11.4.3
preemption, 8.11.4
bona fide error, 7.2
case summaries, Appx. J.2
checklist, Appx. E.3
damages, see DAMAGES
deceptive forms, liability, 4.2.7
deceptive practices, see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
declaratory relief, 6.7.1
defenses, 7
direct liability, 4.2.3.3
employees or agents, liability, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.2
financial institutions, 6.13.3, 6.13.4
FTC complaints, 6.13.2
frequent allegations, 1.9
FTC violation, as, 6.13.2
harassment, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
injunctive relief, 6.7.2
jurisdiction, 6.11
least sophisticated consumer standard, 5.2.1, 5.5.8.2, 5.6.1
multiple violations, 6.4.8.3
statute of limitations, 6.10.4
predatory loan collection, 1.10.3
recoupment claims, 6.10.8
sample complaints, Appx. F
statute of limitations, 6.10
strict liability, 5.2.3, 6.9
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.1.3
unfair practices, see UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
unintentional violations, 6.9, 7.2
vicarious liability, 4.2.3.3
FEDERAL AGENCIES
see also CONSUMER PROTECTION AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
complaints to, 2.3.5, 2.10
FDCPA enforcement, 6.13
FTC, see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
FEDERAL BANKING LAWS
preemption of state law, 9.1.2.3, 10.1.2
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
telephone regulation
call blocking, 8.3.3.4
interstate companies, 8.3.5
mobile service commercial messages, 8.3.4
TCPA, 8.3.3
FEDERAL CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
tax arrears, see TAX COLLECTIONS
FEDERAL OFFICIALS
see GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
see PREEMPTION
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT
authority and expertise, case law summaries, Appx. J.1.7.2
complaints to, 2.3.5
frequent allegations, 1.9
deception standards, 5.5.2.3
FDCPA amendment recommendations, 3.3.2.7
FDCPA enforcement, 3.3.2.5, 6.13.2
CFPB overlap, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.2.6
decedents’ debts, policy on collecting, 1.5.14, 3.3.7.3, 5.3.7
FDCPA formal advisory opinions
conformity as defense, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.4, 7.3
issuance, 3.3.4, 6.13.1
safe haven opinions, 5.7.3.4
state law preemption, 6.12.1
text, Appx. B.1
FDCPA informal staff letters
generally, 3.3.5, 6.13.1
text, Appx. B.2
FDCPA Staff Commentary
authority to issue, 3.3.7.2
generally, 3.3.7.1, 6.13.1
text, Appx. C
FDCPA state exemptions, 6.12.2
fake debt collectors, enforcement actions, 1.5.11
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
unfair trade practices, 5.6.1
FEE HARVESTERS
debt collection abuse by, 1.5.10.2, 1.5.10.3
overview, 1.5.10.1
FEES
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
collection fees, see COLLECTION FEES
condominium fees, see CONDOMINIUM AND CO-OP FEES
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2
NSF charges, electronic collection, 8.7.3
verification of debt, 5.7.3.3
FICTITIOUS NAMES
see ALIASES; FALSE NAMES
FIDUCIARIES
see TRUSTEES
FINANCE COMPANIES
retail credit sales, FDCPA application, 4.2.5
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
see also BANKS
FDCPA violations, 6.13.3, 6.13.4
FINES
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.3, Appx. J.1.1.5.2.3
FLAT-RATING
attorneys, 4.2.7.3
case summaries, Appx. J.1.3
collection agencies, 1.5.5
FDCPA, application, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.4, 4.2.7
form letters, 4.2.7.1, 4.2.7.2
FORECLOSURE LAW FIRMS
see also FORECLOSURES
communication with other creditors, 5.3.5.3
FDCPA, application, 4.2.6.3, 4.3.8
case summaries, Appx. J.1.2.2.3
overview, 1.5.7
FORECLOSURE RESCUE
scams, 1.6.4
FORECLOSURES
see also FORECLOSURE LAW FIRMS
deceptive practices, 5.5.2.13.5
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.20
FDCPA, application, 1.10.7, 4.2.6.3, 4.4.2.2, 4.6.7, 5.5.2.13.5
case summaries, Appx. J.1.2.2.3
nonjudicial foreclosure, unfair practices, 5.6.6
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.5.4.1
rescue scams, see FORECLOSURE RESCUE
state collection laws, application, 1.10.7, 10.2.3.1.4, 10.2.3.3.8
FORM LETTERS
see COLLECTION FORMS; COLLECTION LETTERS
FORMS
see COLLECTION FORMS
FORUM
see JURISDICTION; VENUE
FRAUD
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.5
CROA prohibitions, 8.9.4
debts arising from, 8.6.4
debt collection fake courtroom scheme, 1.4.4
mails, use for, 8.1
process servers, by, 1.6.6
RICO claims, 8.5
FRIENDS
see THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
FRINGE LENDERS AND BANKERS
debt collection statutes, application, 1.10.3.1
false threats, 1.10.3.4
FTC
see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
FTC ACT
see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT
GARNISHMENT
see also POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
deceptive threats, 5.5.7
unfair collection means, 5.6.2
case summaries, Appx. J.2.5.6
venue considerations, 5.9
wages, see WAGE GARNISHMENT
wrongful garnishment, 10.2.4.4.6
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
see CONSUMER PROTECTION AGENCIES; FEDERAL AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS; STATE AGENCIES
GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENTS
see FINES
GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS
see also LEGAL PROCESS
simulating, 5.5.12
GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
debt collection abuses, 8.12, 9.7.8
false affiliation, 5.5.3, 5.5.12
FDCPA exemption, 4.1, 4.3.4, 7.4.5, Appx. J.1.2.3.3
impersonation, 5.5.3
search and seizure restrictions, 8.12.4
sovereign immunity, 7.4.5, 8.12.5, 10.1.4
state action, 8.12.2
tort claims against, 8.12, 9.7.8
GUARDIANS
see TRUSTEES
HARASSMENT
see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; HARASSMENT ACTIONS; TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
HARASSMENT ACTIONS
see also ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; FDCPA ACTIONS; TORT CLAIMS
actionable conduct, 9.2.4
arbitration, 2.4.8
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
avoiding litigation, 2.3
bankruptcy situations, 2.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.3
case selection, 2.1.5
chronology of events
collection contacts, Appx. E.2
developing, 2.4.4
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
damages, see DAMAGES
default judgments, reopening by collector, 2.4.7.9
defenses, see DEFENSES
demand letters prior to, 2.4.7.6
developing a plaintiffs’ practice, 2.1.6
discovery, see DISCOVERY
evaluating strategies, 2.3.8
increasing awards, 6.2.2.1
evidence
damages, 2.5.3
gathering, 2.4.1, 2.4.5, 2.4.9
pattern or practice evidence, 2.4.6
survey evidence, 2.4.14.2
expert testimony, 2.4.12
establishing deception, 2.4.14
FDCPA violations, checklist, Appx. E.3
fee-generating, referral to private attorney, 2.4.3
forum, 2.4.7.2
initial interview, 2.1
injunctions, 2.10
interview checklist, Appx. E.1
judgments, recovery from insurer, 2.7
jury trials, see JURY TRIALS
legal objectives, clarification, 2.1.4
leveraging other relief, 2.5.2.3
liability, determination by summary judgment, 2.4.11
mandatory arbitration clauses, 2.4.8
offers of judgment, 2.4.13
pleadings
drafting, 2.4.7
sample complaints, 2.4.7.7, Appx. F
preparation of the suit, 2.4
pro se litigants, 2.11
retainer agreements, 2.9
self-representation, 2.11
service of process, 2.4.7.8
settlement, 2.4.10, 2.7
state claims, 10.2.5
see also STATE REMEDIES
importance, 2.4.7.1
utility collections, 10.1.5
structuring the case, 2.4.7.5
underlying debt
settlement, 2.5.2.3
validity, 2.1.3
written statement, obtaining, 2.4.2
HEIRS
debt collection against, 1.5.14
HOLDING UP TO FALSE LIGHT
see FALSE LIGHT
HOMEOWNER ASSESSMENTS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2
HONESTY
see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
HOUSEHOLD GOODS
see EXEMPT PROPERTY; PERSONAL PROPERTY
IDENTITY THEFT
debts arising from, 8.6.4
tort claims, 9.1.5
ILLEGAL ACTION
FDCPA application
collecting unauthorized amount, 5.6.3
taking illegal action, 5.5.8.7
threats of illegal action, 5.5.8.6
IMMUNITY
FCRA limited immunity, 9.1.4
defamation claims and, 9.5.5
government officials, 8.12.5, 10.1.4
litigation immunity, 7.4.6
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.6
defamation claims and, 9.5.5
sovereign immunity, 7.4.5
state governmental immunity, 10.1.4
IMPERSONATION
attorneys, 5.5.6
government officials, 5.5.3
tort claims, 9.3.3
IMPRISONMENT
see also FALSE ARREST OR IMPRISONMENT
deceptive threats, 5.5.7
INCOME TAX
see also INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
attorney fee awards, liability re, 2.1.4
canceled debts, liability, 1.5.13, 2.5.2.3
collection of arrears, see TAX COLLECTIONS
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
bankruptcy discharge operates as, 8.11.2.6
FDCPA actions, 6.7.2, 10.7
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.4
class actions, 6.2.2.3, 6.6.2.3.3
debt harassment, 2.10
supplementary state claims, 6.7.3
state remedies, 10.7
UDAP remedies, 10.3.8
INJURIOUS FALSEHOOD
see DEFAMATION
INSTALLMENT PAYMENTS
see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
INSURANCE
bills and claims, see INSURANCE BILLS AND CLAIMS
professional liability, see PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE
INSURANCE BILLS AND CLAIMS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2, Appx. J.1.1.4
subrogation claims, FDCPA application, 4.2.3.4
INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE
see also TORT CLAIMS
tort actions, 9.4
contracts, 9.4.2
justification defense, 9.4.4
prospective economic relations, 9.4.3
INTEREST
prejudgment interest, FDCPA actions, 6.8.8
INTERFERENCE
see INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
see also INCOME TAX
Form 1099-C, 1.5.13
tax collections, see TAX COLLECTIONS
INTERNET
see ON-LINE DATABASES; WEB RESOURCES
INTERPRETERS
collection contacts through, 5.3.5.5
INTERROGATORIES
see DISCOVERY
INTERSTATE DEBT COLLECTION
dunning letters, 5.2.7.3
long-arm jurisdiction, 6.11.2
service, 6.11.2.1
state law application, 10.2.3.3.6
telephone harassment, 8.3.5
UDAP application, 10.3.3.5
INTRUSION UPON SECLUSION
tort actions, 9.3.2
INVASION OF PRIVACY
see also PRIVACY ACT
abusive collection conduct
e-mail harassment, 8.3.4
generally, 9.3.1
holding up to false light, 9.3.3
intrusion upon seclusion, 9.3.2
public disclosure of private facts, 9.3.4
telephone harassment, 8.3.2
caller ID telephone services, 1.8.2, 8.3.3.4
fax machines, 1.8.2
FCRA limited immunity, 9.1.4
FDCPA protections, 5.3, 5.6.7
waiver, 5.3.8
overview, 9.3.1
privilege defense, 9.1.3
state law, 10.2.4.2, 10.8.3
third-party contacts, 5.3.5
tort actions, 9.3
INVESTMENT DEBTS
FDCPA application, 4.4.2
JOINDER
supplemental parties, 6.2.4.5, 6.11.5
supplemental state claims, 6.11.4
JUDGES
collection activities, restrictions, 10.5.3
JUDGMENTS
see also POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
default, see DEFAULT JUDGMENTS
enforcement by execution, see SEIZURE AND SALE
enforcement by garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2
offers of judgment, 2.4.13
class actions, 6.6.2
full relief, 2.4.13.3
generally, 2.4.13.1
incomplete relief, 2.4.13.2
individual cases, 2.4.13.3
relief from judgment, 2.4.7.9
rubber-stamping by courts, 1.7
summary, see SUMMARY JUDGMENTS
JUDICIAL ESTOPPEL
bankruptcy situations, unscheduled claims, 8.11.3.2.3
JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS
see LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
JUDICIAL PROCESS
see also LEGAL PROCESS
wrongful use
abuse of process, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
malicious prosecution, see MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
JURISDICTION
see also VENUE
bankruptcy court, 6.11.1, 8.11.2.5
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.7
CROA actions, 8.9.5
FDCPA violations, 6.11
concurrent jurisdiction, 6.11.1
long-arm jurisdiction, 6.11.2, 7.1
underlying debt counterclaim, 7.6
federal review of state court decisions, 7.4.4
long-arm jurisdiction, 6.11.2, 7.1
personal jurisdiction, 6.11.2
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, 7.4.4
supplemental jurisdiction, 6.11.4, 6.11.5, 7.6
TCPA actions, 8.3.2.6
tort actions, 6.11.2.3
“transaction of business” test, 6.11.2.2
JURY TRIALS
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.10
FDCPA actions, 2.5.6, 6.2.5
harassment actions, 2.4.7.5, 2.4.12
right to jury trial, 6.2.5
sample documents, Appx. H.2
jury instructions, Appx. H.2.2
verdict sheet, Appx. H.2.3
voir dire questions, Appx. H.2.1
JUSTIFICATION
defense of, 9.4.4
LANDLORDS
see also EVICTIONS; RENT
abusive conduct
collection of rent not due, 1.10.2.6
confiscation of property, 1.10.2.4
deceptive eviction notices, 1.10.2.2
harassment to collect rent, 1.10.2.7
overview, 1.10.2.1
security deposits, unjustified withholding, 1.10.2.5
self-help evictions, 1.10.2.3
FDCPA, application, 1.10.2, 4.2.6.4
state collection laws, application, 1.10.2, 10.2.3.1.1, 10.2.3.3.1
LANGUAGE
deceptive language, 5.5.2
obscene or abusive language, 5.4.3, Appx. J.2.3.1
LAW
see CASE LAW; PRACTICE OF LAW; STATE LAW
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS
see also GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
collection activities, restrictions, 10.5.3
FDCPA, exclusion, 4.3.4, 4.3.5
LAWSUITS
see ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
LAWYERS
see ATTORNEYS
LEASES
see LANDLORDS; RENT
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
see also ACTIONS; DISCOVERY; LEGAL PROCESS; PLEADINGS; VENUE
abusive conduct, 1.10.4
actions on the debt, see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
bankruptcy, see BANKRUPTCY
debt harassment, avoiding, 2.3
deceptive threats, 5.5.2.11, 5.5.8.3, 5.5.13
FDCPA, application, 4.2.8, 4.6.4, 4.6.6, 4.6.8, 5.2.6, 5.3.5.3, 5.4.4.2
foreclosures, see FORECLOSURES
inconvenient forums, restrictions, 5.9
litigation immunity, 7.4.6, Appx. J.3.6.6
litigation privilege, 9.1.3.1, 9.3.1, 10.1.3, Appx. J.3.6.6
malicious, see MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
mass filings, 5.5.6.4
multiplying, sanctions, 7.7.3
SLAPP laws, 9.1.3.3
state proceedings, FDCPA application, 5.5.2.13.4
state remedies, application, 10.1.3
status of debt, misrepresentation, 5.5.4.4
third-party contacts, 5.2.6.3, 5.3.5.3, 5.3.5.4
time-barred suits, filing, 5.5.2.13.3, 5.6.2
unique FDCPA issues, 5.2.6, 5.2.7
venue issues, see VENUE
verification notices, requirements, 4.6.4, 5.2.6.4, 5.7.2.5
verification period, during, 5.7.3.4
witness immunity, 7.4.6, Appx. J.3.6.6
LEGAL PROCESS
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS; PLEADINGS
concealment, 5.5.18
defined, 9.6.3.2
FDCPA, application, 4.6.4, 4.6.6
improper use, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
service, see SERVICE
simulating, 5.5.12, 5.5.16
LEGAL REPRESENTATION
see also ATTORNEYS; PRACTICE OF LAW
debtors
see also REPRESENTED DEBTORS
communications to attorney, FDCPA application, 4.6.6
effect, 2.3.7, 5.3.3, 5.3.7, 5.5.2.5, 10.2.4.3.3
self-representation, 2.11
verification of debt, 5.7.3.3
specializing in fair debt collection law, 1.3
developing a plaintiffs’ practice, 2.1.6
LEGAL SERVICES ATTORNEYS
see also ATTORNEYS
FDCPA actions, fee awards, 6.8.1, 6.8.4
hourly rate, 6.8.6.3
fee-generating harassment cases, referral, 2.4.3, 2.6
LENDERS
see CREDITORS
LENDING PRACTICES
abusive practices, 1.10.3
LETTERS
see COLLECTION LETTERS
LIABILITY
attorneys
collection negligence, 9.8
FDCPA violations, 2.8, 4.2.3.2, 4.2.3.3, 4.2.3.4, 6.2.4.1, 6.2.4.3
credit reports, inaccurate, 8.6.2.1, 8.6.2.3
creditors, 2.8, 4.2.3.3, 4.3.2, 6.2.4.5
bankruptcy stay violations, 8.11.2.4
tort claims, 9.9
debt harassment
creditors, vicarious, 2.8, 4.3.2
employee violations, 4.2.2, 4.2.3.2
professional insurers, 2.7
deceptive forms, designers or suppliers, 4.2.7.1, 6.2.4.4
direct liability, 4.2.3.3
electronic fund transfers, unauthorized, 8.7.6
employees and officers, 4.2.3.2, 6.2.4.1
tort claims, 9.9
FDCPA violations, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 6.2.4
insurers, 2.7, 6.2.4.4
owners of collection businesses, 4.2.3.2, 4.2.3.3, 6.2.4.2
tort claims, 9.9
repossessors, 6.2.4.4
state law violations, 10.2.3.3, 10.2.5.2
strict liability
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.1.3
FDCPA violations, 5.2.3, 6.9
statutory damages, 6.4.3, 6.9
TCPA violations, 8.3.2.7
TILA claims, debt collectors, 8.4.2
vicarious liability, see VICARIOUS LIABILITY
LIABILITY INSURANCE
see PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE
LIBEL
see DEFAMATION
LICENSING
collection agencies
case summaries, Appx. J.2.4.5
FDCPA application, 5.5.8.4
state law, 10.2.1, 10.2.4.5
loan brokers, 10.8.4
unlicensed debt collection, 5.5.8.5, 10.2.4.5
LIENS
see SECURITY INTERESTS
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
LISTS
accounts for sale, advertising restrictions, 5.4.5
allegedly defaulting debtors, publication, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4
LITIGATION
see LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
LITIGATION IMMUNITY
defense of, 7.4.6
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.6
LITIGATION PRIVILEGE
application to state remedies, 10.1.3
application to tort claims, 9.1.3.1, 9.3.1
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.6
LOAN BROKERS
state law, 10.8.4
LOAN SHARKS
see FRINGE LENDERS AND BANKERS
LOCATION INFORMATION
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.1
credit reports, permissible use, 8.6.3
definition, 5.3.6
obtaining, FDCPA restrictions, 5.3.6, 5.3.7, 5.4.7.2
obtaining by deception, 1.8.2, 5.5.13
postcard use, FDCPA restrictions, 5.6.7
services, see SKIP TRACING
LODESTAR FORMULA
attorney fee awards, application, 6.8.6
allowable hours, 6.8.6.2
downward adjustments, 6.8.6.4
generally, 6.8.6.1
hourly rate, 6.8.6.3
upward adjustments, 6.8.6.5
MAIL FRAUD
postal laws, 8.1
RICO violations, 8.5
MAILING
unordered merchandise, prohibition, 8.2
MAILING SERVICES
debt collector status, 4.2.3.4, 4.2.7.2, Appx. J.1.2.2.4
MAJOR DEBT COLLECTORS
CFPB supervision, 3.3.2.5, 3.3.6.1
MALICE
see also BAD FAITH
defamation suits, necessity, 9.5
evidence of, 9.6.2.4
MALICIOUS DEFENSE
tort of, 9.6.1
MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
see also CRIMINAL PROSECUTION
abuse of process distinguished, 9.6.1, 9.6.3.1
abusive collection conduct, tort actions, 9.6.2
elements
institution of proceedings, 9.6.2.2
lack of probable cause, 9.6.2.3
malice or improper purpose, 9.6.2.4
summary of elements, 9.6.2.1
termination in favor, 9.6.2.5
examples in collection context, 9.6.2.6
privilege defense, availability, 9.1.3.1
SLAPP laws, 9.1.3.3
MANDATORY ARBITRATION CLAUSES
attorneys, enforcement, 2.4.8.5
arbitrator bias, 1.6.5
consumers’ claims, 1.6.5, 2.4.8
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.5
class arbitration, 2.4.8.11
disadvantages, 2.4.8.1
enforceability of clause, 2.4.8.2–2.4.8.9
punitive damages, 2.4.8.10
debt buyers, enforcement, 2.4.8.4
debt collectors, enforcement, 2.4.8.2, 2.4.8.5
evidentiary burden, 2.4.8.3
NAF, ceasing operations, 1.6.5, 2.4.8.7
MARITAL PROPERTY
divorce settlements, FDCPA application, 4.4.2.3
MARSHALS
see also LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS
FDCPA, exclusion, 4.3.4
MEDIATION
see MANDATORY ARBITRATION
MEDICAL DEBTS
abusive collection practices, 1.5.15
FDCPA, application, 4.3.10.5
MEDICAL EVIDENCE
see also EXPERT WITNESSES
debt harassment actions, 2.4.12, 2.5.3
MENTAL ANGUISH
see EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
MESSAGES
see VOICEMAIL MESSAGES
MISREPRESENTATION
see DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
MISTAKES
see ERRORS
MOBILE DEVICES
see CELLULAR PHONES
MORTGAGE FORECLOSURES
see FORECLOSURES
MORTGAGE SERVICING COMPANIES
see SERVICING COMPANIES
NAMES
aliases, see ALIASES
false names, see FALSE NAMES
NATIONAL ARBITRATION FORUM (NAF)
ceasing of operations, effect, 1.6.5, 2.4.8.7
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CONSUMER ADVOCATES (NACA)
co-counseling with members, 1.1.3
directory, 1.1.3, 1.4.5
joining, benefits, 1.3, 2.4.7.6
NATIONAL AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION (NACHA)
electronic transfer rules, 8.7.2.3
enforcement, 8.7.6
re-presentment of checks, 8.7.4
stop payments, 8.7.5
NATIONAL BANKS
state claims, application, 10.1.2
tort claims, 9.1.2.3
NATIONAL CONSUMER LAW CENTER (NCLC)
co-counseling service, 1.1.3
fair debt collection treatise, 1.1.1
Guide to Surviving Debt, 1.11
online resources, 1.1.2
training and conferences, 1.2
NEGLIGENCE
see also TORT CLAIMS
attorneys, collection activities, 9.8
debt collection torts, 9.7.4
FCRA limited immunity, 9.1.4
infliction of emotional distress, 9.2.5
NEGOTIATION
see DEBT SETTLEMENT
NEIGHBORS
see THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
NONCONSUMERS
FDCPA, application, 4.5
NONDEBTORS
see THIRD PARTY CONTACTS
NONTRADER RULE
defamation actions, application, 9.5
NOTICE
collection contacts
identification, 5.5.14
invocation of right to stop, 5.3.9.2
notice of right to stop, 5.3.9.4, 5.7.2.6.2.2
subsequent collection agencies, 5.3.9.3
credit reports, inaccuracies, 8.6.2.3.1
emotional distress claims, 2.5.2.1
exempt bank accounts, 2.3.3
FDCPA notices
case summaries, Appx. J.2.4.9
debt collectors, 5.5.14
lawyers, 5.2.6.4
FDCPA violations, checklist, Appx. E.3.2
NSF fees, electronic collection, 8.7.3
verification of debt, see VERIFICATION NOTICES
NUISANCE
abusive collection conduct, tort claims, 9.7.7
NUMBER ID TELEPHONE SERVICES
see CALLER ID TELEPHONE SERVICES
OFFERS OF JUDGMENT
attorney fees, 2.4.13.4
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.3
class actions, 6.6.4.2
filing, 2.4.13.5
full relief, 2.4.13.3
incomplete relief, 2.4.13.2
individual cases, 2.4.13.3
other issues, 2.4.13.5
overview, 2.4.13.1
OFFICERS
see CORPORATE OFFICERS
ONLINE DATABASES
see also WEB RESOURCES
NCLC publications, 1.1.1, 1.1.2
use to establish false suit threats, 5.5.2.11.2.2
OPEN-END CREDIT PLANS
see CREDIT CARDS
OPPRESSIVE CONDUCT
see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
PARENTS
see also THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
collection contacts with, 5.3.5.3
leaving messages, 5.3.5.6
PARTIES
see also THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
FDCPA actions
defendants, 6.2.4
plaintiffs, 6.2.3
supplemental jurisdiction, 6.2.4.5, 6.11.5
PARTNERSHIPS
FDCPA liability, 6.2.4.2, 6.2.4.3
PENALTIES
see FINES
PENDENT CLAIMS
see SUPPLEMENTAL CLAIMS
PERSONAL INVESTMENTS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2
PERSONAL PROPERTY
landlords, confiscation by, 1.10.2.4
PERSONS
see CONSUMERS; NON-CONSUMERS
PLAINTIFFS
FDCPA actions, 6.2.3
PLEADINGS
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS; LEGAL PROCESS
attorney fee award sample documents, Appx. I
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.8
deceptive, 5.5.2.13.4
FDCPA, application, 4.6.8, 5.2.6.4
notice exemption, 5.5.14.1
FDCPA claims, 4.1
defamation, 9.5.6
drafting, 2.4.7
avoiding dismissal, 2.4.7.4
choice of federal or state court, 2.4.7.2
collector defenses, 2.4.7.9
proper service, 2.4.7.8
sample complaints, 2.4.7.7, Appx. F
specificity, 2.4.7.3
state claims, importance, 2.4.7.1
structuring the case, 2.4.7.5
filing date, 6.10.7
motion in limine, Appx. H.5
online resources, 1.1.2
partial summary judgment, sample brief, Appx. H.1
trial pleadings, see JURY TRIALS
verification notices, requirement, 4.6.4, 5.2.6.4, 5.7.2.5
POSTAL LAWS
unordered merchandise, 8.2
violations, 8.1
POSTCARDS
see also ENVELOPES
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.5.5
FDCPA restrictions, 5.6.7
POSTDATED CHECKS
accepting, restrictions, 5.6.4
POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
see also GARNISHMENT; SEIZURE AND SALE
collection contacts, FDCPA exemption, 5.2.6.3, 5.3.5.4
harassment judgments, 2.7
PRACTICE AIDS
see also CASE LAW; RESEARCH AIDS
attorney fees
generally, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
preparing for fee application, 6.8.9.2
class actions, 6.6.1
offers of judgment, 6.6.4.2
chronology of collection contacts, Appx. E.2
collection attorneys, 5.2.6, 5.2.7
continuing education, 1.2
debt collection on the web, Appx. K
debt collector abbreviations, Appx. E.4
discovery, see DISCOVERY
FDCPA violations, Appx. E.3
harassment cases, case selection, 2.1.5
harassment cases, interview strategies
checklist, Appx. E.1
initial interview, 2.1
NACA, 1.1.3
NCLC co-counseling, 1.1.3
NCLC online resources, 1.1.2, Appx. L
NCLC treatise, 1.1.1, 3.3.8
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
referrals from debt settlement companies, 1.3
representing consumers, 1.3
sample trial documents, Appx. H
settlements, fee negotiations, 6.8.3.2
stop contact requests, 2.3.7
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
PRACTICE OF LAW
see also ATTORNEYS
specialization in fair debt collection law, 1.3
developing a plaintiffs’ practice, 2.1.6
NACA membership, 1.1.3, 1.3, 2.4.7.6
training and conferences, 1.2
unauthorized practice
attorneys, enabling, 10.5.3
collection agencies, 10.5.2
creditors, 10.5.1
injunctive relief, 10.7
remedies, 10.5.5.1
unethical practice by lawyers, 5.2.7
debt collection for others, 10.5.3
debt collection of own fees, 10.5.4
remedies, 10.5.5.2
PREAUTHORIZED PAYMENTS
see ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS; REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
PRECEDENTS
see CASE LAW
PREEMPTION
FDCPA by other federal laws, 6.12.3, 8.11.4
federal claims by Bankruptcy Code, 8.11.4, 10.1.2
FTC formal advisory opinion, 6.12.1
state law by Bankruptcy Code, 8.11.4.4
state law by FCRA, 8.6.4, 10.1.2, 10.2.4.2.2
state law by FDCPA, 6.12.1, 10.1.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.7.4
state law by other federal laws, 10.1.2
tort claims by Bankruptcy Code, 9.1.2.2
tort claims by FDCPA, 6.12.1, 9.1.2.1
tort claims by federal banking laws, 9.1.2.3
tort claims by Higher Education Act, 9.1.2.3
tort claims by state debt collection laws, 9.1.2.1
PRERECORDED VOICE MESSAGES
see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
PRINTING SERVICES
debt collector status, 4.1, 4.2.7.1, Appx. J.1.2.2.4
PRIVACY
see INVASION OF PRIVACY
PRIVATE CAUSE OF ACTION
see ACTIONS; FDCPA ACTIONS
PRIVATE TAX COLLECTIONS
see TAX COLLECTIONS
PRIVILEGE
defense of
case summaries, Appx. J.3.6.6
common interest privilege, 9.1.3.2
defamation actions, 9.5.5
litigation privilege, 9.1.3.1, 10.1.3
PRIVITY OF CONTRACT
negligence actions, application, 9.8
PRIZES
see CONTESTS
PROCESS
see LEGAL PROCESS
PROCESS SERVERS
false service of process, 1.6.6
FDCPA, exclusion, 4.3.5, Appx. J.1.2.3.4
PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
see DISCOVERY
PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE
consumer harassment claims, coverage, 2.7, 6.2.4.4
PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF
PROSECUTION
see CRIMINAL PROSECUTION; MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
PUBLIC DISCLOSURE
see also DISCLOSURE; PUBLICATION
indebtedness by collectors, 5.4.4, 8.6.6.1
shame lists, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2, 8.6.1
private facts, tort action, 9.3.4
PUBLIC OFFICIALS
see GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
PUBLICATION
consumers’ indebtedness, 5.4.4, 8.6.6.1
shame lists, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2, 8.6.1
private facts, tort action, 9.3.4
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
RACKETEERING INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT
see RICO ACTIONS
REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENTS
bankruptcy situations, 8.11.2.1, 8.11.2.6
RECORDS
collection contacts, use as evidence, 2.4.5
debt collectors, see under DEBT COLLECTORS
discovery, see DISCOVERY
RECOUPMENT CLAIMS
FDCPA violations, 6.10.8
REFINANCING
FDCPA, application, 4.2.4
REINVESTIGATIONS
disputed debts
notice of dispute, 8.6.2.3.1
reasonable investigations, 8.6.2.3.2
time limits, 8.6.2.3.3
RELATIVES
see CHILDREN; PARENTS; SPOUSES; THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
REMOTELY CREATED CHECKS (RCCs)
applicable law, 8.7.1
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 8.7.2.1
UCC, 8.7.2.1
NSF fees, 8.7.3
remedies, 8.7.2.1, 8.7.6
re-presentment, 8.7.4
stop payments, 8.7.5
RENT
see also EVICTIONS; LANDLORDS
abusive landlord conduct
collection of rent not due, 1.10.2.6
harassment to collect, 1.10.2.7
overview, 1.10.2.1
FDCPA coverage, 1.10.2.1, 4.2.6.4, 4.4.2.2
case law summaries, Appx. J.1.1.2
state collection laws, application, 10.2.3.1.1, 10.2.3.3.1
REPAYMENT PLANS
see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
REPOSSESSIONS
FDCPA, application, 4.1, 4.2.6.2, 6.2.4.4, Appx. J.1.2.2.2
state debt collection statutes, application, 10.2.3.3.4
tort claims, 9.7
trespass, 9.7.2
unfair practices, 5.6.6
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.5.4.2
verification notices, provision, 5.7.2.5
REPRESENTED DEBTORS
see also LEGAL REPRESENTATION
collection contacts, 2.3.7, 5.3.3, 5.3.7, 10.2.4.3.3, Appx. J.2.2.2
communications to attorney, 4.6.6
verification of debt, 5.7.3.3
REPUTATION
state law protections, 10.2.4.2.1
REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS
see DISCOVERY
RES JUDICATA
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.11
FDCPA claims, 7.4.2
RESEARCH AIDS
see also CASE LAW; PRACTICE AIDS
FDCPA, 3.3, Appx. J
NCLC resources, 1.1.1, 1.1.2
online, see WEB RESOURCES
RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
see LANDLORDS
RICO ACTIONS
advantages and disadvantages, 8.5.1
extortionate debt collection methods, 8.5.4
mail or wire fraud, 8.1, 8.5.2
qualifying conduct, 8.5.2
state racketeering statutes, 8.5.5
substantive prohibitions, 8.5.3
ROBOCALLS
see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES; TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
ROOKER-FELDMAN DOCTRINE
federal review of state court decisions, 7.4.4
case summaries, Appx. J.3.7.7
SALE OF DEBTS
see also DEBT BUYERS; SEIZURE AND SALE
advertising restrictions, 5.4.5
false representation, 5.5.15
false threats, 5.5.9
FDCPA, application, 4.2.4, 4.3.9, 4.3.10
fraud or identity theft, arising from, 8.6.4
SATISFACTION AGREEMENTS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2
SCAMS
consumer locating services, 1.5.6, 1.8.2
credit counseling, 1.6.3
debt settlement, 1.6.3
foreclosure rescue, 1.6.4
SECLUSION
intrusion upon right, 9.3.2
SECURITIZATION
identity theft debt, 8.6.4
SECURITY DEPOSITS
unjustified withholding, 1.10.2.5
SECURITY INTERESTS
enforcement, debt collection status, 4.2.6.1, 4.4.2.2
SEIZURE AND SALE
see also ATTACHMENT
deceptive threats, 5.5.7
exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
SELF-HELP REMEDIES
see also SELF-HELP RIGHTS
nonjudicial foreclosure, unfair practices, 5.6.6
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.5.4.1
repossession, unfair practices, 5.6.6
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.5.4.2
SELF-HELP RIGHTS
see also SELF-HELP REMEDIES
multiple debts, direction of payments, 5.8
reason for, 5.1
stopping collection contacts, 5.3.9.2
verification of debt, 5.7.3
SERVICE
fraudulent affidavits, 1.6.6
proper service of process, 2.4.7.8
out-of-state collectors, 6.11.2.1
SERVICER ACT
determination of payments and charges, 5.7.1
SERVICING COMPANIES
deceptive foreclosure practices, 5.5.2.13.5
FDCPA, application, 4.2.6.3, 4.3.1, 4.3.8, 4.3.9, 4.3.10.1, 4.3.10.3
debt collector status, 4.2.3.1
state law, application, 10.2.3.3.8
SETTLEMENT
debt settlement, see DEBT SETTLEMENT
deceptive offers, 5.5.2.13.2
FDCPA actions
attorney fees, 2.9, 6.8.3
class actions, 6.6.5
confidentiality clauses, 2.5.2.3
considerations, 2.4.10, 2.7
offers of judgment, 2.4.13, 6.6.4.2
underlying debt, 2.5.2.3
incomplete relief offers, 2.4.13.2
full relief offers, 2.4.13.3
offers of settlement
class actions, 6.6.4.2
individual actions, 2.4.13
SHAME LISTS
publication, 5.3.5.5, 5.4.4.2, 8.6.1
SHERIFFS
see also LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS
FDCPA, exclusion, 4.3.4, 4.3.5
SHOPLIFTING CLAIMS
FDCPA, application, 1.5.12, 4.4.2.3
case summaries, Appx. J.1.1.5.2.3
SKIP TRACING
see also LOCATION INFORMATION
overview, 1.5.6
ruses, 1.5.6, 1.8.2
SLANDER
see DEFAMATION
SLAPP SUITS
see STRATEGIC LAWSUITS AGAINST PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (SLAPP)
SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY
Bankruptcy Code, abrogation, 8.11.2.4
government officials, 7.4.5
SPAM
see TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
SPOUSES
see also CONSUMERS; THIRD PARTY CONTACTS
collection contacts with, 5.3.5.3
family expense statutes, collections under, 8.8
FDCPA application, 4.5
privilege, 9.1.3.2
STANDARDS
abusive collection practices
CFPB, 10.3.7
state, 10.2.1
collection activities and verification notice, 5.7.2.7.8
confusion, 5.7.2.7.8.4
contradiction, 5.7.2.7.8.3
deception, 5.7.2.7.8.4
effective communication, 5.7.2.7.8.1
obscuring or overshadowing, 5.7.2.7.8.2
collection agencies, licensing, 10.2.1
deceptive conduct, 5.5.2, 10.3.7
FCRA accuracy, 8.6.2.1
harassment, 5.4.1
case summaries, Appx. J.2.3.4
impermissible collection conduct, 9.2.4
least sophisticated consumer, 5.2.1, 5.5.2.5, 5.5.8.2
unconscionability, 5.6.1
unfairness, 5.6.1, 10.3.7
unreasonable collection conduct, 9.2.4, 9.3.1
STANDING
see also PARTIES
attorney fee petitions, 6.8.4
case summaries, Appx. J.1.4
FDCPA actions, 6.2.3
bankruptcy, after, 8.11.3.2.2
TCPA claims, 8.3.2.6
STATE AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
collection complaints to, 2.3.5, 2.10
governmental immunity, 10.1.4
licensing agencies, see STATE LICENSING AGENCIES
STATE LAW
see also CASE LAW; STATE REMEDIES
artificial voice messages, 10.8.5
autodialing systems, 10.8.5
bona fide error, 7.2.3
collection agencies, licensing, 10.2.1
collection contacts, right to stop, 5.3.9.4
collection lawsuits, see ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
credit repair laws, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS STATUTES (STATE)
debt collection statutes
see also STATE REMEDIES
abusive conduct, 1.10, 10.2.4.3
application outside traditional context, 1.10
bankruptcy filings, claims re violations, 8.11.3
benefits, 10.1.1
constitutional validity, 10.2.2
debt pooling, application, 1.10.5
fringe lenders, application, 1.10.3.1
general standards, 10.2.4.1
history, 1.4.5
landlords, application, 1.10.2.1
lending practices, application, 1.10.3
litigation misconduct, application, 1.10.4
mortgage foreclosures, application, 1.10.7, 10.2.3.1.4, 10.2.3.3.8
preemption by, 9.1.2.1
preemption of, 10.1.2
privacy protections, 10.2.4.2
protections, 10.2.4
remedies, 10.2.5
scope, 10.2.3
summary, Appx. D
UDAP remedies, see UDAP REMEDIES
unfair and deceptive activities, 10.2.4.4
utility company disputes, application, 1.10.6, 10.1.5
violation as UDAP violation, 10.3.6
debt collection, other limitations, 10.8
debt collectors, true name, determination, 5.5.17
debt pooling restrictions, 1.10.5
FCRA, preemption, 10.2.4.2.2
FDCPA
exemptions, 6.12.2
preemption, 6.12.1, 10.1.2
federal preemption, see PREEMPTION
loan broker laws, 10.8.4
long-arm statutes, 6.11.2
mail fraud, 8.1
mistake of law, 7.2.3
privacy laws, 10.8.3
RICO statutes, 8.5.5
supplementary claims, see SUPPLEMENTAL CLAIMS
telemarketing, 10.8.5
UDAP, see UDAP REMEDIES
usury laws, 10.8.2
STATE LICENSING AGENCIES
collection agencies, 10.2.1
STATE OFFICIALS
see GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
STATE REMEDIES
see also HARASSMENT ACTIONS; STATE LAW; SUPPLEMENTAL CLAIMS; TORT CLAIMS
bankruptcy, preemption, 8.11.4.4
benefits, 10.1.1
collection contacts, stopping, 5.3.9.4
constitutional validity, 10.2.2
criminal prosecution, 10.6
damages, 10.2.5.2
FDCPA statutory damages, relationship, 6.4.7
federal preemption, see PREEMPTION
generally, 10.2.1, 10.2.5
importance of state claims, 2.4.7.1
injunctive relief, 6.7.3, 10.7
litigation privilege, application, 10.1.3
prohibited collection activities, 10.2.1, 10.2.5
sample complaint, Appx. F.1
supplemental jurisdiction, 6.11.4
UDAP, see UDAP REMEDIES
utility collections, special issues, 10.1.5
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
actions on the debt, 5.5.2.13.3.3
case law summaries, Appx. J.3.5
CROA, 8.9.5
ECOA, 8.8
FDCPA, 6.10
commencement of period, 6.10.3
counting of period, 6.10.6, 6.10.7
discovery rule, 6.10.2
generally, 6.10.1
recoupment claims, 6.10.8
series of violations, 6.10.4
tolling, 6.10.5
filing of time-barred suit, 5.5.2.13.3, 9.6.3
case summaries, Appx. J.2.4.17, Appx. J.2.5.8
TCPA, 8.3.2.8
STATUTORY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
STATUTORY FEE AWARDS
see also ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
tax liability, 2.1.4
STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
debt collection, bankruptcy filing, 8.11.2.4
violation of stay, 8.11.2.4, 8.11.4.2
STOP CONTACT
right to stop, 5.3.9, Appx. J.2.2.5
demand letters, 2.3.2, 2.4.7.6
notice of right, 5.3.9.4, 5.7.2.6.2.2
state rights, 5.3.9.4
STRATEGIC LAWSUITS AGAINST PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (SLAPP)
anti-SLAPP statutes, 9.1.3.3
STRESS
see EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
STRICT LIABILITY
see LIABILITY
STUDENT LOANS
FDCPA application, 4.4.2.2, Appx. J.1.1.5.1.2
guarantee agencies, debt collector status, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.8
third-party contacts, 5.3.5
SUBSIDIARIES
see CORPORATE AFFILIATES
SUITS
see ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
SUMMARY JUDGMENT
harassment actions, 2.4.11
sample brief, partial summary judgment, Appx. H.1
statutory damages awards, 6.4.1
SUMMONS
see PLEADINGS
SUPPLEMENTAL CLAIMS
class statutory damages, 6.6.3.3
FDCPA violations
parties, 6.2.4.5, 6.11.5
state claims, 6.11.4
injunctive relief, 6.7.3
jurisdiction, 6.11.4, 6.11.5
punitive damages, 6.5.2
SUPPORT
see CHILD SUPPORT
SURVEY EVIDENCE
deception, use to establish, 2.5.7, 5.5.2.9
expert alternative, 2.4.14.3
pitfalls, 2.4.14
cost, 2.4.14.1
rejection, 2.4.14.2
TAPE RECORDINGS
see also TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
telephone conversations, 2.4.1, 2.4.9.3
TAX COLLECTIONS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.3, 8.10
case summaries, Appx. J.1.1.5.2.1
private collection agencies, 8.10
TAX LIABILITY
attorney fee awards, 2.1.4
charge-offs, 1.5.13
retirement of debt, 1.5.13, 2.1.4, 2.5.2.3
TELEGRAMS
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.7
collect fees, restrictions, 5.6.5
TELEMARKETERS
see also TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
remotely created checks, 8.7.2.1
state law, 10.8.5
TCPA restrictions, 8.3.2.1
TeleZappers, 1.8.2
TELEPHONE CALLS
see also COLLECTION CONTACTS; TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
anonymous calls, restrictions, 5.4.7
aliases, 5.4.7.3
artificial voice messages, see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
autodialed, see AUTOMATED DIALING SYSTEMS
caller ID services, see CALLER ID TELEPHONE SERVICES
cell phones, see CELLULAR PHONES
collect calls, restrictions, 5.6.5
collection contacts, 5.3.5.6
computer-assisted dunning, 1.8.1, 8.3.2
deregulation, 8.3.5
disclosure requirements, 5.3.5.6, 5.4.7, 5.5.14.1, 5.5.14.2, 8.3.3.3
electronic transfers initiated by, 8.7.2.3
FCC regulation, 8.3.5
harassing calls, see TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
long distance charges, restrictions, 5.6.5
prerecorded calls, see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
preview dialing, 8.3.2.3
repeated calls, see TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
requests by collectors during verification period, 5.7.2.7.5
tape recording, 2.4.1, 2.4.9.3
TCPA regulation, see TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (TCPA)
telephone company tariffs, 8.3.5
voicemail messages, see VOICEMAIL MESSAGES
TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (TCPA)
cell phone call restrictions, 5.3.2.7, 8.3.2.1
burden of proof, 8.3.2.5
exceptions, 8.3.2.4
scope of restrictions, 8.3.2.2
debt collection, application, 8.3.2.1
non-debtors, application, 8.3.2.6
overview, 8.3.2.1
remedies, 8.3.2.6
statute of limitations, 8.3.2.8
vicarious liability, 8.3.2.7
TELEPHONE HARASSMENT
see also ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; COLLECTION CONTACTS; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
artificial voice calls, 8.3.2
autodialer systems, 1.8.1, 8.3.2
caller ID technology, 1.8.2, 8.3.3
CAN SPAM Act, 8.3.4
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.3.2
cell phones, see CELLULAR PHONES
complaints regarding, 2.3.5
criminal statutes, 8.3.1
deregulation, effect, 8.3.5
electronic messaging, 8.3.4
FCC regulation
interstate communications, 8.3.5
mobile service commercial messages, 8.3.4
FDCPA prohibition, 5.4.1, 5.4.6
inconvenient time or place, 5.3.2
non-debtors, 8.3.2.6
repeated calls, 5.4.1, 5.4.6
state law, 10.2.4.3.1
tape recording, 2.4.1
delayed production of recordings, 2.4.9.3
tariff regulations prohibiting, 8.3.5
TCPA protections, 8.3.2
TeleZappers, 1.8.2
third parties, 5.3.5.2
tort claims, 9.3.2
Truth in Caller ID Act, 8.3.3.2
TENANCIES
see LANDLORDS; RENT
TEXT MESSAGES
see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
THIRD-PARTY CONTACTS
see also COLLECTION CONTACTS
case summaries, Appx. J.2.2.4
consumer consent, 5.3.8
debt collection purpose, disclosure, 5.3.5.6, 5.3.5.8, 5.5.14.2
FDCPA restrictions, 4.5, 4.6.4, 5.2.6.3, 5.3.5
harassment, 5.4.1
telephone harassment, 8.3.2.6
identity disclosure, 5.3.5.6, 5.3.5.8, 5.5.14.2
judicial authorization, 5.3.5.4
legal proceedings, 5.2.6.3
location information, obtaining from, 5.3.6
messages for debtors, restrictions, 5.3.5.2, 5.3.5.6, 5.5.14.1, 5.6.5
state law protections, 10.2.3.4, 10.2.4.2.4, 10.2.4.4.7
TCPA, application, 8.3.2.6
THREATS
see also ABUSIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
bad check laws, criminal prosecution, 1.10.3.4
credit reporting, 5.5.13, 5.7.2.7.4, 8.6.6.3
false information, 5.5.11
deceptive threats
collection attorneys, by, 5.2.7.2
collection suits, 5.2.7.2, 5.5.2.11, 5.5.2.13.3, 5.5.8.3, Appx. J.2.4.2
credit reporting, 5.5.11, 8.6.6.3
foreclosure threats, 5.6.6
least sophisticated consumer standard, 5.5.8.2
other threats, 5.5.2.12, Appx. J.2.4.3
repossession threats, 5.6.6
state law violations, 10.2.4.3.2, 10.2.4.4.3
transfer of debt, consequences, 5.5.9
unintended or unlawful actions, 5.5.7, 5.5.8
disguised threats, 5.5.2.11.3
extortion, 9.7.6
FDCPA violations, 5.4.1, 5.4.2, 5.5.2.11, 5.5.2.12
foreclosure, unfair practices, 5.6.6
illegal actions, 5.5.8.6
repossession, unfair practices, 5.6.6
state law violations, 10.2.4.3.2, 10.2.4.4.3
third-party contacts, 5.3.5.8
verification notice, contradicting or confusing, 5.7.2.7.3, 5.7.2.7.4
TIME
debt collection, restrictions, 5.3.2
TORT CLAIMS
see also HARASSMENT ACTIONS
abuse of process, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
abusive collection conduct, 5.4.1, 9
tax collections, 8.10
actionable conduct, 9.2.4, 9.3.1
arbitration clauses, application, 2.4.8.6
assault, see ASSAULT
attorney conduct, 9.8
bankruptcy context, 9.1.2.2
battery, see BATTERY
civil conspiracy, 9.7.5
constitutional torts, 8.12
conversion, see CONVERSION
creditor liability, 9.9
defamation, see DEFAMATION
emotional distress, see EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
extortion, see EXTORTION
false arrest, see FALSE ARREST OR IMPRISONMENT
false imprisonment, see FALSE ARREST OR IMPRISONMENT
FCRA limited immunity, 9.1.4
FDCPA
application, 4.4.2.3, Appx. J.1.1.4
preemption, 6.12.1, 9.1.2.1
fraud, see FRAUD
generally, 9.1
government entities, against, 9.7.8
identity theft, 9.1.5
intentional interference, see INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE
invasion of privacy, see INVASION OF PRIVACY
libel, see DEFAMATION
long-arm jurisdiction, 6.11.2.3
malicious defense, 9.6.1
malicious prosecution, see MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
misrepresentations, 9.7.5
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE
nuisance, see NUISANCE
other torts, 9.7.7
overview, 9.1.1
preemption
Bankruptcy Code, 9.1.2.2
FDCPA, 6.12.1, 9.1.2.1
federal banking laws, 9.1.2.3
Higher Education Act, 9.1.2.3
privilege defense, 9.1.3
punitive damages, 2.6.1
slander, see DEFAMATION
slander of title, 9.7.3
state or local officials, against, 8.12
trespass to chattels, 9.7.3
trespass to property, see TRESPASS
vicarious liability, 9.9
TRANSACTIONS
see CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
TRANSFER OF DEBTS
see SALE OF DEBTS
TRESPASS
tort claims, 9.7.2
TRIALS
see FDCPA ACTIONS; JURY TRIALS
TRUSTEES
collection contacts with, 5.3.5.3
estate trustees, see DECEDENT’S DEBTS
FDCPA, application, 4.2.6.3, 4.5
FDCPA, exclusion, 4.3.8, Appx. J.1.2.3.6
TRUTH IN CALLER ID ACT
prohibitions, 8.3.3.2
TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
creditor, definition, 8.9.2
disclosure requirements, 8.4
open-end credit disputes, 8.4.2
originator violations, collector liability, 8.4.2
predatory lending, application, 1.10.3.1
statutory damages, 6.6.3.1
UCC
see UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
UDAP REMEDIES
see also STATE REMEDIES
creditors, abusive lending practices, 1.10.3.2
damages, 10.3.8
debt collection statute violations, 10.3.6
deceptive activities, 10.3.4
FDCPA statutory damages, relationship, 6.4.7
FDCPA violations, 10.3.6
generally, 10.3.8
injunctive relief, 10.3.8, 10.7
interpretation, 10.3.2
landlords, abusive conduct, 1.10.2.1
liberal construction, 10.3.2
nature and advantages, 10.3.1
out-of-state residents, 10.3.3.1
per se violations, 10.3.6
preemption, 10.1.2
scope, 10.3.3
consumer transactions, 10.3.3.3
debt collection, 10.3.3.2
generally, 10.3.3.1
protected consumers, 10.3.3.5
state-by-state summary, 10.3.3.6
types of creditors and collectors, 10.3.3.4
unauthorized practice of law, 10.5.5
unfair or unconscionable activities, 10.3.5
unordered merchandise, 8.2
validity in debt collection context, 10.3.2
UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE OF LAW
see also PRACTICE OF LAW
attorneys, enabling, 10.5.3
collection agencies, 10.5.2
creditors, 10.5.1
injunctive relief, 10.7
remedies, 10.5.5.1
UNCONSCIONABLE PRACTICES
arbitration clauses, 2.4.8.8
collection practices, see UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
predatory lending, 1.10.3.1
UNFAIR OR UNCONSCIONABLE COLLECTION PRACTICES
see also DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
attorneys, 5.2.7.1
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.5
CFPB standards, 10.3.7
checklist, Appx. E.3.4
collecting more than owing, 5.6.3
communication charges, 5.6.5
concealing collection purpose, 5.6.5
described, 10.3.5
FDCPA concept, 5.2.7, 5.6
foreclosure, nonjudicial, 5.6.6
general prohibition, 5.6.1
illegal charges, 5.6.3
legal representation, see LEGAL REPRESENTATION
postdated checks, circumstances, 5.6.4
prohibited methods, 5.6.2
repossession, unauthorized, 5.6.6
state prohibitions, 10.2.4.4
time-barred suits, 5.5.2.13, 5.6.2
UDAP remedies, see UDAP REMEDIES
unauthorized practice of law as, 10.5.5
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
remotely created checks, application, 8.7.2.1
violations, remedies, 8.7.6
UNSOLICITED MERCHANDISE
illegal attempts to collect for, 8.2
USURY
abusive lending practices, 1.10.3.3
collection agency liability, 10.8.2
UTILITY BILLS
FDCPA, application, 4.4.2.2, Appx. J.1.1.5.1.1
state debt collection statutes, 10.8.1
application, 1.10.6
special issues, 10.1.5
VALIDATION NOTICES
see VERIFICATION NOTICES
VENUE
see also JURISDICTION
abuse of process, 9.6.3
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.7, Appx. J.3.7.4
collection actions, 5.2.6.2, 5.9
FDCPA actions, 6.11.3
garnishment proceedings, 5.9.2
harassment actions, 2.4.7.2
improper, state law violations, 10.2.4.4.7
inconvenient forums, 5.9, 9.6.3
unfair practices, as UDAP violation, 10.3.5
VERIFICATION NOTICES
see also VERIFICATION OF DEBT
additional language, 5.7.2.6.2.1
amount of debt, disclosure, 5.7.2.6.4, 5.7.2.6.5
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.4.10
case law summaries, Appx. J.2.6
circumstances, 5.7.2.5
collection activities obscuring, 5.7.2.7, Appx. J.2.6.2
legal standards, 5.7.2.7.8.2
collection suits, 4.6.4, 5.2.6.4, 5.7.2.5
contents, 5.7.2.6
contradictions, 5.7.2.7.8.3
deception and confusion, 5.7.2.7.8.4
effectively conveying, 5.7.2.3, 5.7.2.7.8.1
legal standards, 5.7.2.7.8
incomplete, 5.7.2.6.1
misleading, 5.7.2.6.1, 5.7.2.6.5
oral disputes, 5.7.2.6.3
oral notice, 5.7.2.4, Appx. J.2.6.3
overview, 5.7.2.2
placement, 5.7.2.3
provision, 5.7.2.5
recommended notices, 5.7.2.6.2
consumer advocate recommendations, 5.7.2.6.2.2
court recommendations, 5.7.2.6.2.1
simplified rights notice, 5.7.2.6.2.2
state law, 10.2.4.4.5
time, 5.7.2.5
written notice, 5.7.2.5
VERIFICATION OF DEBT
see also VERIFICATION NOTICES
case summaries, Appx. J.2.6
collection activities during, 5.7.2.7, 5.7.3.4
consumer rights, 2.3.6, 5.7.1, 5.7.3
verification rights notice, see VERIFICATION NOTICES
credit reporting agencies, reporting to, 5.5.11, 5.7.3.2, 5.7.3.4, 8.6.6.2
fees, 5.7.3.3
oral dispute of debt, 5.7.2.6.3, 5.7.3.2
represented consumers, 5.7.3.3
sufficient information, 5.7.3.3
written requests, 5.7.2.6.3, 5.7.3.2
VICARIOUS LIABILITY
collection agencies, 2.8, 4.2.3.3
creditors, 2.8
TCPA violations, 8.3.2.7
tort claims, 9.9
VIOLENCE
see also CRIMINAL CONDUCT
FDCPA prohibition, 5.4.2
VOICEMAIL MESSAGES
see also TELEPHONE CALLS
artificial voice messages, see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
caller identity, disclosure requirement, 5.3.5.6, 5.4.7.2
collection contacts, restrictions, 5.3.5.2, 5.3.5.6, 5.5.14.1, 5.6.5
location information, obtaining, 5.3.6
prerecorded messages, see ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
TCPA restrictions, 8.3.2
WAGE GARNISHMENT
see also GARNISHMENT
excessive, remedies, 9.6.2, 9.6.3
WAIVER
FDCPA rights
generally, 5.2.2
inconvenient contact protections, 5.3.2.6
privacy protections, 5.3.8
venue rights, restriction, 5.9.2
telephone number, giving not waiver of harassment, 9.3.2
WEB RESOURCES
see also ONLINE DATABASES
debt collection on the web, Appx. K
false suit threats, use to establish, 5.5.2.11.2.2
FDCPA case law, 3.3.3
harassment complaints, 2.3.2, 2.3.5
NACA directory, 1.1.3, 1.4.5
NCLC online searches, 1.1.1
NCLC resources, 1.1.2, Appx. L
WIRE FRAUD
RICO claims, 8.5
WIRELESS DEVICES
see CELLULAR PHONES
WITNESSES
see also EVIDENCE
experts, see EXPERT WITNESSES
FDCPA, application, 7.4.6
litigation immunity, 7.4.6, Appx. J.3.6.6
pattern or practice evidence, 2.4.6
WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
proposing to stop harassment, 2.3.4
TILA disclosures, 8.4.1
WORKPLACES
see also EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS
collection contacts at
case summaries, Appx. J.2.2.3
FDCPA restrictions, 5.3.2.4, 5.3.4, 5.3.5.2
state law restrictions, 10.2.4.2.3
location information, obtaining, 5.3.6
WRITE-OFFS