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ABANDONMENT OF PROPERTY
apartment buildings, 18.8.2.1, 18.8.2.2, 18.8.2.5, 18.8.2.6
automatic stay, effect, 11.3.3
fully encumbered secured property, 3.5.2
irrevocable decision, 3.5.1
no significant nonexempt equity, 3.5.1, 8.3.11
prohibition by court, 11.3.3
request by debtor, 3.5.1
request by secured creditor, 11.3.3
right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
ABILITY TO PAY TEST
see also CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME; DISPOSABLE INCOME
bad faith and, 13.4.7.4
chapter 13 plan, 12.3.4
change in circumstances, 12.3.4.5
disposable income test, 12.3.4.4
full payment test, 12.3.4.3
generally, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1
incomes below threshold, 13.4.7.1
objections, 12.3.4.2
ABLE ACCOUNTS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.3
timing considerations, 6.5.2.2
ABSTENTION
discretionary abstention, 14.5.3
generally, 14.5.1
mandatory abstention, 14.5.2
ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
attorney certification, 16.7.2.3
changes to standard, 13.4.7
dismissal of case, 3.2.1.5, 13.4
consumer debts, 13.4.2
discretionary dismissal, 13.4.6.3
generally, 13.4.1
incomes above threshold, 13.4.3, 13.4.7.1
procedure, 13.4.8
safe harbor, 13.4.4
means test, see MEANS TEST
presumption of abuse, see PRESUMPTION OF ABUSE
ACTIONS
see also CIVIL PROCEEDINGS
automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
bankruptcy petition preparers, against, 16.6
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
consumer protection actions, 16.5.3
damages, see DAMAGES
discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.1.4, 15.5.5.7
postpetition claims
consumers as creditors, 18.5.3
discharge, 4.6, 8.7.2, 13.7.2
utilities, 9.8.2.2.4
prepetition causes of action
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
pursuing, 16.5.3
standing, 14.3.2.6.2
unlisted, judicial estoppel, 14.3.2.6.3
ADDRESSES
change of address, duty to notify, 8.2
creditors, for notice purposes, 9.6.3.2.3, 9.6.3.2.4
ADEQUATE ASSURANCE
lease or executory contract, 12.9.2
utilities, 9.8.2.2
amount necessary, 9.8.2.2.3
local practice, 9.8.2.1
methods of assurance, 9.8.2.2.1
when required, 9.8.2.2.2
ADEQUATE PROTECTION
automatic stay, 9.7.3.2.2, 12.8.2.3
chapter 12, 17.4.4.3, 17.4.11
automatic turnover, 9.9.3
cash collateral use, 17.4.8
property in possession of debtor, 12.8.2
secured creditors
chapter 12, 17.4.11
chapter 13 payments, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
first steps after chapter 13 filing, 4.3
ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
chapter 13, 12.3.4.4.4, 12.3.6.1
means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.7
wages and benefits, treatment as, 18.7.12.2
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BANKRUPTCY
see also BANKRUPTCY
advantages
automatic stay, 6.2.1.4
discharge of most debts, 6.2.1.1
litigation advantages, 6.2.1.6
other protections, 6.2.1.5
secured debts, regarding, 6.2.1.3
unsecured creditors, protection from, 6.2.1.2
disadvantages
cost of filing, 6.2.2.6
credit and reputation, effect on, 6.2.2.3
discharge unavailable, 6.2.2.8.2
feelings of moral obligation, 6.2.2.5
loss of property, 6.2.2.2
possible discrimination, 6.2.2.4
situations when wrong tool, 6.2.2.8.1
weighing, 6.2.2.7
joint filings, 6.4
type of case
chapter 7 advantages, 6.3.2
chapter 11 situations, 6.3.4
chapter 13 advantages, 6.3.3
ADVERSARY PROCEEDINGS
see under BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
ADVERTISEMENTS
debt relief agencies, 16.8.5
ALIMONY
see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
see also CLAIMS BY CREDITORS; SECURED CREDITORS
adequate protection payments, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
bifurcation of claims, 11.7
chapter 7, 11.2.1.2
chapter 12, 11.2.1.3, 17.5.3
chapter 13, 11.2.1.3, 12.2.3.1
chapter 12 cramdown, 17.5.4
chapter 13 conversion to chapter 7, 13.7.3
chapter 13 cramdown, 11.6.1, 11.7
chapter 13 plans, payment through, 11.6.1.3
collateral, statement of intention, 11.4
defined, 11.1, 11.4.2.4.2
determination, 11.2
chapter 12, 17.5.3
chapter 13, 11.6.1.3.3.5, 11.6.1.4
procedure, 11.2.2
family farmer reorganizations, see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
general principles, 11.2.1.1
government liens, 11.2.1.1
hardship discharge, 4.7.2
interest and fees, 11.6.1.3.3.6
means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.2
objections, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
reaffirmation, 11.5.4
recent purchases, 11.6.1.4
reconsideration, 14.4.3.7
right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
valuation
appraisal, necessity, 11.2.2.3.4
chapter 12, 17.5.3
converted cases, 13.7.3
date, 11.2.2.2
exempt property, inclusion, 11.2.2.3.4
ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS (cont.)
generally, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
method, 11.2.2.3
present value, 11.6.1.3.3.1, 11.6.1.3.3.6
AMENDMENTS
statements or schedules, 8.3.2
APPEALS
abstention decision, 14.5.1, 14.5.2
appellate panel service
see also BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP)
from, 2.4.3, 14.9.3
to, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
automatic stay relief, 9.7.3.3.3
bankruptcy court, from, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
consumer awards, 18.2.1
court of appeals, to, 2.4.3, 14.9.2
certification, Official Form 424, Appx. D.3
district court
from, 2.4.3, 14.9.3
to, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
final orders, 14.9.4
in forma pauperis, 14.6.1
procedures, time, 14.9.5
stay pending, 9.7.3.3.3, 14.9.5
APPRAISALS
see also VALUATION
allowed secured claims, necessity, 11.2.2.3.3
ARBITRATION CLAUSES
avoiding, 14.3.2.5
ASSETS
see also PROPERTY
concealment, effect, 15.2.2.2
distribution to creditors, 3.5.4
loss or deficiency, failure to explain, 15.2.2.5
no-asset case, defined, 3.1
nominal asset cases, 3.5, 8.3.11
ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE
trustees in bankruptcy, claiming debtor’s, 2.6
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
see also ATTORNEYS
amounts typically charged, 16.2.2
automatic stay violations, 9.6.2
bankruptcy petition preparers, 16.6
bankruptcy rule violations, sanctions, 16.5.5
basic fee, 16.2.1, 16.3.3
chapter 12 reorganizations
disclosure, 17.2.3.3
payment through plan, 17.5.7.3, 17.5.9
chapter 13 plans
collection means, 6.3.3
deduction from disposable income, 12.3.4.4.4
payment under, 7.3.12.3, 16.4
priority claim, 12.3.6.1
civil rights awards, 16.5.2
consumer protection awards, 16.5.3
court supervision, 16.3
creditors’ committees, 18.7.2.2
dischargeability complaints, 15.4.3.2.4
disclosure form, 7.3.13.2, Appx. E.6
filing, 7.2.1
disclosure requirements, 7.3.13.2, 16.3.2
dismissed cases, liability, 16.7.2.1
divorce proceedings, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
equal access to justice awards, 16.5.4
estate property, payment from, 16.2.3
fee-shifting provisions, 16.5.6
governmental units, awards against, 16.5.7
initial arrangements, 16.2
method of payment, 16.2.3
motion to dismiss, 16.7.2.1
“no look” fee, 16.2.1
non-attorney services, 16.3.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
nonpayment, effect, 16.2.2
postpetition services, 16.2.3
prepetition services, 16.2.3
prevailing debtors, 16.5
record on fee issues, 16.3.4
right to cure, allowable, 11.6.2.7.1
Rule 3001 and Rule 3002.1 sanctions, 11.6.2.8.2.7, 16.5.5.2
Rule 9011 sanctions, 16.5.5.1
statement of fees charged, 16.3.2, Appx. E.6
tax refunds, assignment to pay, 2.5.5
unusual aspects, 16.1
ATTORNEYS
bankruptcy petitions, filing on behalf of debtor, 3.2.1.1
signature, 16.7.2.3, 16.7.2.4
chapter 11, appointment, 17.2.3.2
chapter 12, appointment, 17.2.3.2
confirmation hearings, attendance, 8.6
costs, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
counseling the debtor, 6.1
see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR; PRACTICE TIPS
client handouts, Appx. K
creditor’s attorney, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
debt relief agencies, as
advertising requirements, 16.8.5
disclosure requirements, 16.8.3.2
failure to comply with provisions, 16.8.6
restrictions on advice, 16.8.2
statement about services, 16.8.3.3
status, 16.8.1
written contract requirement, 16.8.4
declaration on petition, 7.3.2, 7.3.6, 7.4
duties
debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
Federal Rule of Bankruptcy Procedure 9011, 16.7
Federal Rule of Bankruptcy Procedure 9011
duties, 16.7.1
sanctions, 16.5.5.1
violations, 16.7.2.2
fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
privilege, see ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE
reaffirmation agreements, validating, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.7
role of non-attorneys, see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
signature as certification, 16.7.2.3
schedules, 16.7.2.4
statement about bankruptcy assistance services, 16.8.3.3
unbundling services, 16.2.1
AUDITS
debtor audits, 8.3.15.1, Appx. C.5
AUTOMATIC STAY
abandoned property, effect, 11.3.3
adequate protection, 9.7.3.2.2, 12.8.2.2.3
advantage of bankruptcy, 6.2.1.4
advice to clients, 8.2
appeal pending, effect, 9.7.3.3.3
bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
chapter 7, 3.3
chapter 12
adequate protection, 17.4.4.3, 17.4.11
application, generally, 17.4.4.1
codebtor stay, 17.4.4.2
relief, grounds, 17.4.4.3
chapter 13, 4.3
inability to complete plan, 8.7.5
codebtor stay, 6.2.1.4, 9.3.3.5, 9.4.5, 17.4.4.2
consumers as creditors, 18.3, 18.9.2
disputes that may arise, 8.3.10
duration, 9.3
no prior case dismissed in year prior, 9.3.2
prior case dismissed in year prior, 9.3.3
enforcement, 9.6
exceptions, 9.4.6
criminal proceedings, 9.4.6.2
family law exceptions, 9.4.6.3, 18.3.3
in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2
non-avoidable transfers, 9.4.6.7
other exceptions, 9.4.6.9
repeat filers, 9.4.6.5
residential tenant evictions, 9.4.6.6
retirement fund loan repayments, 9.4.6.4
tax refund intercepts, 9.4.6.8
generally, 9.1
lender bankruptcies, 18.9.2
notice to creditors
effective notice, 9.6.3.3
giving notice, 8.3.1, 9.5, 9.6.3.1
requirements of notice, 9.6.3.2
personal property leases, 12.9.5.2
purpose, 9.2
reinstitution, 9.4.7
relief from the stay
appeals from, 9.7.3.3.3
burden of proof, 9.7.3.1.4
chapter 12, 17.4.4.3
chapter 13, 8.7.5
commencement by motion, 9.7.1
consumers as creditors, 18.3.2–18.3.5, 18.9.2
counterclaims and defenses, 9.7.3.1.3
discovery, 9.7.3.1.2
grounds for relief, 9.7.3.2, 12.8.2.2.3
lender bankruptcies, 18.9.2
loss mitigation programs, 9.7.2
modification, 9.7.3.3.2
in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2
parties, 9.7.3.1.1
prior bankruptcy proceedings, effect, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5
standing, 9.7.3.1.1
tactics, 9.7.3.3
time limits, 9.7.2
unassumed leases, 12.9.4
repetitive filings, effect, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5
chapter 12, 17.4.4.3
timing considerations, 6.5.3.7
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.4
scope
codebtors, 9.4.5, 17.4.4.2
debtor’s actions, 9.4.2, 14.4.2
debtor’s property, 9.4.3
exceptions, 9.4.6
legal proceedings, 9.4.2, 9.4.6.2
non-automatic stays, 9.4.7
other prohibitions, 9.4.4
sovereign immunity, effect, 9.6.6
tax intercepts, 9.4.4
termination, order confirming, 9.3.3.4
utility services, 9.8
violations
contempt remedies, 9.6.4
damages, 8.3.1, 9.6.2
effect, 9.6.1
governmental units, 9.6.6
jurisdiction, 9.6.5
notice issues, 9.6.3
procedural issues, 9.6.7
UDAP violation, as, 9.6.5
AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
adequate protection, 9.9.3
application, 9.9, 9.9.1
chapter 7, 3.3
chapter 13, 4.3
general rule, 9.9.1
notice to property-holders, 8.3.1
possession after turnover, 9.9.4
procedure, 9.9.3
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.5
secured parties in possession, scope, 9.9.2
AUTOMOBILE TITLE PAWNS
bankruptcy, effect, 11.9
AUTOMOBILES
see MOTOR VEHICLES
AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
see also POSTPETITION TRANSFERS; PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
chapter 12, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
chapter 13 plans, 11.7
divorce-related liens, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2
exempt property, 3.5.1, 8.3.6, 10.4.2
foreclosure sales, 10.4.2.6.5
fraudulent transfers
chapter 11, 18.7.6
chapter 12, 17.4.3.5.2
generally, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
joint property, 10.4.2.3.3
liens, 10.4.2
exempt property, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.1, 10.4.2.2, 10.4.2.3
family farmers, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5.1, 17.4.3.5.4
joint property, 10.4.2.3.3
judicial liens, 10.4.2.3, 10.4.2.10, 17.4.3.3
non-purchase money security interests, 10.4.2.4
pre-Code liens, 10.4.2.10
preservation, 10.4.2.9
statement of intention, 7.3.11
trustee’s powers, 10.4.2.6
non-avoidable transfers, automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.7
powers of debtor, 10.4.2
preferences
chapter 11, 18.7.6
debtor use of powers, 10.4.2.6.4.3
exceptions to avoidance, 10.4.2.6.4.2
family farmers, 17.4.3.5.3
generally, 10.4.2.6.4.1
prebankruptcy, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
preservation of property, 10.4.2.9
procedures, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.2
property recovered by trustee, 10.4.2.5
recovery of property after, 10.4.2.8
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.9
trustee’s powers, 10.4.2.6, 10.4.2.7
BAD FAITH
see also GOOD FAITH TEST
attorney fee awards re, 16.5.6
conversion of proceedings, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
dismissal of case, 13.4.7.1, 13.4.7.4
relief from stay, 9.7.3.2.1
BANK ACCOUNTS
freezes on, 9.4.4, 11.3.5
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
statements, source of information, 5.3.4
BANK SETOFF RIGHTS
account freezes, 9.4.4, 11.3.5
gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
BANKRUPT PERSONS
see DEBTORS
BANKRUPTCY
advantages, see ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BANKRUPTCY
alternatives, 6.2.2.8.2
auto pawn transactions and, 11.9
business bankruptcies, see BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
case
definition, 1.4.2
venue, 3.2.3
case law, see CASE LAW
chapter 7, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
chapter 11, see CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
chapter 12, see CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
chapter 13, see CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
common questions, client handout, Appx. K.2
consumers as creditors, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
counseling the debtor, 6.1, Appx. K
see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
defined, 2.1
disadvantages, see ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BANKRUPTCY
discharges, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
discrimination regarding, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
dismissal, see DISMISSAL OF CASE
documents, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
emergency situations, 7.2.2
farmers, see FARMERS
federal code, see BANKRUPTCY CODE
federal rules, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
filing, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
BANKRUPTCY (cont.)
governing law, 1.4
health care businesses, 18.10
involuntary, see INVOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
ipso facto default, see BANKRUPTCY CLAUSES
jurisdiction, 2.4.2, 14.2
landlords, 18.3.5, 18.8
legislation, see BANKRUPTCY CODE
lenders, 18.9
liquidations, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS; CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
local rules, 1.4.2, 1.4.4.3
monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
NCLC treatise, 1.3
focus, 1.2
online version, 1.3.2
organization, 1.3.3, 5.1.1
other NCLC resources, 1.3.5.2
practice tools, 1.3.4, 5.1.3
print version, 1.3.2
purpose, 1.3.1
scope, 1.2
using, 1.3, 5.1.3
necessity, weighing, 6.2.2.7
neglected remedy, 1.1.3
no-asset cases, defined, 3.1
overview, 1.1.1
papers, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
petitions, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
practice aids, see PRACTICE TIPS
proceedings, see BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
property administered, see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
purposes, 2.3
questionnaire, 5.3.2, Appx. F
recoupment claims, 14.3.2.4
related statutes, text, Appx. A
relief available, 2.2
remedial value, 1.1
rent-to-own transactions and, 11.8
reorganizations, see CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS; CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
reporting services, 1.5.4
research aids, see RESEARCH AIDS
rules, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
straight bankruptcies, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
title pawn transactions and, 11.9
treatises and texts, 1.5.3
trustees in bankruptcy, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
U.S. trustee, see UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
using remedy, 1.1.4
voluntary, see VOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
wrong tool situations, 6.2.2.8.1
BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP)
see also APPEALS; BANKRUPTCY COURT
appeals from, 2.4.3, 14.9.3
appeals to, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
establishment, 1.1.2.4, 14.9.1
BANKRUPTCY ASSISTANCE SERVICES
see ATTORNEYS; BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
BANKRUPTCY CLAUSES
validity, 8.8.2, 11.5.4, 15.5.3
BANKRUPTCY CODE
see also BANKRUPTCY; FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
amendments to
1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act, 1.1.2.1, 1.5.1.1, Appx. A.4.1
1984 consumer amendments, 1.1.2.2, 1.5.1.2, Appx. A.4.2
1986 changes, 1.1.2.3, 1.5.1.3, Appx. A.4.3
1994 Bankruptcy Reform Act, 1.1.2.4, 1.5.1.4, Appx. A.4.6
2005 amendments, 1.1.2.5, 1.5.1.5, 9.6.3.2, 17.1.1.1, Appx. A.4.9
chapter 12 enactment, 17.1.1.1
other amendments, 1.1.2.6
pending legislation, 1.4.4.1
case law, 1.4.4.4
debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
definitions, 1.4.1
exemption provisions, importance, 10.1.1
legislative history, 1.5.1
National Bankruptcy Review Commission, 1.1.2.4
rules of construction, 1.4.1
structure, 1.4.1
text, Appx. A.1
transitional provisions, Appx. A.4.1–Appx. A.4.3
BANKRUPTCY COURT
see also BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP); BANKRUPTCY JUDGES
abstention
discretionary, 14.5.3
mandatory, 14.5.2
right to, 14.5.1
advantages
fairer results, 14.3.1
federal court access, 14.3.2.3
sovereign immunity waiver, 14.3.2.2
venue, 14.3.2.1
appeals, 2.4.3, 14.9
bankruptcy appellate panel, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
direct appeal to court of appeals, 14.9.2
district court, 14.9.1
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
bringing matter before
claims by debtor, 14.4.2, 14.4.4
example, 14.4.4
habeas corpus, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
objections to claims, 14.4.3.1
removal to, 14.4.1, 14.4.4
case docket listing, 2.4.1
case law, binding effect, 1.4.4.4
claims docket listing, 2.4.1
class actions, 14.7
contempt of court, 14.2.8
discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
dischargeability determinations, 15.4.2, 15.4.4
dismissal of cases
involuntary dismissal, 13.3, 13.4
voluntary dismissal, 13.2
dockets, access, 2.4.1
filing fees, see FILING FEES
final orders, 14.9.4
generally, 14.1
in forma pauperis litigation, 14.6, 18.6.2
in personam jurisdiction, 14.3.2.1
involuntary cases, 14.8
jurisdiction, 2.4.2, 9.6.5, 14.2, 15.5.5.7
jury trials, 14.2.7
loss mitigation programs, 9.7.2
notice by clerk of available relief, 7.3.6
reaffirmation agreements, approval, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.6
records, 2.4.1
related provisions, Appx. A.2
removal to, 14.4.1
generally, 14.4.1.1
procedure after removal, 14.4.1.3
procedure for removal, 14.4.1.2
remand of removed actions, 14.4.1.4
reporting services, 1.5.4
rules of procedure, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
status, 2.4.1
supervision and review of fees, 16.3.3
tax returns, filing with, 8.3.4.2
venue, 14.3.2.1
BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
see also PROPERTY
attorney fees, payments from, 16.2.3, 16.4.2
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
chapter 12 reorganizations
composition, 17.4.2
possession, 17.4.2
vesting in debtor, 17.5.9
chapter 13 plans
possession, 12.8.1
vesting in debtor, 12.8.5
contents
education savings accounts, 2.5.3
generally, 2.5.1
pawned personal property, 2.5.4
pensions and spendthrift trusts, 2.5.2
tax refunds and credits, 2.5.5
defined, 2.5.1
exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
money orders, exclusion, 18.5.2.1
nonexempt property, retention, 8.3.11
postpetition property, inclusion, 8.2
potential claims, property of, 14.3.2.6.2
security deposits, status, 18.8.5
substantive consolidation of cases, 6.4
BANKRUPTCY FORMS
additional time to file, 7.3.13.5
amending, 7.1.1, 8.3.2
attorneys, duties, 16.7
captions, Appx. D.2
chapter 7, 3.2.2
chapter 12, 17.2.3
chapter 13, 4.2.2
discharge, 8.8.1
completing, 7.3.1
computer software, 5.1.3, 7.1.3
credit counseling certificate, 7.2.1, 7.3.5
deficiencies, 13.3.1, 13.3.2
Director’s procedural forms, Appx. E
disclosure of fees, 7.3.13.2
electronic filing, 7.1.4, Appx. D.1.4
emergency bankruptcies, 7.2.2
filing, 7.2.1
electronic filing, 7.1.4, Appx. D.1.4
filing deadlines, see TIME LIMITS
filing fees, see FILING FEES
financial affairs, see STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
format, 7.3.1
general principles, 7.1.1
intentions, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
list of creditors, codebtors, executory contracts, 7.3.4
local rules or practice, 7.3.13.6
non-attorney preparers, 7.3.1, 7.3.13.2, 7.4, see also BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
non-official forms, 7.3.1
Official Forms, see OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
other forms, 7.3.13, Appx. E
notice of available relief, 7.3.6, Appx. E.4
petition, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
redaction of personal information, 7.1.5
sample completed forms, Appx. D.2
sample pleadings and forms, 1.3.4, Appx. G
schedules, see SCHEDULES
signing and verification, 7.4, 16.7.1
attorney certification, 16.7.2.3
Social Security number, see STATEMENT ABOUT YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
standardized forms, 7.3.1
statistical summary of certain liabilities, 7.3.7.8
substantial compliance with official forms, 1.4.3, 7.3.1
computer programs, 7.1.3
permitted alterations, Appx. D.1.3
precise compliance not necessary, 7.3.1
summary of schedules, 7.3.7.8
unofficial forms, 7.3.1
BANKRUPTCY JUDGES
see also BANKRUPTCY COURT
additional 1986 judgeships, 1.1.2.3
contempt powers, 14.2.8
expertise, 14.3.1
jury trials, conducting, 14.2.7
related provisions, Appx. A.2, Appx. A.4.2, Appx. A.4.3
BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
see also DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES; NON-ATTORNEYS
actions against, 16.6
advertisements, 16.6, 16.8.5
assistance from, 16.6
defined, 16.6
disclosure requirements, 16.8.3.4
compensation disclosure, 7.3.13.2, Appx. E.10
fees, 7.3.13.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
generally, 16.6
information requirements, 7.3.13.2, 7.4, 16.6
forms include space for, 7.3.1, 16.6
Official Form 119, notice, declaration, and signature, Appx. D.3
notice to debtor, 16.6
regulation as debt relief agency, 16.6, 16.8.1.1
disclosure requirements, 16.8.3.4
failure to comply, 16.8.6
regulation under s. 110, 16.6
restrictions on, 16.6, 16.8.2
signing of documents, 7.4
statement about bankruptcy assistance services, 16.8.3.3
unauthorized practice of law, 16.6
written contract requirement, 16.8.4
BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
advice to clients after filing, 8.2
amendments to initial papers, 8.3.2
annotated and completed forms, Appx. D.2
audits, 8.3.15.1
chapter 7
declaration of attorney, 7.3.2
declaration of understanding, 7.3.2, 7.3.6
eligibility, 3.2.1
filing, effect, 3.3
filing, forms and fees, 3.2.2, 7.2.1
chapter 13
filing, effect, 4.3
filing, forms and fees, 4.2.2, 7.2.1
filing when discharge unavailable, 12.10.3
postpetition claims, 4.6, 8.7.2
electronic filing, 7.1.4, Appx. D.1.4
filing costs
see also FILING FEES
amendments, 8.3.2
chapter 7, 3.2.2, 14.6.2.1
chapter 13, 4.2.2
generally, 6.2.2.6, 7.2.1
installment payments, 7.3.13.3
joint filings, 6.4
waiver, 14.6
format, 7.1.2, 7.3.2
forms, 7.2.1
after filing, pleadings, Appx. G.7
initial pleadings, Appx. G.3
Official Form 101, 7.3.2, Appx. D.2
pre-filing pleadings, Appx. G.2
sample forms, Appx. D.2
good faith filing, 9.3.3.2.2, 9.3.3.2.3
involuntary, 14.8, 17.1.2
joint filings, 6.4, 7.3.7.3, 7.3.7.6, 7.3.8, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1
national database, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
non-attorney preparers, see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
notice by clerk prior to filing, 7.3.6
PACER system, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
preparing, 7.3.2
prior filings
effect on eligibility, 3.2.1.2, 12.10
information on, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
signing, 7.4, 16.7.1
attorney certification, 16.7.2.3
successive filings, 3.2.1.2, 4.2.1.4, 6.2.2.8.2, 12.10
effect on automatic stay, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5, 17.4.4.3
timing considerations, 6.5
venue, 3.2.3
BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
see also CORE PROCEEDINGS; NON-CORE PROCEEDINGS
BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS (cont.)
abstention, 14.5
adversary proceedings
caption, Official Form 416D, Appx. D.2
cover sheet, Appx. E.2
described, 14.2.4.1
rules, 1.4.2
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.10
subpoena, Appx. E.9.2
summons, Appx. E.8
applications, 14.2.4.1
case, distinction, 1.4.2
categories, 1.4.2, 14.2.4
contested matters, 14.2.4.1
rules, 1.4.2
conversion of proceedings, see CONVERSION OF PROCEEDINGS
defined, 1.4.2, 14.2.4.1
disputes that arise
generally, 8.3.10
resolving, 3.4, 4.4
forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
in forma pauperis, 14.6
bankruptcy court, powers, 14.6.2
generally, 14.6.1
jurisdiction, 14.2.4, 14.2.5
notice requirements, 9.6.3.2, 14.3.2.1
Official Forms, Appx. D.3
prior proceedings, information on, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
rules, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
sample pleadings, Appx. G
service requirements, 14.3.2.1
summons, Appx. E.8
subpoenas, Appx. E.9
withdrawal to district court, 14.2.5
venue, 3.2.3, 14.3.2.1
BANKRUPTCY RULES
see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
BAPS
see BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP)
BENEFICIARIES
see also TRUSTS
chapter 7 filings, 3.2.1.1
BENEFITS REPLACING WAGES
see also PUBLIC BENEFITS; SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
wage orders, attachment, 12.6.1
BOOKS
see RECORDS
BUDGET COUNSELING
see CREDIT COUNSELING
BURDEN OF PROOF
allowed secured claims
fees and charges, 11.6.1.3.3.5
present value interest, 11.6.1.3.3.6
attorney fees, 15.4.3.2.4
automatic stay litigation, 9.7.3.1.4
collateral estoppel, 15.4.4
dischargeability proceedings, 15.4.3.2.4
domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5.3
false financial statements, 15.4.3.2.2.1
false pretenses or fraud, 15.4.3.2.3.1
no intent to pay, 15.4.3.2.3.2
student loans, 15.4.3.8.3
HEAL debts, dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.6
in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2
proof of claim, 11.2.2.3.2, 14.4.3.3
BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
see also CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS; CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
employees, representing, 18.7.12
see also EMPLOYER BANKRUPTCY
health care businesses, 18.10
landlords, see LANDLORD BANKRUPTCIES
lenders, see LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
privacy protections, 18.10
small businesses, see SMALL BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
BUSINESS-RELATED PROPERTY
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
CAPITAL GAINS
foreclosure sales, liability, 11.3.4
income treatment, 13.4.3.2.5
CASE LAW
see also RESEARCH AIDS
citator, 1.5.6, 1.5.7
computer-assisted research, 1.5.7
NCLC treatise, 1.3.5.1
overview, 1.4.4.4
reporting services, 1.5.4
unreported cases, 1.5.7
CASH COLLATERAL
see also COLLATERAL
family farmer reorganizations
adequate protection, 17.4.11
special provisions, 17.5.9
use, generally, 17.4.8
holding by creditors, 11.3.5
CAUSES OF ACTION
see also ACTIONS; CLAIMS BY DEBTORS
prepetition causes of action
consumer protection statutes, 16.5.3
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
standing, 14.3.2.6.2
unlisted, judicial estoppel, 14.3.2.6.3
CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
see also BANKRUPTCY
abandonment of property, 3.5.1, 8.3.11, 11.3.3
abuse of provisions, see ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
addition of creditors, 8.5
amendments to statement or schedules, 8.3.2
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
audits of debtor, 8.3.15.1
automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
“carve out” of fully encumbered secured property, 3.5.2
claims filed by creditors, 3.3, 3.5.3, 8.4.6
claims filed by debtor on behalf of creditor, 8.4.6
considerations favoring, 6.3.2
consumers as creditors, 18.2.2, 18.5.4.2, 18.8.2
conversion
bad faith, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
chapter 11, from, 17.1.2
chapter 11, to, 18.7.11
chapter 12, from, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.3, 17.4.6.4
chapter 12, to, 17.2.4
chapter 13, from, 4.2.3, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2
chapter 13, to, 4.2.3, 13.7.1
exempt property, effect, 10.1.2
credit counseling prerequisite, 3.2.1.1, 3.2.1.4
dischargeability complaints, 3.3
discharges, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
dismissal, see DISMISSAL OF CASE
distribution to creditors, order, 3.5.4
eligibility, 3.2.1
farmers, involuntary, 17.1.2
filing deadlines, see TIME LIMITS
filing requirements, 3.2.2, 7.2.1
financial management course requirement, 8.3.3, 15.2.2.11
first steps, 3.3
forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
interim trustee, appointment, 3.3
involuntary, 17.1.2
landlords, 18.8.2
liquidation of estate, 3.5.2
meeting of creditors, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
nominal asset cases, 3.5.1, 8.3.11
non-exempt property, 3.5.2
non-recourse loans, stripdown, 11.2.1.2
objections, filing, 3.3
overview, 2.2, 3.1
personal property leases, assumption or rejection, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5
petition, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
procedures after meeting of creditors, 3.5, 8.5
retaining nonexempt property, 8.3.11
right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
sale of assets, 18.9.3
statement of intention, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
student loans, dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.5
successive filings, 3.2.1.2, 6.2.2.8.2, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
tenant ownership, 18.8.3
tenants, maintaining services, 18.8.2
timing considerations
anticipation of further debt, 6.5.3.1
means test calculations, 6.5.3.6
prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1
presumption of abuse, 6.5.3.6
trustee, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
see also CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
code provision for, 18.7.1
imposing conditions, 18.7.12.3.4
involuntary, 17.1.2
lender bankruptcies, 18.9.3
opposing, 18.7.12.3.3
sale of assets, 18.9.3
CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
see also BANKRUPTCY
appointment of counsel, requirement, 17.2.3.2
classification of creditors, 18.7.2.1
compensation to debtor’s principal, objections, 18.7.5
consumers as creditors, 18.2.2, 18.5.4.2, 18.7.12, 18.8.4, 18.9
conversion from chapter 12, 17.4.6.3
conversion to chapter 7, 18.7.11
farmers, 17.1.2
conversion to chapter 12, 17.2.4
creditors’ committee, 18.7.2.2, 18.7.3
creditors’ rights, 18.7.2.1, 18.7.2.2, 18.7.9
disclosure statement, objections, 18.7.7
dismissal, 18.7.11
employees, representing, 18.7.12
examiner, appointment, 18.7.4.6, 18.7.4.7
farmers, use by, 17.1.3.1
problems with, 17.1.3.3
generally, 18.7.1
industrial stakeholders, representing, 18.7.12
lender bankruptcies, 18.9.1
notice to creditors, 18.4.1
plan of reorganization
creditor plan, 18.7.9
filing, time, 18.7.9
objections to, 18.7.8
third party releases, 18.9.5
voting by creditors, 18.7.2.1
procedures, 2.2
recharacterization of claims, 18.5.6
sale of assets, see CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
small business reorganizations, 18.7.10
successive filings, restrictions, 15.2.2.8
successor releases and injunctions, 18.9.5
tenants, preventing eviction, 18.8.4
third party releases and injunctions, 18.9.5
transfer avoidance actions, 18.7.6
trustee appointment
cause, grounds, 18.7.4.3, 18.7.4.5
equitable considerations, 18.7.4.4
general standards, 18.7.4.2
introduction, 18.7.4.1
practice and procedure, 18.7.4.7
U.S. trustee, role, 18.7.2.3
use by consumer debtors, 6.3.4
CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
see also CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
adequate protection, 17.4.11
allowed secured claims, treatment, 17.5.4
amortization, 17.5.4.2
interest rates, 17.5.4.3
reduction, 17.5.4.4
valuation, 17.5.3
classification of claims
codebtors, 17.5.6.2
direct payments, 17.5.7.3
generally, 17.5.6.1
secured creditors, 17.5.6.4
unsecured creditors, 17.5.6.3
collateral, substitution, 17.5.4.6
confirmation
denial, 17.6
postconfirmation issues, 17.8.1
reservation of issues, 17.5.9
revocation, 17.8.3
time frame, 17.5.2
default cure, 17.5.4.2
disposable income commitment, 17.5.4.2, 17.5.5.3
domestic support obligations, 17.5.8
feasibility requirement, 17.5.7.2
determination, 17.5.7.2.2
generally, 17.5.7.2.1
good faith test, 17.5.7.1
liquidation test, 17.5.5.2
modification
generally, time, 17.5.2
postconfirmation, 17.5.5.3, 17.8.1
other provisions, suggestions, 17.5.9
payments
deferral, 17.5.9
direct payments, 17.5.7.3, 17.5.9
extensions beyond plan life, 17.5.4.2
trustee, through, 17.4.1.2.1, 17.5.7.3
postpetition indebtedness, 17.8.2
tax liabilities, 17.5.5.4
priority unsecured creditors, 17.5.5.4
proposal, 17.5.2
replacement liens, 17.5.4.6
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.15
setoffs, provision for, 17.4.12
special provisions, 17.5.9
surrender of property, 17.5.4.4
tax claims, 17.5.5.4
time limits, 17.5.2
trustee compensation, 17.4.1.2
unsecured claims, treatment, 17.5.5
CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
see also BANKRUPTCY; FARMERS; FISHERMEN
adequate protection concept, 17.4.11
advantages over chapter 11, 17.1.3.3
advantages over chapter 13, 17.1.3.2
appointment of counsel, requirement, 17.2.3.2
attorney fees, disclosure, 17.2.3.3
automatic stay, application, 17.4.4.1
cash collateral, use, see CASH COLLATERAL
consumers as creditors, 18.5.4.2
conversion from other chapters, 17.2.4
conversion to other chapters
involuntary, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.4
voluntary, 17.4.6.3
credit counseling requirement, 17.2.2.1
current status, 17.1.1.1
DIP, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
discharges
see also DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
discharge issues, 17.4.5, 17.7
discharge orders, forms, Appx. E.13.3, Appx. E.13.4
dismissal
involuntary, 17.4.6.2
voluntary, 17.4.6.1
eligibility, 17.2.2
commercial fishing operation, 17.2.2.3
corporations, 17.2.2.4.5
debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
family farmer, 17.2.2.4
family fisherman, 17.2.2.4
farming operation, 17.2.2.3
generally, 17.2.2.1
partnerships, 17.2.2.4.5
nature of debt, 17.2.2.4.3
nature of income, 17.2.2.4.4
regular annual income, 17.2.2.2
executory contracts, assumption, 17.4.7
evolution of, 17.1.1
filing fees, 17.2.3.3
historical background, 1.1.2.3, 17.1.1
CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN) (cont.)
initial documentation, 17.2.3.4
liens
automatic dissolution, 17.4.3.4
avoidance, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
meeting of creditors, 17.2.5
new financing, approval, 17.4.9
other options, problems with use, 17.1.3
overview, 17.1
periodic reports, 17.2.3.4
permanent status, 17.1.1.1
plans, see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
postpetition dispositions, tax liability, 17.5.5.4
procedures, 17.5.2
property of the estate, 17.4.2
provisions, creation, 1.1.2.3, 1.5.1.3
purpose, 17.1.1.2
recapture of property, 17.4.3.5
redemption rights, 17.4.3.5.5
related provisions, Appx. A.4.3
right to cure, 17.4.3.5.5
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.15
schedules, 17.2.3.1
secured creditors, treatment, 17.5.4
valuation of claims, 17.5.3
supplemental information, 17.2.3.4
tax claims, 17.5.5.4
timing, 17.1.5, 17.5.2
trustee, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
unexpired leases, assumption, 17.4.7
unsecured creditors, treatment, 17.5.5
CHAPTER 13 PLANS
see also CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
ability to pay test, see ABILITY TO PAY TEST
adequate protection of property, 12.8.2
adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
administration, 8.7
advice to clients, 8.2
allowed secured claims, 8.3.12.1, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3, 11.6.2
attorney fees, payment through, 7.3.12.3, 16.4
binding effect, 12.11
classification of claims
claims by former chapter 7 trustees, 12.4.5
claims with cosigners, 12.4.2
generally, 12.4.1
others, 12.4.3
payments directly to creditors, 12.4.4
practical considerations, 12.4.6
confirmation
application for, 8.6
considerations, 4.3, 4.5, 12.7
denial, effect, 8.3.12
distribution of payments, 8.3.12
effect, 4.5
hearing, 4.5, 8.6
mandatory, 12.7
modified plans, 8.6
res judicata effect, 9.7.3.2.1, 12.7, 12.11
revocation, 4.5
standards, 7.3.12.3
vesting of property after, 12.8.5
debtors below medium income, 12.3.4.4.5
disposable income, 12.3.4.4
commitment of, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1, 12.3.4.4.6
distributions in equal monthly payments, 11.6.1.3.3.2
executory contracts, 12.9
assumption, 12.9.2
rejection, 12.9.3.1, 12.9.3.3
failure to complete, 4.7
conversion to chapter 7, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.7.2
dismissal, 4.7.5, 8.7.5.5, 13.6
generally, 8.7.5.1
hardship discharge, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
modification, 4.7.3, 8.7.5.2
options, 4.7.1
feasibility of plan, 12.5
filing requirement, 4.2.2, 7.2.1
form plans, 7.3.12.2
format, 7.3.12
formulating the plan, 7.3.12.5
generally, 7.3.12
hardship discharge, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
income and expenses, estimating, 7.3.7.6
income payments to trustee, 12.6.1
interest and penalty payments, 12.6.2
landlords, 18.8.2.2
late payment charges, 14.4.3.4.4
leases, 12.9
assumption, 12.9.2
rejection, 12.9.3.2
length of plan, 12.3.4.4.6
maximum, 12.6.3
lien retention, 11.6.1.3.3.1
liquidation of property under, 12.6.5
loan modification
involuntary, 11.6.1
voluntary, 11.6.1.5
long-term debts, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
modification
change in circumstances, 8.7.4, 12.3.4.5
confirmation, after, 8.7.4
confirmation hearing, prior to, 8.6
generally, 4.7.3, 8.7.4, 12.11
inability to complete plan, 8.7.5.2
objections, 4.6
postpetition transactions, 4.6, 8.7.2
sample pleadings and form, Appx. G.13
time, 4.6, 12.3.4.5
mortgage refinancings, 12.6.6
objections, grounds, 4.4, 8.6, 12.3.4.2
payments
adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
automatic increases, 12.3.4.5
commencement, time, 4.3, 8.3.12.1
crediting mistakes, 14.4.3.4.4, 14.4.3.4.8, 15.5.1.4
directly to creditors, 11.6.2.6, 12.4.4, 12.4.6
disposable income, effect, 12.3.4.1
graduated payments, 8.3.12.3
modification, 12.3.4.5
outside plan, 11.6.2.6, 12.4.4, 12.4.6
personal property leases, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
postpetition support obligations, 12.3.6.3
present value, 11.6.1.3.3.1
priority creditors, 12.3.6
schedules, 7.3.12
tracking, 2.6, 8.7.1
trustee, payment through, 8.7.1
wage deductions, 8.3.12
percentage plans, 7.3.12.5
permissible provisions, 7.3.12.4
possession of property, 12.8.1
postpetition transactions, 4.6
claims, 8.7.2
mortgage payments, 8.7.3
pot plans, 7.3.12.5
priority claims, 12.3.6
requirements, 7.3.12.3, 12.7
signing, 7.4
standards, 7.3.12.3, 11.6.1.3, 12.3–12.7
student loans, 15.4.3.8.3
summarization, filing, 7.2.1
tax claims, 7.3.7.3.3, 12.3.6.1
trustee’s charges, adjustments, 12.6.4
trustee’s duties, 2.6
undersecured claims, 11.7
unexpired leases, 12.9
assumption, 12.9.2
rejection, 12.9.3.2
unsecured creditors, 12.3
ability to pay test, 12.3.4
best interests test, 12.3.2
good faith test, 12.3.3, 12.3.5
priority creditors, 12.3.6
use of property, 12.8.1
zero payment plans, 12.3.4.1
CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
see also BANKRUPTCY
adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
administrative expenses, 12.3.4.4.4, 12.3.6.1
means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.7
amendments to statement or schedules, 8.3.2
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
audits of debtor, 8.3.15.1
automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
claims filed by creditors, 4.3, 4.4, 8.4.6
claims filed by debtor on behalf of creditor, 8.4.6
commencement of case, 4.2
considerations favoring, 6.2.2.8.2, 6.3.3
consumers as creditors
evictions, preventing, 18.8.4
generally, 18.5.4.3
conversion
bad faith, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
chapter 7, from, 4.2.3, 13.7.1
chapter 7, to, 4.2.3, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2
chapter 12, to, 17.2.4
exempt property, effect, 10.1.2
cramdown, 11.6
credit counseling prerequisite, 4.2.1.1
discharges, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
dismissal, see DISMISSAL OF CASE
domestic support obligations
certification, 4.8, 8.8.1, Appx. E.12
classification, 12.3.6.1, 12.4.3
postpetition, 12.3.6.3
eligibility, 4.2.1
debt limitations, 4.2.1.3, 12.2.3
generally, 4.2.1.1, 12.2.1
partners, 12.2.2
regular income, 4.2.1.2, 12.2.2
farmers, use by, 17.1.3.1
problems with, 17.1.3.2
filing deadlines, see TIME LIMITS
filing requirements, 4.2.2
first steps, 4.3
forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
good faith use, 12.3.3, 12.3.5
issues, generally, 12.1
joint cases, 4.2.1.2
liens, voiding, 11.7
long-term debts, right to cure, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
meeting of creditors, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
overview, 4.1
personal financial management course requirement, 8.3.3
personal property lease payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
petition, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
plans, see CHAPTER 13 PLANS
postpetition claims, 4.6, 4.7.4, 8.7.2
postpetition support obligations must be met, 12.3.6.3
preconfirmation activities, 4.4
prior bankruptcies, effect, 12.10
reasons for filing, 6.3.3
secured creditors
adequate protection, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
debtor’s right to cure, 11.6.2
modification of rights, 11.6.1
principal residences, 11.6.1.2
purchase money security interests, 11.6.1.4
standards under plan, 11.6.1.3
statement of income and expenses, annual filings, 8.3.5
statement of intention, necessity, 7.3.11
student loan issues, 12.4.3, 15.4.3.8.5
successive filings, restrictions, 4.2.1.4, 6.2.2.8.2, 15.2.2.9
tax return filing, prerequisite, 8.3.14, 12.3.6.2
timing considerations
disposable income, 6.5.3.6
purchase money security interests, 6.5.3.5
tax debts, 6.5.3.4
trustee, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
avoidance status, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
defined, 10.4.2.6.5
donations after bankruptcy, 1.1.2.6, 12.3.4.4.5
means test deduction, 12.3.4.4.5, 13.4.5.3.9
protection for donations, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.5
reasonable expenses, 5.3.3.4, 12.3.4.4.5
CHECKS
transfer date, 10.4.2.6.6
CHILD SUPPORT
see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
CHILDREN
see MINORS
CIVIL PROCEEDINGS
see also ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
damages or restitution, dischargeability, 15.4.3.6
delay of discharge pending, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
CIVIL RIGHTS AWARDS
attorney fees, bankruptcy, application, 16.5.2
CLAIMS BY CREDITORS
see also CREDITORS
allowed secured claims, see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
baseless, 14.4.3.3
claim, defined, 15.5.1.1, 18.4.1
classification
chapter 12, 17.5.6
chapter 13, 12.4
consumers as creditors, 18.4
debt buyers, 14.4.3.5
discharge, effect on, 15.5.1
disputes, resolving, 3.4, 4.4
equitable subordination, 18.5.4
escrow overcharges, 14.4.3.4.2
filing by debtor, 8.4.6
chapter 13, 4.4
government claims, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.5
interest overcharges, 14.4.3.4.3
late charge abuses, 14.4.3.4.4
late filing, 14.4.3.2
monitoring and other fees, 14.4.3.4.5
mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4
no legal or factual basis, 16.5.5.1
objections to, 3.5.3, 4.4, 8.3.9, 14.3.2.4, 14.4.3
Official Form 420B, Appx. D.3
postpetition claims, see POSTPETITION CLAIMS
prepetition settlement attempts, effect, 14.4.3.6
proof of claim, see PROOF OF CLAIM
recharacterization, 18.5.4
reconsideration of claims, 14.4.3.7
Rule 3001 sanctions, 16.5.5.2
Rule 9011 sanctions, 16.5.5.1
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.8
tax claims, see TAX CLAIMS
CLAIMS BY DEBTORS
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.2, 14.4.2
prepetition causes of action, 16.5.3
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
standing, 14.3.2.6.2
unlisted, judicial estoppel, 14.3.2.6.3
CLASS ACTIONS
bankruptcy court, 14.7
bankruptcy petition preparers, against, 16.6
consumers as creditors, 18.4.2
discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
CLIENT HANDOUTS
see also PRACTICE TIPS
common bankruptcy questions, Appx. K.2
legal rights, Appx. K.3
using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
CODEBTORS
see also SPOUSES
automatic stay
advantages, 6.2.1.4
effect, 9.4.2
prior dismissed cases, effect, 9.3.3.5
scope, 9.4.5, 17.4.4.2
CODEBTORS (cont.)
chapter 12 reorganizations
automatic stay, application, 17.4.4.2
special classification, 17.5.6.2
claims with, chapter 13 priority, 12.4.2
credit report of bankruptcy, 9.4.5
listing
filing of list, 7.3.4
information re, 7.3.7.3.1
schedule, Sch. H, 7.3.7.5
COLLATERAL
see also SECURITY INTERESTS
cash collateral, see CASH COLLATERAL
chapter 7 liquidations, carve-outs, 3.5.2
chapter 12 reorganizations
return to creditor, 17.5.4.4
sale payments, 17.5.7.3
sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
substitutions, 17.5.4.6
chapter 13 cramdown, 11.6.1
conversion, see CONVERSION OF PROPERTY
credit card debts, 5.3.3.3
distribution to creditors, 3.5.4
finance company loans, 5.3.3.3
gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
retention, 11.4.2
right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
statement of intention, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
valuation, see VALUATION
COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
dischargeability issues, application, 15.4.4, 18.5.4.2.3
COLLECTION AGENCIES
automatic stay, notice, effect, 8.3.1, 9.4.4
listing as creditor in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
payments to, avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.3
regulation, 6.2.1.1
COLLEGE TRANSCRIPTS
discharge protections, 15.5.5.2
COMMERCIAL FISHING OPERATIONS
see also FISHERMEN
chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2
corporations, 17.2.2.4.5
debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
nature of debt, 17.2.2.4.3
nature of income, 17.2.2.4.4
partnerships, 17.2.2.4.5
defined, 17.2.2.3
COMMUNITY PROPERTY
see JOINT PROPERTY
COMPENSATION PAYMENTS
federal exemption, 10.2.2.12
COMPUTERIZATION
see also WEB RESOURCES
bankruptcy forms, 5.1.3, 7.1.3, 7.3.1
bankruptcy practice, 7.1.3
computer-assisted research, 1.5.7
electronic filing, see ELECTRONIC FILING
CONDOMINIUM OR COOPERATIVE FEES
dischargeability, 15.4.3.15, 15.5.1.1
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.2
CONFIRMATION OF PLAN
see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 PLANS
CONSOLIDATION OF CASES
joint bankruptcies, differences, 6.4
CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS
see also TRUSTS
existence, determination, 18.5.2.2
CONSUMER DEBTORS
see DEBTORS
CONSUMER DEBTS
see also DEBTORS; LIABILITIES
anticipation of further debt, 6.5.3.1
automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
bankruptcy advantages, 6.2.1
bankruptcy disadvantages, 6.2.2
buyers of debt, claims by, 14.4.3.5
chapter 13 limitations, 12.2.3
codebtors, see CODEBTORS
collateral, see COLLATERAL
contingent debts, 7.3.7.3.1, 7.3.7.3.4
definition, 11.5.2, 13.4.2
debt, defined, 15.5.1.1
discharge, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
dischargeability, see DISCHARGEABILITY
intention regarding collateral, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
listing in schedules, 7.3.7.3
disputed debts, 7.3.7.3, 14.4.3.5
long-term debts, see LONG-TERM DEBTS
means test deductions
priority debts, 13.4.5.3.3
secured debts, 13.4.5.3.2
medical debts, see MEDICAL DEBTS
mutual debts, see MUTUAL DEBTS
NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
nonbankruptcy approaches, 6.2.2.8.2
procedures after meeting of creditors, 3.5
reaffirmation, see REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENTS
repayment plans, avoidance of preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.2
resulting from wrongful conduct, homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8
unliquidated debts, 7.3.7.3
CONSUMER PRIVACY OMBUDSMAN
business bankruptcies, 18.10
CONSUMER PROTECTION STATUTES
attorney fees, 16.5.3
automatic stay issues, 9.7.3.3.2, 18.9.2
CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
see also CREDITORS
automatic stay, 18.3
chapter 11 overview, 18.7
circumstances, 18.1
consumer priority, 18.5.5
dischargeability issues, 18.2.1, 18.5.4
equitable subordination, 18.5.6
in forma pauperis, 18.6
increased recovery strategies
generally, 18.5.1
trust claims, 18.5.2
involuntary bankruptcy, forcing, 18.2.2
lender bankruptcies, 18.9
money orders, 18.5.2.1
postpetition claims, 18.5.3
prebankruptcy strategy, 18.2
preparing for voluntary bankruptcy, 18.2.1
proof of claim
class claims, 18.4.2
individual consumers, 18.4.1
Rule 2004 examinations, 18.5.8
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.14
seeking defendants not in bankruptcy, 18.5.7
tenants, special problems, 18.8
CONTEMPT OF COURT
automatic stay violations, 9.6.4
bankruptcy court powers, 14.2.8
discharge, denial, 15.2.2.6
discharge protections, 15.5.5.7
utility companies, 9.8.2.1
CONTRACTS
arbitration clauses, avoiding, 14.3.2.3
bankruptcy clauses, validity, 8.8.2, 11.5.4, 15.5.3
cross-collateralization clauses, 15.5.3
debt relief agencies, requirement, 16.8.4
executory, see EXECUTORY CONTRACTS
rent-to-own, see RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
spreader clauses, 15.5.3
CONVERSION OF PROCEEDINGS
see also BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
bad faith, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
chapter 7 to chapter 12, 17.2.4
chapter 7 to chapter 13, 4.2.3, 13.7.1
chapter 11 to chapter 7, 17.1.2, 18.7.11
chapter 11 to chapter 12, 17.2.4
chapter 12 to chapter 7, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.3, 17.4.6.4
chapter 12 to chapter 11, 17.4.6.3
chapter 12 to chapter 13, 17.4.6.3
chapter 13 to chapter 7, 4.2.3, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2
chapter 13 to chapter 12, 17.2.4
effect of conversion, 13.7.3
involuntary, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.4
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.13
CONVERSION OF PROPERTY
see also FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS
discharge bar, willful and malicious injury, 15.4.3.6
CONVEYANCES
see FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS; PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
CORE PROCEEDINGS
see also BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
determination by court, 14.2.4.3
exceptions, 14.2.6
mandatory abstention, application, 14.5.2
mandatory withdrawal, 14.2.5.2
non-core, distinction, 14.2.4.2, 14.2.4.3
procedures, 14.2.4.2
CORPORATIONS
see also BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
chapter 7 eligibility, 3.2.1.1
chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
discharges, 15.2.2.1, 18.5.4.4
farm corporations, see FARM CORPORATIONS
COSIGNERS
see also CODEBTORS
claims with, chapter 13 priority, 12.4.2
COST OF LIVING ADJUSTMENTS
federal exemptions, 10.2.2.1
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS; FILING FEES
COUNSEL
see ATTORNEYS; DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
see also PRACTICE TIPS
advantages of bankruptcy, 6.2.1
answers to common questions, Appx. K.2
bankruptcy discharge, Appx. K.3
choosing the type of bankruptcy case, 6.3
client handouts, Appx. K
credit counseling requirement, see CREDIT COUNSELING
debt relief agencies, see DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
delaying petition, reasons for
exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
other reasons, 6.5.3
prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1
disadvantages of bankruptcy, 6.2.2
exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
explaining bankruptcy, 6.1.2
options, explaining, 6.1.1
paying favored creditors, 6.5.3.2
quick filings, considerations, 6.5.1
spouses, filing by both, 6.4
using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
COUNTERCLAIMS
see also SETOFFS
automatic stay litigation, raising, 9.7.3.1.3, 9.7.3.3.2
eviction proceedings, 18.3.5
jurisdiction of Bankruptcy Court, 14.2.1, 14.2.4.2
COURT OF APPEALS
appeals to, 2.4.3, 14.9.2
certification, Official Form 424, Appx. D.3
COVENANT NOT TO COMPETE
executory contract status, 12.9.1
CRAMDOWN
see also STRIPDOWN
chapter 12, 17.5.4
chapter 13, 11.6
defined, 11.6.1.1
CREDIT AGREEMENTS
bankruptcy clauses, validity, 8.8.2, 15.5.3
spreader clauses, 15.5.3
CREDIT CARDS
balance transfers, status as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.1
debts
documentation, 14.4.3.5
listing in schedule, Sch. E/F Part 2, 7.3.7.3.4
fraud, Rule 2004 examinations, 8.3.15.2
security interests created by, enforceability, 5.3.3.3, 15.5.3
surrender by debtor, 8.4.3
taxes paid with, dischargeability, 15.4.3.13
use without intent to pay, 15.4.3.2.3.1, 15.4.3.2.3.2
using wisely after bankruptcy, Appx. K.4
CREDIT COUNSELING
see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
approved agencies, 3.2.1.4
criteria for approval, Appx. C.2
certification of counseling, filing, 7.2.1, 7.3.5
cost of briefing, 3.2.1.4, 6.2.2.6
debt relief agencies, see DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
deferment, 3.2.1.4, 7.2.2
involuntary bankruptcies, 14.8
overview, 3.2.1.4
prepetition attempts at repayment plan, effect, 14.4.3.6
prerequisite to filing, 7.3.5
chapter 7, 3.2.1.1, 3.2.1.4
chapter 12, 17.2.2.1
chapter 13, 4.2.1.1
effect on ability to file quickly, 6.5.1
statement of compliance, 7.3.2, 7.3.5
waiver, 3.2.1.4
CREDIT HISTORY
see also CREDIT REPORTS
bankruptcy effect, 6.2.2.3
CREDIT INSURANCE
chapter 13 plans, rejection, 12.9.3.3
CREDIT REPORTS
see also CREDIT HISTORY
discharged debts, 8.9
dismissed petitions, 14.8
disputed debts, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.1
source of information, 5.3.4
CREDITORS
addition after first meeting, 8.5
address for notice, 9.6.3.2.3, 9.6.3.2.4
adequate protection, 9.7.3.2.2
automatic stay, notification, 8.3.1
bankruptcy of, see LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
best interests of creditors’ test, 7.3.12.3
chapter 11 plans
classification, 18.7.2.1
creditors’ committee, 18.7.2.2, 18.7.3
plan proposal, 18.7.9
voting on, 18.7.2.1
claims, see CLAIMS BY CREDITORS
classification in chapter 13 plans, 7.3.12.3
consumers as, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
distribution of assets in chapter 7, 3.5.4
equitable subordination, use of doctrine against, 18.5.6
filing deadlines, 3.3, 15.4.3.3
first meeting, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
government, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS; GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
list of creditors
failure to list, effect, 15.4.3.3
filing, 7.3.4
mailing matrix, 7.2.1, 15.4.3.3
schedules, Sch. D and Sch. E/F, 7.3.7.3
meeting, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
CREDITORS (cont.)
notification of case, 15.4.3.3
objections to exemptions, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
preferences, see PREFERENCES
priority unsecured creditors, see PRIORITY UNSECURED CREDITORS
secured creditors, see SECURED CREDITORS
setoffs, see SETOFFS
tax returns, provision to, 8.3.4.1
turnover of property to trustee, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
unsecured creditors, see UNSECURED CREDITORS
CRIMINAL FINES
see FINES AND PENALTIES
CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.2, 9.4.7
delay of discharge pending, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
discharge protections, 15.5.5.5
homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
CRIMINAL RESTITUTION
see RESTITUTION DEBTS
CROSS-COLLATERALIZATION CLAUSES
validity, 15.5.3
CURING DEFAULT
see RIGHT TO CURE
CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
see also INCOME
deductions from, 13.4.5
defined, 12.3.4.4.1, 13.4.3.2.1
determination, 13.4.3.2
six-month average, 13.4.3.2.1
statutory exemptions, 13.4.3.2.7
disposable income, see DISPOSABLE INCOME
means test, see MEANS TEST
presumption of abuse, 13.4.6.1
statement of, see STATEMENT OF CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
CUSTODIAN
definition, 9.9
CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS
see also DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS; FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS
attorney fees, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
DAMAGES
see also RESTITUTION DEBTS
automatic stay violations, 8.3.1, 9.6.2
notice requirements, 9.6.3.3
bankruptcy petition preparers, violations, 16.6
discharge rights, violations, 15.5.1.4, 15.5.5.7
dischargeability, 15.4.3.6, 18.5.4.2.1
DEBT BUYERS
proof of claim, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
DEBT CEILING
chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.4.2
DEBT COLLECTORS
see also COLLECTION AGENCIES
regulation, 6.2.1.1
DEBT MANAGEMENT PLANS
filing with certificate of credit counseling, 7.3.5
DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
see also BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
advertisements, 16.8.5
bankruptcy petition preparers, status, 16.6
defined, 16.8.1.1
exclusions, 16.8.1.2
disclosure requirements, 16.8.3
provisions
application to attorneys, 16.8.1
failure to comply, 16.8.6
restrictions on, 16.8.2
statement about bankruptcy assistance services, 16.8.3.3
written contract requirement, 16.8.4
DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
chapter 11 reorganizations
operation of business, 18.8.4
removal, 18.7.4
chapter 12 farm reorganizations
see also FARMERS
avoidance actions, pursuance, 17.4.1.1
lien avoidance powers, 17.4.3.5
recapture powers, 17.4.3.5
reinstatement, 17.3.2
removal, 17.3.2, 17.4.1.3
separate legal entity, powers, 17.3.1
chapter 13, 18.8.4
DEBTOR PLANS
see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 PLANS
DEBTORS
see also CONSUMER DEBTS
ability to pay test, see ABILITY TO PAY TEST
actions against, automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
actions brought by, automatic stay, effect, 9.4.2, 14.4.2
assistance to, debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
attendance at hearings
confirmation, 8.6
discharge, 8.8
meeting of creditors, 8.4.3
audits, 8.3.15.1, Appx. C.5
available relief, notice by clerk of bankruptcy court, 7.3.6, Appx. E.4
awareness of bankruptcy information, 8.4.5
causes of action, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
counseling, 6.1, Appx. K
see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
court orders, refusal to obey, 15.2.2.6, 15.3
credit and reputation, bankruptcy effect on, 6.2.2.3, 6.3.3
credit cards, surrender, 8.4.3
creditors, as, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS; LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
death of debtor, effect on case, 13.3.1
DIP, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
discrimination after bankruptcy, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
dishonesty, denial of discharge, 15.2.2.4, 15.2.2.5
examination of
additional examination, Rule 2004, 8.3.15.2
awareness of bankruptcy information, 8.4.5
meeting of creditors, at, 1.1.2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 8.4.3, 8.4.5
expenses of, 5.3.3.4
farmers, see FARMERS
feelings of moral obligation, 6.2.2.5
filing of creditor claims, 8.4.6
financial affairs, see STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
fishermen, see FISHERMEN
fraudulent conduct, see FRAUD
gathering information, 5.3.3
identification, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
imprisonment, habeas corpus, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
income, see INCOME
intention regarding collateral, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
material misstatement, 8.3.15.1
NCLC bankruptcy treatise, focus, 1.2, 1.3.5.1
NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
nonbankruptcy approaches, 6.2.2.8.2
personal liability, elimination, 15.5.1.2
personal property leases, assumption, 12.9.5.3
property, see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE; PROPERTY
sale of assets, 18.9.3
small businesses, 18.7.10
testify, refusal, 15.2.2.6
using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
DEBTS
see also LIABILITIES
consumer as creditor, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
consumer debts, see CONSUMER DEBTS
dischargeability, see DISCHARGEABILITY
family farmers and fishermen, chapter 12 eligibility
arising from operation, 17.2.2.4.3
ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
reaffirmation, see REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENTS
student loans, see STUDENT LOANS
DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
see UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES
DECLARATIONS
attorneys, requirement on petition, 7.3.2, 7.3.6
bankruptcy petition, 7.3.2
bankruptcy petition preparers, 16.6
Official Form 119, Appx. D.3
debtors, truth of schedules, 7.3.7.7, 7.4
statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8, 7.4
DECLARATORY RELIEF
issues in dispute, 8.3.10
DEFAULT, CURING
see RIGHT TO CURE
DEFENSES
see also COUNTERCLAIMS
automatic stay, motions for relief, 9.7.3
student loan debts, 15.4.3.8.4
DEFERRED PAYMENT CONTRACTS
listing in schedules, 7.3.7.3.4
DEFINITIONS
adequate assurance, 9.8.2.2.1, 12.9.2
adversary proceeding, 14.2.4.1
advertising, 16.8.5
allowed secured claim, 11.1, 11.4.2.4.2
bankruptcy, 2.1
bankruptcy estate, 2.5
bankruptcy petition preparer, 16.6
case, 1.4.2
cause, 18.7.11
charitable contribution, 10.4.2.6.5
claim, 15.5.1.1
claim against the debtor, 11.6.2.4
commercial fishing operation, 17.2.2.3
consumer debt, 3.5, 11.5.2, 13.4.2
contingent debt, 7.3.7.3, 12.2.3.2
cramdown, 11.6.1.1
creditor, 10.2.3.4.3
current monthly income, 12.3.4.4.1, 13.4.3.2.1
custodian, 9.9
debt, 12.2.3.1, 15.5.1.1
debt relief agency, 16.8.1.1
dependent, 13.4.5.2.1
disposable income, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1, 17.5.5.3
domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5.2, 17.5.8
domicile, 10.2.1.2
effective notice, 9.6.3.3
embezzlement, 15.4.3.4
entity, 9.9
executory contract, 7.3.7.4, 12.9.1
exempt property, 10.1.2
family farmer, 17.1.2, 17.2.2.4
family fisherman, 17.2.2.4
farmer, 17.1.2
farming operation, 17.2.2.3
fraudulent transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
good faith, 9.3.3.2.3, 12.3.3
good faith purchaser, 9.4.6.7
health care business, 18.10
household, 13.4.3.3
household goods, 10.4.2.4
incidental property, 11.6.1.2.2.4
income, 13.4.3.2.8
individual with regular income, 4.2.1.2, 12.2.2
insider, 15.2.2.7
insolvent, 10.4.2.6.5
insufficiency, 10.4.2.6.7
item, 10.2.2.4
judicial lien, 10.4.2.3
larceny, 15.4.3.4
liquidated debt, 12.2.3.2
luxury goods or services, 12.3.4.4.5, 15.4.3.2.3.2
median family income, 13.4.3.3
modify, 11.6.1
no-asset case, 3.1
primarily, 13.4.2
principal residence, 11.6.1.2.2.6
proceedings, 1.4.2, 14.2.4.1
public assistance, 10.2.2.11
purchaser, 9.4.6.7, 10.4.2.6.6
qualified education loans, 15.4.3.8.1
regular annual income, 17.2.2.2
return, 15.4.3.1.1
secured debt, 12.2.3.1
security interest, 10.4.2.6.4.3, 11.6.1.2.2.6
substantially contemporaneous, 10.4.2.6.4.2
transfer, 9.4.6.7, 10.4.2.1, 10.4.2.6.6
undue hardship, 15.4.3.8.2.2
unexpired lease, 7.3.7.4
unliquidated debt, 7.3.7.3
value, 10.4.2.6.5
DEPENDENTS
exemption claims
exemption planning, 10.4.1
filing deadline, 10.3.1
IRS definition, 13.4.5.2.1
means test deduction, 13.4.5.2.1, 13.4.5.3.6
DISABILITY BENEFITS
see also BENEFITS REPLACING WAGES
federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
DISABLED PERSONS
credit counseling, waiver of requirement, 3.2.1.4
financial management course, waiver, 8.3.3
support expenses, means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.6
veterans, means test exemption, 13.4.4
DISASTER SITUATIONS
federal farm programs, 17.1.4.4.2
DISCHARGE INJUNCTION
enforcement of discharge, 15.5.1.4, 15.5.5.7
incorrect crediting of payments as violation, 14.4.3.4.8
DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
see also DISCHARGEABILITY
bars to
chapter 13, 4.2.1.5
dishonesty, 15.2.2.4
excepted debts, 15.4
failure to complete financial management course, 8.3.3, 15.2.2.11
failure to explain loss or deficiency, 15.2.2.5
failure to pay support obligations, 12.3.6.3, 17.5.8
fraud, 15.4.3.2, 15.4.3.4
intentional concealment, 15.2.2.2
non-individuals, 15.2.2.1
prior discharge, 12.10.1, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
prohibited acts in another case, 15.2.2.7
refusal to obey court orders, 15.2.2.6
unjustified failure to keep books or records, 15.2.2.3
chapter 7
denial, effect, 15.2.1
discharge order, 8.8.1
distinguishing from chapter 13, 12.10.2
form, Appx. D.2
hearing, 3.6, 8.8.3
notice of discharge, 3.6
objections, grounds, 15.2.2
postpetition debts, 4.7.4, 13.7.2
prior discharge, effect, 12.10.1
requirements, meeting, 3.2.1.3
scope, 3.6
chapter 12
forms, Appx. E.13.3, Appx. E.13.4
hardship discharge, 17.7.2
objections to, 17.4.5
DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY (cont.)
revocation, 17.7.3
scope, 17.4.5, 17.7.1
chapter 13
consumers as creditors, 18.5.4.3
distinguishing from chapter 7, 12.10.2
forms, Appx. E.13.1, Appx. E.13.2
hardship discharge, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
hearing, 4.8, 8.8.3
notice of discharge, 4.8
postpetition claims, 4.6, 8.7.2
prior discharges, effect, 12.10
priority unsecured debts, 12.3.6.1
reopening after, 4.8
revocation, 4.8
right to, 4.2.1.5, 4.8
scope, 4.8
support obligations, 12.3.6.1, 12.3.6.3
tax debts, 12.3.6.1, 12.3.6.2
client handout, Appx. K.3
corporate or partnership debtors, 15.2.2.1, 18.5.4.4
criminal penalties, 15.4.3.7, 15.4.3.12
delay due to presumption of undue hardship, 15.5.2.4
delay to determine homestead exemption, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
denial prior bankruptcy, effect, 15.4.3.10
domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5
drivers’ licenses, return after, 15.5.5.1
effect on discharged claims, 15.5.1
enforcement of discharge, 15.5.5.7
exceptions to discharge, see DISCHARGEABILITY
exempt property, protection after, 10.5
fines and penalties, 15.4.3.7, 15.5.5.5
hardship discharge
chapter 12, 17.7.2, Appx. E.13.4
chapter 13, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3, Appx. E.13.2
exceptions, 15.4.1
student loans, 15.4.3.8.2.2, 15.4.3.8.3
hearings
attendance of debtor, 8.8.1
chapter 7, 3.6
chapter 13, 4.8
circumstances, 8.8.1
discretionary nature, 1.1.2.3, 8.8.1
procedure at, 8.8.3
reaffirmation of debt, 3.6, 8.8.2
incorrect crediting of payments as violation of, 14.4.3.4.8
injunctive enforcement, see DISCHARGE INJUNCTION
listing of debts, requirement, 7.3.7.3
objections in chapter 7 cases, 15.2
grounds, 15.2.2
how they arise, 15.2.1
voluntary dismissal, 15.2.1
order for, 8.8.1
chapter 7, Official Form 318, Appx. D.2
chapter 12, Appx. E.13.3, Appx. E.13.4
chapter 13, Appx. E.13.1, Appx. E.13.2
overview, 8.8.1, 15.1
parking tickets, 15.4.3.7
personal financial management course prerequisite, 8.3.3
postpetition debts, 4.6, 4.7.4, 8.7.2, 13.7.2
presumption in favor, elimination, 13.4.7.3
prior discharges, effect, 12.10, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
protections
discrimination, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
enforcement, 15.5.5.7
problems regarding, 15.5.5
reaffirmation, 15.5.2
scope, 15.5.1
secured debts, 15.5.3
reaffirmation after, restriction, 15.5.2.1
revocation, grounds, 15.3
selected provisions, Appx. A.3
steps after discharge, 8.9
student loans, 15.4.3.8
tax claims, 6.5.3.4, 7.3.7.3.3, 12.3.6.1
tax consequences, 15.5.5.6
unsecured debts, advantage of bankruptcy, 6.2.1.1
written waiver, 15.2.2.10
DISCHARGEABILITY
see also DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
chapter 7, 3.6, 18.5.4.2
chapter 12, 17.4.5, 18.5.4.2
chapter 13, 4.8, 18.5.4.3
chapter 13 differences, 15.4.1
collateral estoppel, application, 15.4.4, 18.5.4.2.3
condominium fees, 15.4.3.15
consumers as creditors
chapter 13, 18.5.4.3
chapters 7, 11, and 12, 18.5.4.2
claims, 18.2.1, 18.5.4.1
corporate or partnership debtors, 18.5.4.4
corporate or partnership debts, 15.2.2.1, 18.5.4.4
criminal fines, 15.4.3.7
criminal restitution, 15.4.3.12
debts incurred through fraud, 15.4.3.2
debts not listed or scheduled, 15.4.3.3
determination
complaints by creditor, 8.3.10, 15.4
complaints by debtor, 8.3.8
forum, 15.4.2, 15.4.4
jurisdiction, 15.4.4
raising issue, time, 15.4.2
domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5
drunk driving debts, 15.4.3.9
embezzled funds, 15.4.3.4
federal depository responsibilities, 15.4.3.11
federal tax paid by credit card, 15.4.3.13
fiduciaries committing fraud, 15.4.3.4
fines and penalties, 15.4.3.7
election law fines, 15.4.3.13
fraudulently incurred debts, 15.4.3.2, 15.4.3.4
governmental units, support debts, 15.4.3.5.2
home owner association fees, 15.4.3.15
larcenous funds, 15.4.3.4
marital property settlements, 15.4.3.5.3, 15.4.3.14
military retention bonuses, 15.4.3.19
pension loans, 15.4.3.17
prior bankruptcy debts, 15.4.3.10, 15.4.3.20
prisoner litigation, costs and fees, 15.4.3.16
public benefit debts, 15.5.5.4
public benefit overpayments, 15.4.3.2.3.3
res judicata, application, 15.4.3.20, 15.4.4, 18.5.4.2.3
restitution obligations, 9.4.6.2, 15.4.3.12
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.12
securities violation debts, 15.4.3.18
student loans, 15.4.3.8
undue hardship test, 15.4.3.8.2.2
taxes, 6.5.3.4, 15.4.3.1, 15.4.3.13
willful and malicious injury, 15.4.3.6
DISCLOSURES
attorney compensation, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.2
form, Appx. E.6
bankruptcy petition preparers, 16.8.3.4
compensation disclosure, 7.3.13.2, Appx. E.10
debt relief agencies, 16.8.3
advertisements, 16.8.5
reaffirmation agreements, 15.5.2.2, 15.5.2.5
DISCOVERY
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.2, 18.9.2
automatic stay relief
expedited discovery, 9.7.3.3.2
generally, 9.7.3.1.2
valuation issues, 9.7.3.3.1
mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4.1
valuation issues
equity in property, 9.7.3.3.1
secured claims, 11.2.2.1
DISCRIMINATION
bankruptcy regarding, protections, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
DISMISSAL OF CASE
attorney fees and costs, 16.7.2.1
chapter 7
abuse of provisions, 3.2.1.5, 13.4
bad faith, 13.4.7.4
crimes, dismissal based on, 13.5
involuntary dismissal, 13.3, 13.4
motion to dismiss, 13.4.8
rejection of executory contract, 13.4.7.5
voluntary dismissal, 13.2
chapter 11, 18.7.11
chapter 12
involuntary, 17.4.6.2
voluntary, 17.4.6.1
chapter 13
involuntary dismissal, 13.3
voluntary dismissal, 4.7.5, 8.7.5.5, 13.2
effect of dismissal, 13.6
generally, 13.1
involuntary dismissal
grounds, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 17.4.6.2
motion to dismiss, 8.3.10, 13.3.1
prior case in year before petition, effect on stay, 9.3.3
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.13
voluntary dismissal, 13.2, 17.4.6.1
with prejudice, 3.2.1.2
without prejudice, 13.4.8
DISPOSABLE INCOME
see also ABILITY TO PAY TEST; INCOME
chapter 12 plans, 17.5.5.3
chapter 13 plans, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.4
deduction of administrative expenses, 12.3.4.4.4
exclusions, 12.3.4.4.2
current monthly income, see CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
defined, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1, 17.5.5.3
means test formula, 12.3.4.4.3, 13.4.5
Official Form 122C, Appx. D.3
projected disposable income, 12.3.4.4.1
refinancing proceeds, status, 12.6.6
statement of current monthly income, 7.3.9
timing petition to lower, 6.5.3.6
DISTRICT COURT
appeals from, 14.9.3
appeals to, 14.9.1
DIVIDENDS
payments to creditors, 3.5.4
DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
see also DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS; FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS; MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
attorney fees, dischargeability, 10.4.2.3.2
automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.3
debts related to, dischargeability, 10.4.2.3.2
related obligations, avoidance, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2, 10.4.2.6.4.2
DOCUMENTS
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS; PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
failure to provide, involuntary dismissal, 13.3.2
meeting of creditors, 8.4.2
chapter 7, 3.4
chapter 13, 4.4
trustee requests for, 8.4.2, Appx. H.5
DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
see also DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS; MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
additional protections, 17.5.8
automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.3, 18.3.3
avoidance, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2, 10.4.2.6.4.2
chapter 7 distribution, 3.5.4
chapter 12 plans, 17.5.8
postpetition obligations, 17.4.6.2
chapter 13 certification, 4.8
form, Appx. E.12
prior to discharge, 8.8.1
chapter 13 classification, 12.3.6.1, 12.4.3
chapter 13, postpetition, 12.3.6.3
creditor appearance form, Appx. E.11
current payments, failure to make, effect, 13.3.1
defined, 15.4.3.5.1, 17.5.8
dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.5
chapter 7, 3.6
chapter 13, 4.8
federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
governmental institutions, rights assigned to, 15.4.3.5.2
means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.3
payments excluded from disposable income, 12.3.4.4.2.2, 12.3.4.4.2.3
property settlement distinguished, 15.4.3.5.3
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
expenses to maintain safety from, means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.5
DONATIONS
see CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
DRIVERS’ LICENSES
discharge protections, 15.5.5.1, 15.5.5.5
DRUNK DRIVING DEBTS
see IMPAIRED DRIVING DEBTS
DUE PROCESS
notice to creditors, 18.4.1
EDUCATION SAVINGS TRUSTS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.3
timing considerations, 6.5.2.2, 6.5.3.8
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES
means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.8
reasonable expenses, 5.3.3.4
EDUCATIONAL LOANS
see HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOANS (HEAL); QUALIFIED EDUCATION LOANS; STUDENT LOANS
ELECTION LAW FINES
dischargeability, 15.4.3.13
ELECTRONIC FILING
bankruptcy forms, 7.1.4
chapter 7, 3.2.2
chapter 13, 4.2.2
computer programs, 7.1.3, 7.1.4
converting documents to PDF format, Appx. D.1.4.2
overview, Appx. D.1.4.1
ELIGIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS
chapter 7, 3.2.1
chapter 12, 17.2.2
chapter 13, 4.2.1, 12.2
EMBEZZLEMENT
see also FRAUD
discharge exception, 15.4.3.4
EMERGENCY BANKRUPTCIES
see also BANKRUPTCY
procedures, 7.2.2
EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.11
contributions, priority claims, 18.7.12.2
EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (ERISA)
see ERISA PENSION PLANS
EMPLOYER BANKRUPTCY
employee priority claims, 18.7.12.2
job retention strategies, 18.7.12.3
representing employees and other stakeholders, 18.7.12
right to intervene, 18.7.12.3.2
sale of assets
imposing conditions, 18.7.12.3.4
opposing, 18.7.12.3.3
EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
EMPLOYMENT INCOME
see also INCOME
payment advices, filing, 7.3.10
ENCUMBERED PROPERTY
see COLLATERAL; LIENS; SECURITY INTERESTS
ENTITY
definition, 9.9
EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT
attorney fee awards, 15.4.3.2.4, 16.5.4, 16.5.7
EQUITABLE SUBORDINATION
bankruptcy, application, 18.5.6
ERISA PENSION PLANS
see also PENSIONS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.11
ESCROW OVERCHARGES
bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
objecting to, 14.4.3.4.2
ESSENTIAL SERVICES
see UTILITY SERVICES
ESTATE
see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
ESTOPPEL
unlisted causes of action, 14.3.2.6.3
EVICTIONS
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES; UNEXPIRED LEASES
automatic stay
effect, 9.4.3
exceptions to stay, 9.4.6.6
special problems, 9.7.3.2.4
timing the petition, 6.5.3.7
landlord bankruptcy, preventing, 18.3.5, 18.8.4
petition preparers, misleading advertising, 16.6
prepetition judgments, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4, 12.9.2
Official Form 101A, filing, 7.3.2
EXAMINATION OF DEBTOR
audits, 8.3.15.1
chapter 7, 3.4
awareness of bankruptcy information sheet, 8.4.5
chapter 13, 4.4
meeting of creditors, 1.1.2.4, 8.4.3, 8.4.5
Rule 2004 examinations, see RULE 2004 EXAMINATIONS
EXAMINERS
chapter 11, appointment, 18.7.4.6, 18.7.4.7
EXECUTORS
see PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES
EXECUTORY CONTRACTS
adequate assurance, 12.9.2
chapter 12
assumption, 17.4.7
provisions, 17.5.9
chapter 13 plans, 12.9
assumption, 12.9.2
classification, 12.4.3
procedure and tactics, 12.9.4
rejection, 12.9.3.1, 12.9.3.3
definition, 12.9.1
federal farm programs, 17.4.7.2
installment land contracts, 17.4.7.3
listing
filing of list, 7.3.4
schedule, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
personal services, abusive rejection, 13.4.7.5
EXEMPT PROPERTY
automatic allowance, 10.3.4
avoidance of transfers, 10.4.2
see also AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
choice of state or federal exemptions, 10.2.1
conversion, effect, 13.7.3
cost of living adjustments, 10.2.2.1
definition, 10.1.2
dependent claims, 10.3.1, 10.4.1
determination date, 10.1.2, 10.3.3
discharge protections, 10.5, 15.5.1.2
earned tax credits, 2.5.5
education savings accounts, 2.5.3
employee benefit plans, 2.5.2
family farmers, 17.4.3
federal exemptions
see also FEDERAL EXEMPTIONS
application, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.1.2
cost of living adjustments, 10.2.2.1
nonbankruptcy exemptions, 10.2.3
specific exemptions, 10.2.2
state opt out, 10.2.1.1
wild card, 10.2.2.6
future benefits, 10.2.2.11
health aids, 10.2.2.10
homesteads, 10.2.2.2
household goods, 10.2.2.4
importance to debtor, 10.1.1
injury or loss payments, 10.2.2.12
item, definition, 10.2.2.4
jewelry, 10.2.2.5
joint filings, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.2
life insurance
accrued value, 10.2.2.9
matured, 10.2.2.8
listing in schedule, Sch. C, 7.3.7.2.3
livestock, 17.4.3.2
money orders, 18.5.2.1
motor vehicles, 10.2.2.3
objections, filing, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
pawned personal property, 2.5.4
possession issues, 3.5.1, 9.9.4, 10.1.2
prebankruptcy planning, 6.5.2.2, 10.4.1, 15.2.2.2
procedure for claiming
amending claim, 10.3.2
initial claim, 10.1.2, 10.3.1
Official Form 106, Sch. C, Appx. D.2
purpose of exemptions, 10.1.3
recovered by trustee, 10.4.2.5
recovery after avoidance, 10.4.2.8
retirement funds, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.13, 10.2.3.3
right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.9
Schedule C, 7.3.7.2.3, Appx. D.2
spendthrift trusts, 2.5.2
state exemptions
see also STATE EXEMPTIONS
advantages, 10.2.1.1
application, 6.5.2.2, 10.2.1.2
domiciliary requirements, 10.2.1.2
federal modification, 10.2.3.1
joint property, 10.2.3.2
property not subject to process, 10.2.3.2
retirement funds, 10.2.3.3
summaries, Appx. J
statement of intention, 7.3.11
time periods, 6.5.2.2
tools of the trade, 10.2.2.7, 17.4.3.2
trust funds, 18.5.2
valuation, 10.1.2, 10.3.3
waiver, prohibition, 10.4
EXPENSES
see also FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
gathering information, 5.3.3.4
IRS local standards
housing and utilities, 13.4.5.2.5, Appx. I.2.3
transportation, 13.4.5.2.4, Appx. I.2.4
IRS National Standards
heath care expenses, 13.4.5.2.3, Appx. I.2.5
living expenses, 13.4.5.2.2, Appx. I.2.2
IRS other necessary expenses, 13.4.5.2.6
listing in schedule, Sch. J, 7.3.7.6
means test, deductions, 13.4.5.2, 13.4.5.3, Appx. I.2
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT
attorney fees, 16.5.3
bankruptcy effect on credit, 6.2.2.3
discharged debts, reporting, 8.9
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT
attorney fees, 16.5.3
debtor harassment, stopping, 6.2.1.1
unenforceable claims, application, 14.4.3.3
FAMILY FARMERS
see FARMERS
FAMILY FISHERMEN
see FISHERMEN
FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS
see also CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS; DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS; DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS; MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
attorney fees, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.3, 18.3.3
debts pertaining to, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
FARM BENEFITS
see FARM PROGRAMS
FARM CORPORATIONS
chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
family farmer, inclusion in definition, 17.1.2
FARM CREDIT SYSTEM (FCS)
described, 17.1.4.2
FARM EQUIPMENT
see also COLLATERAL
redemption, 17.4.3.5.5
sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
tools of the trade exemption, application, 10.2.2.7, 17.4.3.2
unexpired leases, rejection, 17.4.7.4
FARM LAND
installment contracts as executory contracts, 17.4.7.3
recovery as fraudulent transfer, 17.4.3.5.2
sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
unexpired rental agreements, assumption, 17.4.7.5
FARM PROGRAMS
basic attributes, 17.1.4.4.2
disposition of benefits through plan, 17.5.9
executory contract issues, 17.4.7.2
exemption status, 17.4.3.1
Farm Credit System, 17.1.4.2
Farm Service Agency loan programs, 17.1.4.3
security interests, dissolution, 17.4.3.4
set-offs against government claims, 17.4.4.1, 17.4.12
treatment in bankruptcy, 17.1.4.4.1
FARM SERVICE AGENCY
loan programs, 17.1.4.3
FARMERS
appointment of counsel, 17.2.3.2
bankruptcies
see also CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
chapter 11 problems, 17.1.3.3
chapter 12 availability, 17.2.2
chapter 13 problems, 17.1.3.2
federal farm programs, treatment, 17.1.4.4.1, 17.4.3.1
involuntary bankruptcies, protections, 17.1.2
involuntary conversions, protections, 17.1.2
benefit programs, see FARM BENEFITS
cash collateral, use, 17.4.8
corporations, see FARM CORPORATIONS
crops, security interests, 17.4.3.4
defined, 17.1.2
DIP, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
disposable income, 17.5.5.3
family farmer, defined, 17.1.2, 17.2.2.4
farming operation
debts arising from, 17.2.2.4.3
defined, 17.2.2.3
income arising from, 17.2.2.4.4
new financing
approval, 17.4.9
direct payments, 17.5.7.3
plan provisions, 17.5.9
1986 legislation, selected provisions, Appx. A.4.3
partnerships, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
property sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
regular annual income, defined, 17.2.2.2
reorganizations
chapter 11 problems, 17.1.3.3
chapter 12, see CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
chapter 13 problems, 17.1.3.2
options, 17.1.3.1
special protections, 17.1.2, 17.1.4.1
unique nature of farm finance, 17.1.4
economic problems specific to farmers, 17.1.1.2
Farm Credit System, 17.1.4.2
Farm Service Agency loan programs, 17.1.4.3
federal farm programs, 17.1.4.4
FARMING OPERATIONS
see also FARMERS
chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2
corporations, 17.2.2.4.5
debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
nature of debt, 17.2.2.4.3
nature of income, 17.2.2.4.4
partnerships, 17.2.2.4.5
defined, 17.2.2.3
FEDERAL AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
Farm Credit Administration, 17.1.4.2
Farm Service Agency, 17.1.4.3
FEDERAL COURT
bankruptcy cases, access, 14.3.2.3
FEDERAL COURTS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2000
selected text, Appx. A.4.8
FEDERAL DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS
responsibilities regarding, dischargeability, 15.4.3.11
FEDERAL EXEMPTIONS
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
application, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.1.2
choosing, 10.2.1
cost of living adjustments, 10.2.2.1
nonbankruptcy exemptions, 10.2.3
specific exemptions, 10.2.2
state opt out, 10.2.1.1
wild card, 10.2.2.6
FEDERAL FARM PROGRAMS
see FARM PROGRAMS
FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
see also BANKRUPTCY CODE
adversary proceedings, 1.4.2
advisory committee notes, 1.5.2
amendments to, 1.4.2, 1.4.4.1
appeals, 2.4.3
contested matters, 1.4.2
conversion, 8.7.5.4
dismissal of bankruptcy, 8.7.5.5
duties of counsel, 16.7.1
generally, 1.4.2
hardship discharge, 8.7.5.3
lien avoidance, application, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.2
local rules, effect, 1.4.2, 1.4.4.3
military members, means testing, 1.4.2
objections to claims, application, 8.3.9
official forms, 1.4.3, 7.1.2, Appx. D
see also OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
overview, 1.4.2
proceedings, 14.2.4
relief from automatic stay, 9.7.1
Rule 2004 examinations, see RULE 2004 EXAMINATIONS
Rule 3001, see RULE 3001
Rule 3002.1, see RULE 3002.1
Rule 9011, see RULE 9011
text, Appx. B
violations, 16.7.2.2
FEES
administrative fees, chapter 13, 12.3.4.4.4, 12.3.6.1
means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.7
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
bankruptcy petition preparers, 7.3.13.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
condominium fees, see CONDOMINIUM OR COOPERATIVE FEES
credit counseling, 6.2.2.6
electronic public access fees, Appx. C.4
filing, see FILING FEES
fines and penalties, see FINES AND PENALTIES
home owners associations, see HOME OWNERS ASSOCIATION FEES
miscellaneous fees, Appx. C.3
mortgage servicer abuses, 14.4.3.4
personal financial management course, 6.2.2.6
postpetition fees
dispute procedure, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.5
notice requirements, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.4
trustee compensation, chapter 13, 6.2.2.6
trustee surcharge, chapter 7, 7.2.1
wage orders, validity, 12.6.1
waiver of fees, see under FILING FEES; WAIVER
FELONS
homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
FIDUCIARIES
see TRUSTEES
FILING FEES
see also FEES
chapter 7, 3.2.2
waiver, 1.4.4.2, 7.3.13.4, 14.6.2.1, Appx. C.1.2
chapter 12, 17.2.3.3, 14.6.2.2
chapter 13, 4.2.2, 14.6.2.2
generally, 6.2.2.6, 7.2.1
in forma pauperis filings, 14.6
bankruptcy court, powers, 14.6.2, 18.6.2
consumers as creditors, 18.6
general principles, 14.6.1
installment payments
application for, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.3
attorney fees, effect, 7.3.13.3, 16.2.3
Official Form 103A, Appx. D.3
rejected waiver applications, 7.3.13.4
noticing fee, 7.2.1
trustee compensation, 6.2.2.6, 7.2.1
waiver, 6.2.2.6, 14.6
application for, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4
bankruptcy court, powers, 14.6.2, 18.6.2
chapter 7, 3.2.2, 14.6.2.1
chapter 12, 14.6.2.2, 17.2.3.3
chapter 13, 4.2.2, 14.6.2.2
consumer as creditor, 18.6.2
general principles, 14.6.1
Official Form 103B, Appx. D.2
statutory authority, 14.6.2
FINANCE COMPANY LOANS
bankruptcy of lender, see LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
personal property collateral, 5.3.3.3
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COURSE
see PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COURSE
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
chapter 13, annual filing, 8.3.5
false use, discharge bar, 15.4.3.2.2
statement of financial affairs, see STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
FINANCING
chapter 12 plans
approval, 17.4.9
direct payments, 17.5.7.3
plan provisions, 17.5.9
chapter 13 cases, refinancing during, 12.6.6
FINES AND PENALTIES
see also RESTITUTION DEBTS
Bankruptcy Rule 9011 violations, 16.7.2.2
discharge protections, 15.5.5.5
dischargeability, 15.4.3.7
chapter 13, 4.8
liens securing, avoidance, 10.4.2.6.8
related provisions, Appx. A.3
FIRST MEETING OF CREDITORS
see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
FISHERMEN
appointment of counsel, 17.2.3.2
commercial fishing operation
corporations, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
debts arising from, 17.2.2.4.3
defined, 17.2.2.3
income arising from, 17.2.2.4.4
partnerships, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
family fisherman, defined, 17.2.2.4
regular annual income, defined, 17.2.2.2
reorganizations
see also CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2
FORECLOSURE
automatic stay, effect, 8.3.1, 9.4.2, 9.4.3
repeat filers, 9.3.3.6, 9.4.6.5.1
avoidance of transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
bankrupt lenders, 18.9.2
capital gains liability, 11.3.4
chapter 13 filing to prevent, 6.3.3
discharge, after, validity, 15.5.3
escrow overcharges, 14.4.3.4.2
fraudulent transfer status, 10.4.2.6.5
farm land, 17.4.3.5.2
notice of filing to forestall, 8.3.1
right to cure after, 11.6.2.2
FORMA PAUPERIS
see IN FORMA PAUPERIS
FORMS
see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
FORUM
bringing matters before bankruptcy forum, 14.4
discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
dischargeability determinations, 15.4.2, 15.4.4
FRAUD
see also EMBEZZLEMENT; LARCENY
chapter 11 cases, trustee appointment, 18.7.4.5
confirmation revocation
chapter 12 plans, 17.8.3
chapter 13 plans, 4.5
credit card fraud, Rule 2004 examinations, 8.3.15.2
credit use with no intent to pay, 15.4.3.2.3.2
discharge bar
claims based on, 18.5.4.2.1
debts incurred through, 15.4.3.2
fiduciary fraud, 15.4.3.4
intentional concealment, 15.2.2.2
prohibited acts in another case, 15.2.2.7
discharge revocation, 15.3
luxury goods or services within 60 days, 6.5.2.1, 15.4.3.2.3.2
spouse or agent, liability of debtor, 15.4.3.2.2.2
FRAUDULENT CONVERSION
nonexempt property into exempt property, 10.2.3.4.3
FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS
avoidance
chapter 11, 18.7.6
generally, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
charitable donations, status, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
discharge bar, circumstances, 15.2.2.2
exemption planning not, 6.5.2.2, 15.2.2.2
farm land, foreclosed, recapture, 17.4.3.5.2
gambling losses, status, 10.4.2.6.5
prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1
GAMBLING LOSSES
avoidance status, 10.4.2.6.5
GARNISHMENTS
see WAGE GARNISHMENTS
GIFTS
reasonable expenses, 5.3.3.4
GOOD FAITH TEST
ability to pay, 13.4.7.1, 13.4.7.4
automatic stay extension where prior case dismissal, 9.3.3.2.2
chapter 12, 17.5.7.1
chapter 13, 12.3.3, 12.3.5
presumption of not good faith, 9.3.3.2.2
overcoming, 9.3.3.2.3
GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
see FARM PROGRAMS; PUBLIC BENEFITS
GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
allowed secured claims, 11.2.1.1
automatic stay, 9.4.4
chapter 12 reorganizations, setoff rights, 17.4.12
proof of claim, filing, time, 14.4.3.2
register of addresses, 7.3.7.3.1
sovereign immunity
abrogation, 9.6.6, 14.3.2.2
stripdown, effect, 11.2.1.1
support obligations, 15.4.3.5.2
tax claims, see TAX CLAIMS
GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
address register, 7.3.7.3.1
automatic stay violations, 9.6.6
bankruptcy filing, notification, 7.3.7.3
claims by, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
discrimination by, prohibited, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4
fee awards against, 16.5.7
raising claims on behalf of consumers, 18.5.4.2.1
sovereign immunity, abrogation, 9.6.6, 14.3.2.2
support obligations owed to, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.2
utilities as, 9.8.2.2.5
GUARANTORS
see COSIGNERS
GUARDIANS
bankruptcy petitions, filing, 3.2.1.1
GUIDE TO SURVIVING DEBT (NCLC)
counseling consumer debtors, 6.1.2
HABEAS CORPUS
bankruptcy court, powers, 14.4.5
incarcerated debtors, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
HARASSMENT BY CREDITORS
notice of automatic stay, 8.3.1
restrictions, 6.2.1.1
HARDSHIP DISCHARGE
see also DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
chapter 12, 17.7.2
form, Appx. E.13.4
chapter 13, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
form, Appx. E.13.2
exceptions, 15.4.1
HEAL debts, 15.4.3.8.6
HEALTH AIDS
federal exemption, 10.2.2.10
non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
HEALTH CARE BUSINESSES
bankruptcies, patient protections, 18.10
HEALTH CARE EXPENSES
IRS National Standards, 13.4.5.2.3, Appx. I.2.5
HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOANS (HEAL)
see also STUDENT LOANS
dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.6, 15.4.3.20
HEALTH INSURANCE
chapter 13 plans, modification to purchase, 4.6, 12.3.4.5
means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.4
HEARINGS
abandonment of property, 11.3.3
automatic stay relief
continuation, 9.7.3.3.2
right to, 9.7.1
time limits, 9.7.2
chapter 12 plans
confirmation, 17.5.2
postconfirmation modifications, 17.8.1
revocation of confirmation, 17.8.3
chapter 13 eligibility, determination, 12.2.3.3
confirmation hearings
attendance, 8.6
chapter 12, 17.5.2
chapter 13, 4.5, 8.6
discharge hearing
attendance, 8.8.1
chapter 7, 3.6
chapter 13, 4.8
discretionary nature, 1.1.2.3, 8.8.1
procedure at, 8.8.3
reaffirmation of debt, 8.8.2
disposition by trustee, 11.3.4
objections to exemptions, 8.5, 10.3.3
HOME AFFORDABLE MODIFICATION PROGRAM (HAMP)
voluntary loan modification, 11.6.1.5
HOME OFFICE EQUIPMENT
tools of the trade exemption, 10.2.2.7
HOME OWNERS ASSOCIATION FEES
dischargeability, 15.4.3.15
HOMESTEAD EXEMPTION
see also PRINCIPAL RESIDENCE
chapter 13 discharge, statement prior to, 8.8.1
discharge delay to determine, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
exemption pourover, 10.2.2.6
federal exemption, 10.2.2.2
limitations on, 10.2.3.4
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.3
objections, time, 10.3.3
state exemptions, 6.5.2.2, 10.2.3.4
HOUSEHOLD GOODS
see also JEWELRY; PERSONAL PROPERTY
definition, 10.4.2.4
federal exemption, 10.2.2.4, 10.2.2.6
luxury goods, see LUXURY GOODS OR SERVICES
means test expense deduction, 13.4.5.2.2
IRS standards, Appx. I.2.2
non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
right of redemption, use, 11.5.5
valuation, 11.2.2.3.3
date, 11.2.2.2.2
replacement value, 11.2.2.3.1
HOUSING
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
discharge protections, 15.5.5.3
means test expense deduction, 13.4.5.2.5
IRS standards, Appx. I.2.3
IDENTIFICATION
debtors at meeting of creditors, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
IMPAIRED DRIVING DEBTS
see also PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS; WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS
dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.6, 15.4.3.9
IMPRISONMENT
debtors, habeas corpus, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
discharged debts, protections, 15.5.5.5
IN FORMA PAUPERIS
consumers as creditors, 18.6
need to proceed as, 18.6.1
seeking relief, 18.6.2
debtors proceeding as, 14.6
prisoner litigation, 15.4.3.16
waiver of filing fees, 6.2.2.6, 14.6, 18.6.2
general principles, 14.6.1
Official Form 103B, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4, Appx. D.2
statutory authority, 14.6.2
IN REM ORDERS
automatic stay relief, 9.4.6.5.2, 9.7.3.1.5
INCAPACITATED PERSONS
credit counseling, waiver, 3.2.1.4
financial management course, waiver, 8.3.3
INCOME
see also DISPOSABLE INCOME
chapter 7, abuse of provisions, 13.4
chapter 12 plans
disposable income, 17.5.5.3
eligibility, 6.2.2.3
chapter 13 plans
disposable income, 7.3.12.3
annual statement of income and expenses, 8.3.5
submission to trustee, 7.3.12.3, 12.6.1
current monthly income, see CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
definition, 13.4.3.2.8
expenses, 5.3.3.4, 13.4.5.2, 13.4.5.3
family farmers and fishermen
arising from operation, 17.2.2.4.4
regular annual income, 17.2.2.2
listing in schedule, Sch. I, 7.3.7.6
payment advices, filing, 7.3.10
statements
see also FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
current monthly income, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
financial affairs, 7.3.8
INCOME TAX CREDITS
see TAX CREDITS
INCOME TAX REFUNDS
see TAX REFUNDS
INCOME TAX RETURNS
see TAX RETURNS
INCOMPETENT PERSONS
bankruptcy filings
chapter 7, 3.2.1.1
chapter 13, 4.2.1.1
INDEPENDENT PARALEGALS
see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; NON-ATTORNEYS
INDIAN TRIBAL LAW
exemptions, 10.2.3.1
INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
see also PENSIONS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2
distributions or withdrawals, income treatment, 13.4.3.2.6
federal exemption, 10.2.2.13
cap, 10.2.2.13.3
guidelines, 10.2.2.13.2
INDIVIDUAL WITH REGULAR INCOME
definition, 4.2.1.2, 12.2.2
INFANTS
see MINORS
INHERITANCES
bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 8.2
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
automatic stay, enforcement, 9.6.5
bankruptcy petition preparers, against, 16.6
chapter 11 plan provisions providing, 18.9.5
discharge protections, see DISCHARGE INJUNCTION
discharge rights, violations, 15.5.5.7
proceeding not covered by automatic stay, 9.4.7
INJURY
personal injury claims, see PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS
willful and malicious, dischargeability, 15.4.3.6
INSTALLMENT LAND CONTRACTS
executory contract issues, 17.4.7.3
INSURANCE
see also CREDIT INSURANCE; LIFE INSURANCE
gathering information regarding
assets, 5.3.3.2
expenses, 5.3.3.4
personal property, proof in chapter 13 cases, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
INTENTIONS OF DEBTOR
see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
INTEREST OVERCHARGES
objecting to, 14.4.3.4.3
INTEREST PAYMENTS
allowed secured claims, 11.6.1.3.3.6
chapter 12 plans, 17.5.4.3
chapter 13 plans, 12.6.2
long-term debts, right to cure, 11.6.2.7.2
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
see also GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
automatic stay, 9.4.4, 9.5
living expense standards, 7.3.9, 13.4.5.2, Appx. I.2
tax claims, see TAX CLAIMS
tax refunds, see TAX REFUNDS
transcripts from, 15.4.3.1.2, Appx. H.2
see also TAX INFORMATION
INTERNET RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
INVOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
see also BANKRUPTCY
consumers as creditors, 18.2.2
farmers, restrictions, 17.1.2
frivolous petitions, protections, 14.8
generally, 14.8
IPSO FACTO CLAUSES
see BANKRUPTCY CLAUSES
IRAs
see INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
JEWELRY
see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS; LUXURY GOODS OR SERVICES; PERSONAL PROPERTY
federal exemption, 10.2.2.5
non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
JOINT BANKRUPTCIES
see also BANKRUPTCY; CODEBTORS; SPOUSES
advantages, 6.4
attorney fees, 16.2.2
chapter 12 reorganizations
debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
exempt property, 17.4.3.1
filings, generally, 17.2.2.5
consolidation of cases, 6.4
current monthly income, 13.4.3.2.3
exempt property, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.2
homestead caps, application, 10.2.3.4.5.7
federal exemptions, 10.2.2.1
filing costs, 6.4
financial management course, 8.3.3
involuntary, validity, 14.8
prior individual filings, effect, 9.3.3.2.1, 9.3.3.3
schedules, filing, 7.3.7.3, 7.3.7.6
statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8
substantive consolidation, differences, 6.4
JOINT PROPERTY
see also SPOUSES
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
discharge, effect on, 15.5.1.4
distribution of community property, 3.5.4
effect of bankruptcy, 2.5
exemption provisions
application, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1
homestead exemption,, 10.2.2.2
state exemptions, 10.2.3.2
joint filings, see JOINT BANKRUPTCIES
judicial liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.3.3
listing in schedules, 7.3.7.2.1
JUDGMENTS
see also JUDICIAL LIENS
consumers as creditors, 18.2.1, 18.2.2
discharge, effect on, 15.5.1.3
landlords, prepetition
chapter 13 plan confirmation, effect, 12.9.2
stay exemption, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4
JUDICIAL ESTOPPEL
unscheduled claims, 14.3.2.6.3
JUDICIAL LIENS
see also JUDGMENTS; LIENS
avoidance
divorce related liens, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2
exempt property, 10.4.2.3, 10.4.2.10
extent of power to avoid, 10.4.2.3.1
family farmers, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
joint property, 10.4.2.3.3
judgments, 15.5.1.3
limitations on, 10.4.2.3.2
chapter 13 cramdown, application, 11.6.1.2.2.6
definition, 10.4.2.3.1
JUDICIAL POLICIES
chapter 7 fee waivers, 1.4.4.2, Appx. C.1.2
tax information, 1.4.4.2, Appx. C.1.1
JUDICIAL SALES
fraudulent transfer status, 10.4.2.6.5
JURISDICTION
abstention, 14.5.1
automatic stay
relief from stay, 9.7.1
violations, 9.6.5
bankruptcy court, 2.4.2, 14.2
bringing matters before bankruptcy forum, 14.4
constitutionality, 14.2.1
contempt powers, 14.2.8
core and non-core proceedings, 14.2.4.2
counterclaims, 14.2.1, 14.2.4.2
discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
dischargeability issues, 15.4.4
district court, 14.2.2
generally, 14.1
history, 14.2.1
in personam jurisdiction, 14.3.2.1
jury trials, 14.2.7
personal injury claims, 14.2.6
referral to bankruptcy court, 14.2.2
related proceedings, 14.2.1
withdrawal to district court, 14.2.5
wrongful death claims, 14.2.6
JURY TRIALS
bankruptcy court, 14.2.7
LAND INSTALLMENT SALES
as executory contract, 12.9.1
right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
LANDLORD BANKRUPTCIES
see also CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
eviction proceedings, counterclaims, 18.3.5
special problems, 18.8
LANDLORD-TENANT PROCEEDINGS
see EVICTIONS
LARCENY
see also FRAUD
discharge exception, 15.4.3.4
LATE CHARGE ABUSES
postpetition payments, 14.4.3.4.4
LEASES
see UNEXPIRED LEASES
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
see also ACTIONS; CIVIL PROCEEDINGS; CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
bankruptcy court, removal to, 14.4.1
remand of removed actions, 14.4.1.4
LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
see also CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
automatic stay issues, 18.9.2
generally, 18.9.1
proof of claim, filing, 18.9.4
sales of assets, 18.9.3
third party and successor releases, 18.9.5
LIABILITIES
see also CONSUMER DEBTS
gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3, 5.3.4
LIENS
see also REPOSSESSIONS; SECURITY INTERESTS
allowed secured claims, validity, 11.2.1, 11.7
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
real property of repeat filers, 9.3.3.6, 9.4.6.5
avoidance, see AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
chapter 12 reorganizations
automatic dissolution, 17.4.3.4
avoidance, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
replacement liens, 17.5.4.6
sales free and clear of, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
chapter 13, retention until payment or discharge, 11.6.1.3.3.1
discharge, effect on, 15.5.1.3
chapter 13, 4.8
enforcement after discharge, 3.6, 4.8, 15.5.3
exempt property, 3.5.1
gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
government liens, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS; STATUTORY LIENS
judicial liens, see JUDICIAL LIENS
listing as exempt in schedule, 7.3.7.2.3
listing in schedule, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
modification of records after discharge, 8.9
redemption of personal property
generally, 8.3.7.1
statement of intentions, 7.3.11
searching to gather information, 5.3.4
statutory liens, see STATUTORY LIENS
truth in lending claims regarding, 14.4.4
turnover of property to trustee, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
valuation, 11.2.2.3
LIFE INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE
bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 8.2
federal exemption
accrued value, 10.2.2.9
dependent payments, 10.2.2.12
unmatured, 10.2.2.8
gathering information
reasonable expense, 5.3.3.4
value, 5.3.3.2
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS; TIME LIMITS
LIQUIDATED DEBTS
determination, 12.2.3.2
LIQUIDATION
chapter 7, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
chapter 11, see CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
chapter 13, circumstances, 12.6.5
procedures, 2.2
LITIGATION AIDS
see PRACTICE TIPS
LITIGATING IN BANKRUPTCY COURT
see also BANKRUPTCY COURT
abstention, 14.5
advantages, 14.3
appeals, see APPEALS
class actions, 14.7
in forma pauperis, 14.6
involuntary bankruptcy cases, 14.8
jurisdiction, see JURISDICTION
jury trials, 14.2.7
procedure, 14.4
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.10
“LITTLE TUCKER ACT”
sovereign immunity, application, 14.3.2.2
LIVESTOCK
tools of the trade status, 10.2.2.7, 17.4.3.2
LOAN COMPANIES
see CREDITORS; LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
LONG-TERM DEBTS
see also CONSUMER DEBTS; MORTGAGES
chapter 13 plans, right to cure, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
LUXURY GOODS OR SERVICES
see also JEWELRY
ability to pay test, application, 12.3.4.4.5
defined, 12.3.4.4.5, 15.4.3.2.3.2
prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1, 15.4.3.2.3.2
MAILING MATRIX
filing requirements, 7.2.1, 15.4.3.3
form, 7.3.4
list of creditors
chapter 7, 3.2.2
chapter 13, 4.2.2
MAINTENANCE
see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
see also DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS; FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS
bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 8.2
constructive trusts, 18.5.2.2
dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3, 15.4.3.14
support payments distinguished, 15.4.3.5.3
MARRIED COUPLES
see JOINT BANKRUPTCIES; JOINT PROPERTY; SPOUSES; SUBSTANTIVE CONSOLIDATION
MATRIX (MAILING LABELS)
see MAILING MATRIX
MEANS TEST
see also ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
ability to pay, effect, 13.4.7.4
data, Appx. I
exemption from, 7.3.9, 13.4.4
formula, 13.4.5
application of formula, 13.4.6
deduction of IRS expense allowances, 13.4.5.2, Appx. I.2
deduction of other expenses, 13.4.5.3
presumption of abuse, 3.2.1.5, 13.4.6
procedures, 13.4.8
safe harbor
disabled veterans, 13.4.4
incomes below threshold, 13.4.3, 13.4.7.1
military reservists, 13.4.4
statement of current monthly income, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
Official Form 122A, Appx. D.2
timing of petition, 6.5.3.6
MEDICAL AIDS
see HEALTH AIDS
MEDICAL DEBTS
see also CONSUMER DEBTS
bankruptcy, effect, 6.2.2.4.2
further debt, anticipation, 6.5.3.1
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
MEDICAL EXPENSES
see HEALTH CARE EXPENSES
MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
adjournments, 10.3.4
advice to clients, 8.2, 8.4.1
attendance, 8.4.3
creditors seeking reaffirmation, 8.4.4
chapter 7 bankruptcies
after meeting, 3.5, 8.5
examination of debtor, 8.4.5
notice, 3.3
procedures, 3.4
chapter 12 bankruptcies, 17.2.5
chapter 13 bankruptcies
notice, 4.3
procedures, 4.4
claims, checking, 8.4.6
disputes, resolving, 8.4.3
chapter 7, 3.4
chapter 13, 4.4
document requirements, 8.4.2
chapter 7, 3.4
chapter 13, 4.4
examination of debtor by trustee, 8.4.3
chapter 7, 3.4, 8.4.5
chapter 13, 4.4
events prior or after meeting, 8.3
notice, Official Form 309, Appx. D.3
preparation for, 8.4.1
procedure at, 8.4.3
chapter 7, 3.4
chapter 13, 4.4
MILITARY PERSONNEL
credit counseling requirement, waiver, 3.2.1.4
financial management course, waiver, 8.3.3
means test exemption, 13.4.4
statement of military service, Appx. E.5
MILITARY RETENTION BONUSES
dischargeability, 15.4.3.19
MINORS
bankruptcy filing
chapter 7, 3.2.1.1
chapter 13, 4.2.1.1
MOBILE HOMES
chapter 13 cramdown exemption, application, 11.6.1.2.2.6
real or personal property, 7.3.7.2.1
MODIFICATION
chapter 12 plans, see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
chapter 13 plans, see CHAPTER 13 PLANS
cure, status as, 11.6.1.2.3
secured claims, see CRAMDOWN
voluntary loan modification programs, 11.6.1.5
MONEY ORDER COMPANIES
bankruptcy, effect on consumers, 18.5.2.1
MONITORING FEES
challenging, 14.4.3.4.5
MORTGAGES
see also LIENS; SECURITY INTERESTS
bankrupt lenders, 18.9
bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
chapter 13 cramdown, application, 11.6.1
chapter 13 right to cure, 11.6.2
escrow overcharges, 14.4.3.4.2
foreclosures, see FORECLOSURES
holder of mortgage, determination, 9.7.3.1.1
means test deductions, 13.4.5.2.5, 13.4.5.3.2
modification, 11.6.1.2, 11.6.1.5
objecting to overcharges, 14.4.3.4
postpetition payments, 8.7.3
proof of claim, requirements, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.1, 14.4.3.4.2, 14.4.3.5
refinancing during chapter 13, 12.6.6
Rule 3001 requirements, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.2, 14.4.3.5
noncompliance, 11.6.2.8.2.7
proof of claim attachment, 11.6.2.8.2.2
Rule 3002.1 requirements, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.1, 14.4.3.4.6
final cure payment, 11.6.2.8.2.6
noncompliance, 11.6.2.8.2.7
payment changes, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.3
postpetitition fees, 11.6.2.8.2.4, 11.6.2.8.2.5
securitized mortgages, 9.7.3.1.1, 14.4.3.4.7
servicer abuses, 14.4.3.4, 16.5.5
spreader clauses, 15.5.3
undisclosed fees, 14.4.3.4.6
MOTOR VEHICLES
federal exemption, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.2.3
impaired driving debts, 15.4.3.9
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
means test deductions
expenses, 13.4.5.2.4
loan payments, 13.4.5.3.2
purchase money security interests, chapter 13 treatment, 6.5.3.5, 11.6.1.4, 12.8.2.2
right of redemption, use, 11.5.5
reaffirmation agreements, 11.4.2.8, 11.5.4
“retain and pay” option, 11.4.2.8
snowmobiles, status, 15.4.3.9
title pawn transactions, 11.9
valuation, 5.3.4, 11.2.2.3.2
MUTUAL DEBTS
setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
NATIONAL BANKRUPTCY REVIEW COMMISSION
establishment, 1.1.2.4
NON-ATTORNEYS
see also BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
fees to, disclosure, 16.3.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
role in bankruptcy case, 5.1.2, 16.6
unauthorized practice of law, 16.6
NON-CORE PROCEEDINGS
see also BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
core proceedings, distinction, 14.2.4.2, 14.2.4.3
procedures, 14.2.4.4
NON-PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
see also SECURITY INTERESTS
avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
NOTICE
automatic stay
effective notice, 9.6.3.3
giving notice, 8.3.1, 9.5, 9.6.3.1
requirements, 9.6.3.2
automatic turnover, 9.9.3
bankruptcy case, Official Form 309, Appx. D.3
bankruptcy petition preparers to debtor, 16.6
Official Form 119, Appx. D.3
clerk of bankruptcy court, available relief, 7.3.6
form, Appx. E.4
creditors, to, 14.3.2.1, 15.4.3.3
effective notice, 9.6.3.3, 9.9.3
mailing label matrix, see MATRIX (MAILING LABELS)
Official Form 309, Appx. D.3
reasonable efforts, 18.4.1
debt relief agencies, requirements, 16.8.3
motion or objection, Official Form 420A, Appx. D.3
objection to claim, Official Form 420B, Appx. D.3
removal to bankruptcy court, 14.4.1.2
OBJECTIONS
barred claims, 14.4.3.2
chapter 7, discharge, 15.2
chapter 7, time limits, 3.3
chapter 13, time limits, 4.3
chapter 13 plans, 4.4, 8.6, 11.6.1.3.3.7, 12.3.4.2
claims by creditors, 3.5.3, 4.4, 8.3.9, 8.4.6, 14.3.2.4, 14.4.3
Official Form 420B, Appx. D.3
exemptions claimed, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
failure to raise, effect, 14.4.3.1
inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4
other objections, Official Form 420A, Appx. D.3
prepetition settlement attempts, based on, 14.4.3.6
recoupment claims, raising as, 14.3.2.4
secured claims, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
unenforceable claims, 14.4.3.3
OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
amendments to, 1.4.3, 1.4.4.1
annotations, Appx. D.2
bankruptcy petition preparers, information on, 16.6
chapter 12, application, 17.2.3.1
completing, 1.4.3, 7.3.1, Appx. D.1
computer software, 7.1.3, 7.3.1
general principles, 7.1.1
initial forms
amendments to, 8.3.2
chapter 7, 3.2.2
chapter 13, 4.2.2
preparing, 7.3
sample forms, Appx. D.2
obtaining, 1.4.3, 5.1.3, 7.1.2, Appx. D
Official Form 101 (voluntary petition), 7.3.2
see also BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 101A (eviction judgment), 7.3.2, Appx. D.3
Official Form 103A (filing fee by installment), 7.3.13.3, Appx. D.3
Official Form 103B (waiver of filing fee), 7.3.13.4
annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 106 (schedules), 7.3.7
see also SCHEDULES
annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 107 (financial affairs), 7.3.8
see also STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 108 (intentions), 7.3.11
see also STATEMENT OF INTENTION
annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 121 (Social Security number), 7.3.3
see also STATEMENT ABOUT YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 122 (current monthly income), 7.3.9
see also STATEMENT OF CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
Chapter 7, Official Form 122A-1, annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 318 (discharge), 8.8.1
annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
Official Form 410 (proof of claim), annotations and completed forms, Appx. D.2
Official Form 416 (captions), annotations and completed forms, Appx. D.2
Official Form 417 (appeals), annotations and completed forms, Appx. D.2
Official Form 423 (financial management course), 8.3.3, Appx. D.3
other Official Forms, Appx. D.3
preprinted forms, 1.4.3, 7.1.2
sample completed forms, Appx. D.2
substantial compliance, 1.4.3, 7.3.1
computer programs, 7.1.3
permitted alterations, Appx. D.1.3
precise compliance not necessary, 7.3.1
OMBUDSMAN
consumer privacy ombudsman, 18.10
patient care ombudsman, 18.10
PACER SYSTEM
bankruptcy court dockets, access, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
fee schedule, Appx. C.4
PAPERS
see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
PARALEGALS
see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; NON-ATTORNEYS
PARKING TICKETS
dischargeability, 15.4.3.7
PARTNERSHIPS
chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
chapter 13 eligibility, 12.2.2
discharges, 15.2.2.1, 18.5.4.4
PATIENT CARE OMBUDSMAN
health care business bankruptcies, 18.10
PAUPERIS
see IN FORMA PAUPERIS
PAWNED PERSONAL PROPERTY
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.4
PAYMENT ADVICES
filing, 7.3.10
PAYMENT PLANS
see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 PLANS
PENALTIES
see FINES AND PENALTIES
PENSIONS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.11
contributions, priority claim, 18.7.12.2
distributions or withdrawals, income treatment, 13.4.3.2.6
ERISA, see ERISA PENSION PLANS
federal exemption, 10.2.2.13
IRAs, see INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
listing in schedules, 7.3.7.2.2
loans from debtor’s plan, repayment
automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.4
dischargeability, 15.4.3.17
disposable income exclusion, 12.3.4.4.2.4
monthly income, exemption or inclusion, 13.4.3.2.7
Qualified Domestic Relations Order, 15.4.3.5.3
PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COURSE
advice to clients, 8.2
approved courses, 8.3.3
certificate of completion, filing
chapter 7, 15.2.2.11
chapter 13, 8.8.1
Official Form 423, Appx. D.3
time limits, 8.3.3
PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COURSE (cont.)
cost of course, 6.2.2.6
discharge prerequisite, 8.3.3, 15.2.2.11
chapter 7, 3.2.1.3, 3.6
chapter 13, 4.8
requirements, 8.3.3
PERSONAL INFORMATION
bankruptcy forms, redaction, 7.1.5
PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS
bankruptcy court
jurisdiction, 14.2.6
mandatory abstention, application, 14.5.2
dischargeability
drunk driving, 15.4.3.9
generally, 15.4.3.6
PERSONAL PROPERTY
see also PROPERTY
exempt, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
household goods, see HOUSEHOLD GOODS
leases
adequate protection, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
chapter 7, assumption or rejection, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5
chapter 13, assumption or rejection, 12.9
chapter 13 payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.3
proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
statement of intention, 7.3.11, 11.4
listing in schedule, Sch. A/B Parts 2–7, 7.3.7.2.2
motor vehicles, see MOTOR VEHICLES
non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
purchase money security interests, see PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
right of redemption, 8.3.7.1
see also RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
secured, see COLLATERAL
valuation, 7.3.7.2.2, 11.2.2.3.3
converted cases, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
date, 11.2.2.2.2
replacement value, 11.2.2.3.1
PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES
bankruptcy estate, representing, 3.2.1.1
bankruptcy petitions, filing, 3.2.1.1
PETITION PREPARERS
see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
PETITIONS IN BANKRUPTCY
see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
PLEADINGS
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G
computer programs, 7.1.3
NCLC resources, 1.3.4, 5.1.3
POSSESSION
creditor remedies, see RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY; REPOSSESSION
debtor-in-possession, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
exempt property, 3.5, 10.1.2
landlords, prepetition judgment
chapter 13 plan confirmation, effect, 12.9.2
stay exemption, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4
property of the estate
chapter 12 plans, 17.4.2
chapter 13 plans, 12.8.1
retention by debtor, 8.3.11
property turned over to trustee, 9.9.4
POSTPETITION CLAIMS
chapter 13, conversion from, 4.7.4, 13.7.2
consumers as creditors, 18.5.3
discharge, 4.6, 8.7.2
converted cases, 13.7.3
domestic support obligations, 12.3.6.3
utilities, 9.8.2.2.4
POSTPETITION FEES
Rule 3002.1
dispute procedure, 11.6.2.8.2.5
notice requirements, 11.6.2.8.2.4
sanctions, 11.6.2.8.2.7
POSTPETITION TRANSACTIONS
chapter 7 conversion, inclusion, 4.7.4, 13.7.2
utility usage, 9.8.2.2.4
chapter 12 dispositions, tax liability, 17.5.5.4
chapter 13 plans
modification, 4.6, 8.7.2
mortgage payments, 8.7.3
POSTPETITION TRANSFERS
see also AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.7
avoidance, 10.4.2.6.6, 10.4.2.9
check, by, date of transfer, 10.4.2.6.6
definition of transfer, 9.4.6.7, 10.4.2.6.6
religious and charitable donations, 1.1.2.6, 12.3.4.4.5
setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
POWER OF ATTORNEY
bankruptcy filing by, 3.2.1.1
PRACTICE TIPS
see also RESEARCH AIDS; WEB RESOURCES
advice after discharge, 8.9
advice after papers filed, 8.2
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
automatic stay litigation
other tactics, 9.7.3.3.2
stays pending appeal, 9.7.3.3.3
valuation problems, 9.7.3.3.1
bankruptcy court advantages, 14.3
best practices, 5.1.3, Appx. H.4, Appx. H.5
chapter 7 fee waiver, 1.4.4.2, 14.6.2.1, Appx. C.1.2
chapter 12 plans
direct payments, 17.5.7.3
feasibility, 17.5.7.2.2
provisions, 17.5.9
chapter 13 plans
successive filings, 12.10.3
unexpired leases or executory contracts, 12.9.4
client handouts, Appx. K
client questionnaire, 1.3.4, 5.3.2, Appx. F
computerization, 7.1.3
counseling the debtor,
see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
advantages and disadvantages of bankruptcy, 6.2
choosing type of bankruptcy, 6.3
exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
explaining bankruptcy, 6.1.2, Appx. K
explaining options 6.1.1
prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
spousal filing, 6.4
timing, 6.5
using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
date calculator, 1.3.4, Appx. H.1
declaration concerning schedules, 7.3.7.7
delay of petition as tactic, 6.5.3.3
discharge orders, retention, 8.8.1
dischargeability complaints, 15.4.3.2.4
division of labor, 5.1.3
document production requests, Appx. H.5
electronic case filing, Appx. D.1.4
exemption claims, 10.3
exemption planning, 6.5.2.2, 10.4.1
facts and information,
frequently missed info, 5.3.3
full and accurate, need for, 5.4
importance of getting, 5.2
methods of gathering, 5.3
other sources, 5.3.4
questionnaire, 5.3.2, Appx. F
web resources, 5.3.4
involuntary bankruptcies, generally, 14.8
landlord bankruptcy
maintaining services, 18.8.2
preventing abandonment, 18.8.2.2
tenant ownership, 18.8.3
litigation advantages of bankruptcy, 6.2.1.6
means test, 1.3.4, Appx. I
meeting of creditors, 8.4
multiple cases, 7.2.3
NCLC Bankruptcy Basics, 1.3.5.2
NCLC bankruptcy treatise, using, 1.3, 5.1.1, 5.1.3
NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
non-attorneys, role, 5.1.2, 5.1.3
pleadings and forms, 1.3.4, Appx. G
preparing and filing papers,
fees, 7.2.1
forms, 7.2.1, 7.3, Appx. D
generally, 7.1
signing and verification, 7.4
time considerations, 7.2.2, 7.2.3
primary sources, 1.3.4
reaffirmation agreements, 15.5.2.6
secured property, retention, 11.4.2.8, 11.5.4
subsequent to filing,
administration of chapter 13 plans, 8.7
advice to clients, 8.2
after discharge, 8.9
after meeting of creditors, 8.5, 8.6
confirmation hearings, 8.6
discharge and discharge hearing, 8.8
events prior to meeting of creditors, 8.3
generally, 8.1
meeting of creditors, 8.4
tax information, judicial policies, 1.4.4.2, Appx. C.1.1
tax returns or transcripts, obtaining, Appx. H.2
timing the petition, 6.5
United States Trustee Program, helpful resources, Appx. H.3
websites, helpful, Appx. L
PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
see also AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
avoidance by debtor
consumer as creditor, chapter 11, 18.7.6
exempt property, principles, 10.4.2.1
farmers, 17.4.3.5
judicial liens, 10.4.2.3
non-purchase money security interests, 10.4.2.4
pre-Code liens, 10.4.2.10
preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.3
procedures, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.2
property recovered by trustee, 10.4.2.5
trustee’s powers, use, 10.4.2.6, 10.4.2.7
avoidance by trustee
fraudulent transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
liens securing penalties, 10.4.2.6.8
preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.1, 10.4.2.6.4.2
setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
statutory liens, 10.4.2.6.3
strong-arm clause, 10.4.2.6.2
voluntary transfers, 10.4.2.6.1
avoided transfers, preservation, 10.4.2.9
cash advances, 6.5.2.1
charitable donations, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
check, by, date of transfer, 10.4.2.6.6
definition of transfer, 10.4.2.1
discharge, denial, 15.2.2.2
exempt property, avoidance, 8.3.6
exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
fraudulent conveyances, 6.5.2.1
luxury goods or services, 6.5.2.1
preferences, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
PREFERENCES
attorney fees paid in advance, status, 16.2.3
avoidance
chapter 11, 18.7.6
chapter 12, 17.4.3.5.3
exceptions, 10.4.2.6.4.2
generally, 10.4.2.6.4.1
prebankruptcy, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
consumers as creditors, 18.2.1
exceptions, 10.4.2.6.4.2
security interests, status, 10.4.2.6.4.2, 10.4.2.6.4.3
PRESUMPTION OF ABUSE
see also ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
avoiding through chapter 13, 6.3.3
generally, 3.2.1.5, 13.4.6.1
incomes below threshold, 13.4.3, 13.4.7.1
means test, see MEANS TEST
rebutting, 13.4.6.2
statement of current monthly income, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
determining current monthly income, 13.4.3.2
median income test, 13.4.3.3
timing considerations, 6.5.3.6
PRINCIPAL RESIDENCE
see also HOMESTEAD EXEMPTION; MORTGAGES
capital gains exemption, 11.3.4
chapter 13 cramdown, exemption, 11.6.1.2
defined, 11.6.1.2.2.6
right to cure default, 11.6.1.1, 11.6.1.2.3, 11.6.2
PRIOR BANKRUPTCIES
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5
chapter 7, 3.2.1.2, 6.2.2.8.2, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
chapter 12, 17.4.4.3
chapter 13, 4.2.1.4, 6.2.2.8.2, 12.10, 15.2.2.9
information gathering, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2, 9.7.3.1.5
prior discharges, effect, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9, 15.4.3.10
PRIORITY UNSECURED CREDITORS
see also CREDITORS; UNSECURED CREDITORS
administrative expenses, 12.3.4.4.4
attorneys, fees, 16.4.1
categories, 7.3.7.3.3
chapter 12 plans
classification, 17.5.6.3
treatment, 17.5.5.4
chapter 13 plans, payment, 7.3.12.3, 7.3.12.5, 12.3.6
consumers as, 18.5.5, 18.7.12.2, 18.9.4
distribution to, 3.5.4
domestic support obligations, 17.5.8
employees, 18.7.12.2
listing in schedule, Sch. E/F Part 1, 7.3.7.3.3
means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.3
tax claims, 12.3.6.1, 15.4.3.1.2
PRISONER LITIGATION
costs and fees, dischargeability, 15.4.3.16
PRIVACY ISSUES
business bankruptcies, 18.10
income tax returns, 8.3.4.3
disclosure by trustee, 8.3.4.1
judicial policies, 1.4.4.2, Appx. C.1.1
redaction of personal information, 7.1.5
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.11
Social Security number, 7.1.5, 7.3.3
PROBATE PROCEEDINGS
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
PROCEEDINGS IN BANKRUPTCY
see BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
best practices, Appx. H.5
meeting of creditors, 8.4.2
chapter 7, 3.4
chapter 13, 4.4
identification, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
PROOF OF CLAIM
see also CLAIMS BY CREDITORS
allowing, chapter 7, 3.5.3
burden of proof, 11.2.2.3.2, 14.4.3.3
consumers as creditors
class claims, 18.4.2
individual consumers, 18.4.1
lender bankruptcies, 18.9.4
trust funds, 18.5.2.1
debt buyers, 14.4.3.5
false information, 16.5.5.1, 16.5.5.2
filing by creditor, time, 3.3, 4.4, 14.4.3.2, 15.4.3.3
filing by debtor, 8.4.6
government claims, 14.4.3.2
inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
mortgage creditors, 11.6.2.8.2.2
mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4
Official Form 410, Appx. D.2
reasonable inquiry prior to, 16.5.5.1
securitized debt, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
PROPERTY
see also ASSETS; COLLATERAL; PERSONAL PROPERTY; REAL PROPERTY
PROPERTY (cont.)
abandonment by trustee, see ABANDONMENT OF PROPERTY
after filing, advice to clients, 8.2
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3, 9.7.3.2.3
bankruptcy estate, see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
chapter 13
adequate protection, 12.8.2
continued use, 12.8.1
discharge protections, 15.5.1.2
disposition by trustee, 11.3.4
exempt, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
gathering information, frequently missed, 5.3.3.2
harmful property, indicating on petition, 7.3.2
incidental property, defined, 11.6.1.2.2.4
joint, see JOINT PROPERTY
liquidation, see LIQUIDATION
listing in schedules, 7.3.7.2
loss in bankruptcy, 6.2.2.2
possession, see POSSESSION
protection from unsecured creditors, 6.2.1.2
reclamation, see RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY
recovery after transfer avoidance, 10.4.2.8
right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
transfers, see POSTPETITION TRANSFERS; PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
turnover to trustee, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
valuation, see VALUATION
willful and malicious injury, dischargeability, 15.4.3.6
PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
see MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
PUBLIC BENEFITS
see also BENEFITS REPLACING WAGES; FARM BENEFITS; SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS; WELFARE BENEFITS
discharge protections, 15.5.5.4
federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
overpayments, dischargeability, 15.4.3.2.3.3
PUBLIC UTILITIES
see UTILITY SERVICES
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
automatic stay violations, 9.6.2
notice requirements, 9.6.3.3
discharge rights, violations, 15.5.5.7
dischargeability, 15.4.3.6, 18.5.4.2.1
PURCHASE AND SALE AGREEMENTS
pending, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
see also SECURED CREDITORS; SECURITY INTERESTS
chapter 13 filing
adequate protection payments, 4.3, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
recent purchases, 11.6.1.4
timing considerations, 6.5.3.5
QUALIFIED EDUCATION LOANS
see also STUDENT LOANS
defined, 15.4.3.8.1
dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.1
REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENTS
see also CONSUMER DEBTS
agreement, necessity, 15.5.2.1
attorneys, validation, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.7
best interests test, 15.5.2.6
consequences, 8.8.2
court approval, 8.8.2, 8.8.3, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.6
chapter 7, 3.6
chapter 13, 4.8
debtors not represented by attorneys, 3.6, 8.4.4, 8.8.1, 15.5.2.4
disadvantages, 8.8.2
disclosure requirements, 15.5.2.2, 15.5.2.5
factors to be considered, 15.5.2.7
form, 15.5.2.3, 15.5.2.4
Official Form 427, Appx. D.3
sample forms, Appx. E.7, Appx. G.12
invalid agreements, 15.5.2.5
meeting of creditors, 8.4.4
payments, acceptance, 15.5.2.5
prepetition legal fees, 16.2.3
pressure from creditors, 8.4.4, 15.5.2.1, 15.5.2.5
protective provisions, 15.5.2.4
redemption as alternative, 11.5.5, 15.5.2.5
requirements, 15.5.2
sample pleadings, Appx. G.12
secured debts, 11.5.4
statement of intention, 3.5, 7.3.11
student loans, 15.5.5.2
undue hardship
presumption, 15.5.2.4
test, 15.5.2.6
REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (RESPA)
actions under, attorney fees, 16.5.3
mortgage errors
annual escrow account review, 14.4.3.4.2
informal discovery, 14.4.3.4.1
REAL PROPERTY
see also PROPERTY
chapter 13 cramdown
application, 11.6.1.2.1
right to cure default, 11.6.2
chapter 13, sales under, 12.6.5
in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2, 9.7.3.1.5
leasehold interests, see UNEXPIRED LEASES
lien enforcement, automatic stay exception, 9.3.3.6, 9.4.6.5
listing in schedule, Sch. A/B Part 1, 7.3.7.2.1
pending sale agreements, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
postpetition transfers, 10.4.2.6.6
security interests, see MORTGAGES
valuation, 5.3.4, 11.2.2.3.3
date, 11.2.2.2.2
timing of petition, 6.5.3.8
RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY
see also REPOSSESSION
complaints seeking, 8.3.10
family farmer plans, provision in, 17.5.9
postpetition actions by secured creditors, 11.3.2
RECORDS
claims by creditors, inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.5
failure to keep, denial of discharge, 15.2.2.3
RECOUPMENT CLAIMS
raising, 14.3.2.4
setoffs, effect, 10.4.2.6.7
REDEMPTION OF PROPERTY
see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
REFINANCING
chapter 13 cases, during, 12.6.6
RELIEF FROM STAY
see AUTOMATIC STAY
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY AND CHARITABLE DONATION PROTECTION ACT
see also CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
donations after bankruptcy, 1.1.2.6, 12.3.4.4.5
protection for donations, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
bankruptcy, effect, 11.8
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2, 7.3.7.3.2, 7.3.7.4
REORGANIZATIONS
chapter 11, see CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
chapter 12, see CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
chapter 13, see CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
term of art, 2.2
REPOSSESSION
see also POSSESSION; RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
automatic turnover, application, 9.9.2
chapter 13 filing to prevent, 6.3.3
discharge, after, validity, 15.5.3
personal property, threats, 8.4.3
postpetition by secured creditors, 11.3.2, 11.4.2.8, 11.5.4
preference, status as, 10.4.2.6.4.3
RES JUDICATA
automatic stay litigation, application, 9.7.3.1.5
chapter 12 plans, provisions minimizing, 17.5.9
chapter 13 plans, confirmation as, 9.7.3.2.2, 12.7, 12.11
claims, failure to object, effect, 14.4.3.1
dischargeability issues, 15.4.2, 15.4.3.20, 15.4.4, 18.5.4.2.3
RESEARCH AIDS
see also PRACTICE TIPS
bibliography, Bibliography
citator, 1.5.6
computer-assisted research, 1.5.7
information gathering, 5.3.4
legislative history, 1.5.1
NCLC resources, 1.3.4, 1.3.5
periodicals, 1.5.5
reporting services, 1.5.4
rules advisory committee notes, 1.5.2
sources of law, 1.4
treatises and texts, 1.5.3
NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
NCLC treatises, 1.3
RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
see also EVICTIONS; UNEXPIRED LEASES
automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.6, 9.7.3.2.4
bankruptcy of landlord
liability of secured creditors, 18.5.7
maintaining services, 18.5.7, 18.8.2
preventing evictions, 18.8.4
security deposits, 18.8.5
tenant ownership, 18.8.3
discharge protections, 15.5.5.3
homestead exemption, 10.2.2.6
judgment for possession, prepetition
chapter 13 plan confirmation, effect, 12.9.2
indication on petition, 7.3.2
stay exemption, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
RESTITUTION DEBTS
see also DAMAGES; FINES AND PENALTIES
automatic stay, 9.4.6.2
avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.3
criminal proceedings, status, 9.4.6.2, 15.5.1.1
discharge protections, 15.5.5.5
dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.6, 15.4.3.7, 15.4.3.12, 15.5.1.1
RETIREMENT FUNDS
see PENSIONS
RETURNS
defined, 15.4.3.1.1
tax returns, see TAX RETURNS
RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
agreements regarding, court review, 8.3.7.1, 11.5.5, 15.5.2.5
automatic stay, effect, 8.3.7.1, 9.4.3
chapter 12
plan provisions, 17.5.9
rights, 17.4.3.5.5
enforcement, 8.3.7.1
limits on right, 11.5.2
listing property as exempt, 7.3.7.2.3
payment in installments, 11.5.3, 11.5.4
personal property, 8.3.7.1
purpose, 11.5.1
reaffirmation alternative, 11.5.5, 15.5.2.5
statement of intention, 7.3.11
stipulated settlements, 8.3.7.1
time limits, 8.3.7.1
uses in practice, 11.5.5
RIGHT TO CURE
amount required, 11.6.2.7
chapter 12, 17.4.3.5.5, 17.5.4.2
chapter 13, 11.6.2
current payments outside plan, 11.6.2.6
effect of cure, 11.6.2.8.1
effectuating cure, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.6
executory contracts, 12.9.2
final payment, notice, 11.6.2.8.2.6
form, Appx. E.14
interest on arrears, 11.6.2.7.2
land installment sales, 11.6.2
long-term debts, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
modification status, 11.6.1.2.3
mortgages after acceleration, 11.6.2.2, 11.6.2.3
mortgages maturing before end of plan, 11.6.2.3
principal residence, 11.6.1.2.3, 11.6.2
reasonable time, 11.6.2.5
Rule 3002.1, use, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.6
unexpired leases, 12.9.2
RULE 2004 EXAMINATIONS
see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
circumstances, 8.3.15.2
consumers as creditors, 18.5.8
failure to conduct, effect, 8.3.15.2
scope, 8.3.15.2
subpoena, Appx. E.9.1
RULE 3001
see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
proof of claim, documentation, 14.4.3.5
escrow account statement, 14.4.3.4.2
mortgage creditors, 11.6.2.8.2.2
sanctions, 16.5.5.2
RULE 3002.1
see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
background, 14.4.3.4.6
fee dispute procedure, 11.6.2.8.2.5
major mortgage servicers, compliance settlement, 11.6.2.8.2.8
notice of postpetition fees, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.4
notice of final cure payment, 11.6.2.8.2.6
notice of payment change, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.3
overview, 11.6.2.8.2.1
sanctions, 11.6.2.8.2.7, 14.4.3.4.1, 16.5.5.2
RULE 9011
see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
attorney certifications, 16.7.2.3, 16.7.2.4
overview, 16.7.1
sanctions
attorneys, against, 16.7.2.2
creditors, against, 16.5.5.1
debtors, against, 16.7.2.1
RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
SCHEDULES
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
amending, 8.3.2
annotations, Appx. D.2
attorney certification, 16.7.2.4
audits, 8.3.15.1
chapter 12, 17.2.3.1
codebtors, Sch. H, 7.3.7.5
creditor information, 7.3.7.3
general unsecured debts, Sch. E/F Part 2, 7.3.7.3.4
priority debts, Sch. E/F Part 1, 7.3.7.3.3
secured debts, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
debtor’s property, 7.3.7.2
exempt property, Sch. C, 7.3.7.2.3
personal property, Sch. A/B Parts 2–7, 7.3.7.2.2
real property, Sch. A/B Part 1, 7.3.7.2.1
declaration of truth, 7.3.7.7
SCHEDULES (cont.)
executory contracts, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
expenses, Sch. J, 7.3.7.6
failure to file, dismissal of case, 13.3.1, 13.3.2
generally, 7.3.7
income, Sch. I, 7.3.7.6
Official Form 106, 7.3.7, Appx. D.2
overview, 7.3.7.1
sample completed schedules, Appx. D.2
summary of schedules, 7.3.7.8
unexpired leases, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
SECTION 341(a) MEETING OF CREDITORS
see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
SECURED CLAIMS
see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
SECURED CREDITORS
see also CREDITORS; SECURITY INTERESTS
allowed secured claims, see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
avoidance of liens and transfers, 8.3.6, 10.4.2
bankruptcy clauses, validity, 11.5.4, 15.5.3
chapter 7 distribution, 3.5.4
chapter 12 reorganizations
adequate protection, 17.4.4.3, 17.4.11
classification, 17.5.6.4
good faith test, 17.5.7.1
treatment, 17.5.4
chapter 13 cramdown
adequate protection, 4.3, 11.6.1.3.3.2
limits on, 11.6.1.2
modification of rights, 11.6.1
payment, 7.3.12.3, 7.3.12.5
standards under plan, 11.6.1.3
dealing with
bankruptcy tools, 6.2.1.3
generally, 11.1
determination, 12.2.3.1
gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
listing in schedule, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
postpetition actions
abandonment by trustee, 11.3.3
automatic stay, relief, 9.7
cash collateral, holding, 11.3.5
disposition by trustee, 11.3.4
reclamation of property, 11.3.2
redemption by debtor, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
statement of debtor’s intentions, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
SECURED DEBTS
see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS; SECURITY INTERESTS
SECURED PROPERTY
see COLLATERAL
SECURITIES VIOLATIONS
debts arising from, dischargeability, 15.4.3.18
SECURITIZED LOANS
automatic stay relief, 9.7.3.1.1
lender bankruptcy, effect, 18.9.5
proof of claim, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
SECURITY DEPOSITS
landlord bankruptcy, recovery, 18.8.5
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
SECURITY INTERESTS
see also COLLATERAL; LIENS; REPOSSESSIONS; SECURED CREDITORS
allowed secured claims, see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
avoidance, see AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
bankruptcy clauses, 11.5.4
bifurcation, 11.7
chapter 7, 11.2.1.2
chapter 12, 11.2.1.3, 17.5.3
chapter 13, 11.2.1.3, 12.2.3.1
cash collateral, see CASH COLLATERAL
chapter 12
automatic dissolution, 17.4.3.4
avoidance, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
determination, 17.5.3
chapter 13 cramdown, 11.6
chapter 13 limitations, 12.2.3.1
cross-collateral clauses, 15.5.3
definition, 10.4.2.6.4.3, 11.6.1.2.2.6
elimination, various means, 11.1
enforcement after discharge, 15.5.1.4, 15.5.2, 15.5.3
gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
hardship discharges, effect, 4.7.2
listing as exempt in schedule, 7.3.7.2.3
listing in schedule, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
partial encumbrances, 3.5.4
personal property
adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
“retain and pay” option, 11.4.2
validity, 8.4.3
preferences, see PREFERENCES
purchase money, see PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
real property, see MORTGAGES
redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
spreader clauses, 15.5.3
statement of intention regarding, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
SERVICE
bankruptcy proceedings, 14.3.2.1
SERVICERS
abuses, 14.4.3.4
sanctions, 16.5.5.1, 16.5.5.2
Rule 3002.1 requirements, 11.6.2.8.2
voluntary loan modifications, 11.6.1.5
SETOFFS
see also COUNTERCLAIMS
allowed secured claims, 11.2.1
automatic stay, effect, 9.4.4
avoidance, 10.4.2.6.7
bank setoff rights, 11.3.5
bank account freezes, 9.4.4, 11.3.5
gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
chapter 12, government creditors, 17.4.12
governmental units, 14.3.2.2
lender bankruptcies, 18.9.4
mutual debts, 10.4.2.6.7, 17.4.12
post discharge, 10.5
recoupment claims, 10.4.2.6.7, 14.3.2.4
right to, 10.4.2.6.7, 17.4.12
tax claims, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8, 17.4.12
SETTLEMENT
prepetition attempts, effect on creditor’s claim, 14.4.3.6
SMALL BUSINESSES
chapter 11 reorganizations, 18.7.10
SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
see also PUBLIC BENEFITS
current monthly income, exclusion, 13.4.3.2.7
discharge protections, 15.5.5.4
federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
overpayments, dischargeability, 15.4.3.2.3.3
wage orders, attachment, 12.6.1
SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
bankruptcy petition, on, 7.1.5, 7.3.2
production at meeting of creditors, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
statement re, see STATEMENT ABOUT YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY
attorney fee awards, relationship, 16.5.7
Bankruptcy Code, abrogation, 1.1.2.4, 9.6.6, 14.3.2.2
stripdown not violation of, 11.2.1.1
Tucker Act, application, 14.3.2.2
SPENDTHRIFT TRUSTS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2
SPOUSES
see also CODEBTORS; JOINT BANKRUPTCIES; JOINT PROPERTY
chapter 13 eligibility, 4.2.1.2, 6.3.2, 12.2.2
considerations favoring chapter 7, 6.3.2
financial management course, completion, 8.3.3
fraudulent actions, liability of debtor, 15.4.3.2.2.2
income, treatment for bankruptcy purposes, 13.4.3.2.3
joint filings, considerations, 6.4
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.5
marital property settlements, see MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
prior filing by, effect, 9.3.3.2.1, 9.3.3.3, 12.10.3
statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8
support obligations, see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
SPREADER CLAUSES
validity, 15.5.3
STANDING
prepetition causes of action, 14.3.2.6.2
securitized debts, 9.7.3.1.1, 14.4.3.4.7
STATE EXEMPTIONS
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
choosing, 10.2.1
advantages, 10.2.1.1
domiciliary requirements, 10.2.1.2
exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
farmers, 17.4.3.1
federal modification, 10.2.3.1
homestead exemptions, 10.2.3.4
joint property, 10.2.3.2
property not subject to process, 10.2.3.2
retirement funds, 10.2.3.3
summaries, Appx. J
STATEMENT ABOUT BANKRUPTCY ASSISTANCE SERVICES
required statement, 16.8.3.3
STATEMENT ABOUT YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
chapter 7, 3.4
chapter 13, 4.4
emergency bankruptcies, 7.2.2
filing, 7.2.1, 7.3.2, 7.3.3
privacy issues, 7.1.5, 7.3.3
Official Form 121, Appx. D.2
STATEMENT OF ATTORNEY COMPENSATION
form, Appx. E.6
requirement, 16.3.2
STATEMENT OF CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS; CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
amendments to, 8.3.2
filing, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
Official Form 122, Appx. D.2
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS; FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
amendments to, 8.3.2
filing, 7.2.1
generally, 7.3.8
Official Form 107, Appx. D.2
STATEMENT OF INTENTION
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
amendments to, 8.3.2
conversion from chapter 13, 4.7.4
filing requirement, 7.2.1
generally, 7.3.11, 11.4
Official Form 108, Appx. D.2
performance, 3.5, 11.4.1
retention of property, 11.4.2
lien avoidance, 10.4.2.4
STATEMENT OF MILITARY SERVICE
see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
form, Appx. E.5
STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF CERTAIN LIABILITIES
required form, 7.3.7.8
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
see also TIME LIMITS
avoidance actions, 10.4.2.2, 10.4.2.7
bankruptcy stay violations, 9.6.2
fraudulent conveyances, 10.4.2.6.5
recovery actions, 10.4.2.2, 10.4.2.8
student loans, 15.4.3.8.2
tax reach backs, 6.5.3.4
TIL claims, 14.4.4
tolling, 10.4.2.7
STATUTORY LIENS
see also LIENS
avoidance, 10.4.2.6.3
chapter 13 cramdown, application, 11.6.1.2.2.6
preferences, exception, 10.4.2.6.4.2
valuation of property, 11.2.2.3.4
STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
see AUTOMATIC STAY
STRAIGHT BANKRUPTCY
see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
STRIPDOWN
see also CRAMDOWN
chapter 13 plans, 11.2.1.3, 11.2.2
government claims, 11.2.1.1
limitations on, 11.6.1.2
non-recourse loans, 11.2.1.2
STUDENT LOANS
administrative discharge, 15.4.3.8.3, 15.4.3.8.4
chapter 13 classification, 12.4.3
chapter 13 issues, 15.4.3.8.5
defenses, raising, 15.4.3.8.4
dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.8
chapter 7, 3.6
chapter 13, 4.8
procedure, 15.4.3.8.3
discharge issues
discharge protections, 15.5.5.2
hardship discharge, 15.4.3.8.2.2, 15.4.3.8.3
related provisions, Appx. A.4.4
gathering information regarding, 5.3.4
HEAL debts, 15.4.3.8.6
listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
nonbankruptcy alternatives, 15.4.3.8.4
qualified education loans, defined, 15.4.3.8.1
reaffirmation agreements, 15.5.5.2
related provisions, Appx. A.3, Appx. A.4.4
SUBPOENAS
forms, Appx. E.9
SUBSTANTIAL ABUSE
see also ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
standard changed, 13.4.7.2
SUBSTANTIVE CONSOLIDATION
joint bankruptcy, differences, 6.4
SUMMARY OF SCHEDULES
required form, 7.3.7.8
SUMMONS
forms, Appx. E.8
SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
TAX CLAIMS
see also GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
allowed secured claims, 11.2.1.1
automatic stay
effect, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8
violations, 9.6.6
burden of proof, 14.4.3.3
chapter 12 dispositions, 17.5.5.4
chapter 13 classification, 12.3.6.1, 12.4.3
dischargeability, 15.4.3.1
analyzing to determine, 15.4.3.1.2
chapter 13, 4.8, 15.4.3.1.1
generally, 7.3.7.3.3, 15.4.3.1.1
reach back periods, 6.5.3.4
federal taxes paid by credit card, 15.4.3.13
government claims, status as, 15.4.3.1.1
listing in schedules, 7.3.7.3.3
litigating in bankruptcy court, 14.3.2.3
means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.3
objections to, 14.4.3.2
priority status, 7.3.7.3.3, 17.5.5.4
proof of claim, filing, time, 14.4.3.2
set-off rights
automatic stay, application, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8
chapter 12, 17.4.12
TAX CONSEQUENCES
discharge, 15.5.5.6
TAX CREDITS
bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.5
federal exemption, application, 10.2.2.11
TAX INFORMATION
obtaining from IRS, 15.4.3.1.2, Appx. H.2
privacy protection, 8.3.4.3
disclosure by trustee, 8.3.4.1
judicial policies, 1.4.4.2, Appx. C.1.1
returns, see TAX RETURN
TAX LIENS
avoidance, 10.4.2.6.3
TAX REFUNDS
assignment for attorney fees, 2.5.5
bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 2.5.5, 7.3.7.2.2
chapter 13 plan issues, 12.3.4.4.3, 12.3.4.4.5
expected, effect on waiver of filing fee, 14.6.2.1
intercepts
automatic stay, application, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8
avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.3
TAX RETURNS
see also TAX INFORMATION
chapter 13 prerequisite, 4.3, 8.3.14, 12.3.6.2
failure to file, effect, 13.3.1, 15.4.3.1.1
obtaining, Appx. H.2
production, 8.3.4
court, filing with, 8.3.4.2
privacy concerns, 1.4.4.2, 8.3.4.3, Appx. C.1.1
trustee and creditors, to, 8.3.4.1
source of information, 5.3.4
TENANTS
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES; UNEXPIRED LEASES
evictions, see EVICTIONS
landlord bankruptcies, see LANDLORD BANKRUPTCIES
TIME LIMITS
see also STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
appeals, 2.4.3, 14.9.5
attorney fee applications, 15.4.3.2.4
automatic stay litigation, 9.7.2
avoidance of liens, 10.4.2.2
bankruptcy petition preparers, disclosures, 16.6
chapter 7, 3.3
chapter 11 plans, 18.7.9
chapter 12 reorganizations
generally, 17.5.2
plan proposals, 17.5.2
revocation of discharge, 17.7.3
unexpired farmland leases, assumption, 17.4.7.5
chapter 13 reorganizations
claims and objections, 4.3
commencement of plan payments, 8.3.12
dischargeability, raising, 15.4.2, 18.5.4.2.2
emergency bankruptcies, filings, 7.2.2
exempt property, 6.5.2.2
amending claim, 10.3.2
dependent claims, 10.3.1
extensions, 7.3.13.5
financial management course, 8.3.3
fraudulent conveyances, 6.5.2.1
jury trials, filing of consents, 14.2.7
objections to claims, 8.3.9, 8.4.6, 14.4.3.1
objections to discharge, 3.3, 15.2.1
objections to exemptions, 3.3, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
preferences, 6.5.2.1
proof of claim
consumers as creditors, 18.4.1
filing, 3.3, 14.4.3.2, 15.4.3.3
filing by debtor, 8.4.6
redemption of personal property, 8.3.7.1
removal to bankruptcy court, 14.4.1.2
small business reorganizations, 18.7.10
stated intentions, following through, 7.3.11
statement of compensation, filing, 16.3.2
statement of intention, filing, 7.3.11, 11.4.1
tax intercept, 9.4.4
utility services, adequate assurance, 9.8.2
TITLE PAWNS
bankruptcy, effect, 11.9
TOOLS OF THE TRADE
family farmers
exemption, 17.4.3.2
redemption, 17.4.3.5.5
federal exemption, 10.2.2.7
livestock, status as, 17.4.3.2
non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
TORT CLAIMS
see also PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS; WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS
bankruptcy court, jurisdiction, 14.2.6, 14.5.2
dischargeability, 15.4.3.6, 18.5.4.2.1, 18.5.4.4
undiscovered prepetition, 18.5.4.4
TRANSCRIPTS
educational institutions, discharge protections, 15.5.5.2
IRS, 15.4.3.1.2
TRANSFERS
avoidance, see AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
donations, see CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
fraudulent, see FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS
postpetition, see POSTPETITION TRANSFERS
prebankruptcy, see PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES
means test deduction, 13.4.5.2.4
IRS standard, Appx. I.2.4
TRUST FUNDS
see also TRUSTS
bankruptcy estate
exempt from, 18.5.2.1
existence of trust, 18.5.2.2
tracing trust funds, 18.5.2.3
constructive trusts, 18.5.2.2
self-settled trusts, avoidance of transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
TRUSTEES
see also TRUSTS
bankruptcy trustees, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
chapter 7 filings, restrictions, 3.2.1.1, 6.2.2.8.1
fraud by, discharge bar, 15.4.3.4, 15.4.3.11, 18.5.4.2.1
U.S. trustee, see UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
see also UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
appointment and duties, 2.6
automatic stay, motions for relief, party, 9.7.3.1.1
automatic turnover of property to, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
avoidance powers
fraudulent transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
liens securing penalties, 10.4.2.6.8
postpetition transfers, 10.4.2.6.6
preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.1, 10.4.2.6.4.2
preservation of property, 10.4.2.9
setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
statutory liens, 10.4.2.6.3
strong-arm clause, 10.4.2.6.2
best practices, Appx. H.5
chapter 7 liquidations
abandonment of property, 3.5, 8.3.11, 11.3.3, 18.8.2.1
administration of property, 3.5, 14.3.2.6.2
compensation surcharge, 7.2.1
disposition of property, 11.3.4
disputes, powers, 3.4
distribution to creditors, 3.5.4
final report, 3.5.4
interim trustee, appointment, 3.3
liquidation of estate, 3.5.2
objections, 8.5
oral examination of debtor, 3.4
unpaid compensation, payment in chapter 13, 12.4.5
chapter 11, appointment, 18.7.4
chapter 12 reorganizations
additional to DIP, 17.3.1
appointment, 17.4.1.1
compensation, 17.4.1.2
plan payments through, 17.4.1.2.1, 17.5.7.3, 17.5.9
removal of DIP, operation of farm, 17.3.2, 17.4.1.3
role and standing, 17.4.1.1
chapter 13 reorganizations
appointment, 4.3
charges, adjustments, 12.6.4
commission, amount, 6.2.2.6
commission, payment under plan, 7.3.12.3, 11.6.1.3.3.6
dismissal, effect, 13.6
fees, priority claim, 12.3.6.1
form plans, promulgation, 7.3.12.2
income payments to, 12.6.1
objections to claims, 4.4
oral examination of debtor, 4.4
plans, administration, 4.4, 8.7.1
secured creditors, standing regarding, 11.6.1.3.3.6
standing trustee, 2.6, 4.3
document production requests, 8.4.2, Appx. H.5
meeting of creditors, powers, 8.4.3
oral examination of chapter 7 debtor, 8.4.5
minimum commission, 7.3.12.3
motion to dismiss, costs, 16.7.2.1
objections to exemptions, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
prepetition causes of action, administration, 14.3.2.6.2
property recovered by, exemption claim, 10.4.2.5
tax returns, provision to, 8.3.4.1
TRUSTS
see also TRUST FUNDS; TRUSTEES
bankruptcy petitions, restrictions on filing, 3.2.1.1, 6.2.2.8.1
constructive trusts, see CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS
spendthrift trusts, see SPENDTHRIFT TRUSTS
TRUTH IN LENDING CLAIMS
attorney fees, 16.5.3
automatic stay issues, 9.7.3.3.2, 18.9.2
bankruptcy court, bringing before, 14.4.4
TUCKER ACT
sovereign immunity application, 14.3.2.2
TURNOVER OF PROPERTY
see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
TYPING SERVICES
see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; NON-ATTORNEYS
UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE OF LAW
non-attorney operations, 16.6
UNEXPIRED LEASES
see also EVICTION; RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
adequate protection, 12.8.2.2
assumption
chapter 7, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5.3
chapter 12, 17.4.7.1, 17.4.7.5
chapter 13, 12.9.2, 12.9.4
automatic stay relief
personal property leases, 12.9.4, 12.9.5.2
residential leases, 9.7.3.2.4
chapter 12, assumption or rejection, 17.4.7
equipment leases, 17.4.7.4
farmland rental agreements, 17.4.7.5
chapter 13 plans
adequate protection, 12.8.2.2
assumption, 12.9.2
classification, 12.4.3
payments, 12.8.3
procedure and tactics, 12.9.4
proof of insurance, 12.8.4
rejection, 12.9.3.2
default, curing, 12.9.2
discharge protections, 15.5.5.3
listing
filing of list, 7.3.4
schedule, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
personal property leases
automatic stay relief, 12.9.4, 12.9.5.2
chapter 7, assumption or rejection, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5
chapter 12, assumption or rejection, 17.4.7.1, 17.4.7.4
chapter 13, assumption or rejection, 12.9
chapter 13 payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2, 12.8.3
deemed rejection, 12.9.5.2
proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
statement of intention, 7.3.11, 11.4
rejection
chapter 7, 12.9.5.2
chapter 12, 17.4.7.1, 17.4.7.4
chapter 13, 12.9.3, 12.9.4
rent-to-own transactions, see RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
residential leases, 9.7.3.2.4
UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES
attorney fee awards, 16.5.3
automatic stay violations, 9.6.5
non-attorney services, 16.3.3, 16.6
non-possessory, non-purchase money liens, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
security deposit misappropriation, 18.8.5
UNITED STATES CODE
selected provisions, Appx. A.2, Appx. A.3
title 11, see BANKRUPTCY CODE
UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
see also TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
approved financial management courses, 8.3.3
attorney fees, monitoring, 16.3.1, 16.3.3, 16.4.2
best practices directives, 2.6, Appx. H.5
chapter 11, role, 18.7.2.3, 18.7.4.7
function, generally, 2.7
helpful resources, Appx. H.3
institution of system, 1.1.2.3, 1.5.1.3
motion for dismissal, bringing, 13.4
phase-in of operation, 1.4.1
regulations, 1.4.4.2, Appx. C.2
related provisions, Appx. A.4.3
trustees in bankruptcy, appointment, 2.6
UNSECURED CREDITORS
see also CREDITORS
bankruptcy as protection from, 6.2.1.2
chapter 12 plans, 17.5.5
classification, 17.5.6.3
disposable income commitment, 17.5.5.3
good faith test, 17.5.7.1
liquidation test, 17.5.5.2
chapter 13 plans, 12.3
best interests test, 7.3.12.3, 7.3.12.5, 12.3.2
classification, 12.4
objections, 12.3.4.2
determination, 12.2.3.1
discharge, effect on, 15.5.1
listing in schedule, Sch. E/F Part 2, 7.3.7.3.4
priority creditors, see PRIORITY UNSECURED CREDITORS
UTILITY SERVICES
adequate assurance of payment, 9.8.2
denial of service, restrictions, 9.8.1
governmental utilities, 9.8.2.2.5
landlord bankruptcy
maintaining service, 18.5.7, 18.8.2
taxing of secured creditor, 18.5.3
means test deduction, 13.4.5.2.5
IRS standards, Appx. I.2.3
postpetition shut-offs, 9.8.2.2.4
reinstatement, 9.8.1, 9.8.2
sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G.6
VALUATION
allowed secured claims
appraisal, necessity, 11.2.2.3.4
chapter 12 reorganizations, 17.5.3
conversion from chapter 13 to 7, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
date, 11.2.2.2
VALUATION (cont.)
exempt property, inclusion, 11.2.2.3.4
generally, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
method, 11.2.2.3
present value, 11.6.1.3.3.1, 11.6.1.3.3.6
causes of action, 7.3.7.2.2
equity in property
exemption claims, 10.3.3
stay litigation, 9.7.3.3.1
exempt property, 10.1.2, 10.3.3
motor vehicles, 5.3.4, 11.2.2.3.2
personal property, 7.3.7.2.2, 11.2.2.3.3
converted cases, 13.7.2
date, 11.2.2.2.2
replacement value, 11.2.2.3.1
private market value, 11.2.2.3.2
real property, 5.3.4, 7.3.7.2.1
date, 11.2.2.2.2
timing of petition, 6.5.3.8
replacement cost, 11.2.2.3.1, 11.2.2.3.2
right of redemption, 11.5.5
web resources, 5.3.4
VENUE
bankruptcy matters, 3.2.3, 14.3.2.1
VETERANS
see also MILITARY PERSONNEL
disabled veterans, means test exemption, 13.4.4
VOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
see also BANKRUPTCY; INVOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
consumers as creditors, preparing for, 18.2.1
defined, 2.1
petitions, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
WAGE GARNISHMENTS
avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.2, 10.4.2.6.4.3
WAGE ORDERS
chapter 13 cases, 8.3.12, 12.6.1
WAGES
administrative expense status, 18.7.12.2
priority claims, 18.7.12.2
withholding for retirement fund loans
automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.4
disposable income exclusion, 12.3.4.4.2.4
WAIVER
credit counseling requirement, 3.2.1.4
default, see RIGHT TO CURE
filing fees, 6.2.2.6, 14.6, 18.6.2
see also IN FORMA PAUPERIS
application for, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4
chapter 7, 1.4.4.2, 14.6.2.1, Appx. C.1.2
chapter 12, 17.2.3.3
consumers as creditors, 18.6.2
general principles, 14.6.1
Official Form 103B, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4, Appx. D.2
statutory authority, 14.6.2
financial management course, 8.3.3
setoff rights, 10.4.2.6.7
WEB RESOURCES
see also COMPUTERIZATION; RESEARCH AIDS
bankruptcy court documents, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
bankruptcy forms, 1.3.4, 1.4.3, 7.1.2
bankruptcy research, 1.5.7
bankruptcy, understanding, 6.1.2
helpful websites, Appx. L
NCLC resources, 1.3.2, 1.3.4
PACER, 2.4.1, 5.3.4, Appx. C.4
pleadings, 1.3.4
practice tools, 1.3.4
primary sources, 1.3.4
valuation issues, 5.3.4
WELFARE BENEFITS
see also PUBLIC BENEFITS
discharge protections, 15.5.5.4
federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
WRONGFUL CONDUCT
homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS
see also PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS
bankruptcy court
jurisdiction, 14.2.6
mandatory abstention, application, 14.5.2
drunk driving, dischargeability, 15.4.3
YOUR STATEMENT ABOUT YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
see STATEMENT ABOUT YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS