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ABUSIVE PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
CFPB standards, 3.2.4
application of standards, examples, 3.2.4.4, 3.2.4.5, 3.2.4.6
supervision and examination manual, 3.5
deceptive practices distinguished, 3.2.5
definition, 3.2.4.1
financial products or services, 3.2.4
credit card promotional offers, 3.4.5
unfair practices distinguished, 3.2.5
ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.9
ACCOUNT INFORMATION
see also PREACQUIRED ACCOUNT INFORMATION
obtaining or disclosing, limits on, 5.4.2
unauthorized use, 5.4.3, 5.4.4
ACTIONS
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
consumers, preservation, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
False Claims Act, 9.3–9.7
limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
RICO, see RICO ACTIONS
TCPA litigation, 6.9
telemarketing fraud, 5.6–5.7
tort claims, see TORT CLAIMS
venue, see VENUE
ADD-ON PRODUCTS
credit cards, CFPB guidance, 3.4.4
ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; REGULATORY BODIES; STATE ENFORCEMENT
exhaustion, RICO actions, necessity, 8.6.1
ADVANCE FEES
credit repair services, 5.5.2
loans and credit fees, 5.5.1
“recovery rooms,” 5.5.3
ADVERTISEMENTS
deceptive, see MISLEADING ADVERTISING
disclosures, see DISCLOSURE
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
telephone sales based on, 5.2.2
unsolicited advertising
see also TELEMARKETING
defined, 6.8.2.1, 6.8.2.2
faxes, see JUNK FAXES
prerecorded calls to cell phones, 6.3.4.1
text messages, see TEXT MESSAGES
AGREEMENTS
see CONTRACTS
AIDING AND ABETTING
FTC Holder Notice omission, 4.4.5
mail fraud, 7.3.2.4
RICO liability, 7.4.6.4
TCPA violations, 6.9.2.7
telemarketing fraud, 5.7.4, 5.7.5
ANNUITIES
see also INSURANCE
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.6
ANTI-TRUST LAWS
federal laws, 11.1.1
state laws, 11.1.2
ARBITRATION
False Claims Act claims, 9.5
whistleblower retaliation claims, 9.9.2
TCAP claims, 9.11.2
TSR claims, 5.7.5
ARTIFICIAL VOICE MESSAGES
see PRERECORDED MESSAGES
ASSIGNEES
see also ASSIGNMENTS
ECOA liability, 4.3.8.2
federal preemption, application, 4.4.6
holder-in-due-course status, 4.1.2.1, 4.1.2.4
home-secured loans, 4.2.2.3
lender-related claims and defenses, liability, 4.1.2.4
misconduct by, liability, 4.1.2.4
securitized debt, 4.3.9
seller-related claims and defenses, liability
FTC Holder Rule, 4.1.2.1, 4.2.2.3, 4.3.1
lessors, 4.1.2.5
other liability theories, 4.4
TILA liability, 4.3.8.1
ASSIGNMENTS
see also ASSIGNEES
direct loans, 4.1.2.4
door-to-door sales contracts, 2.5.6.4
installment sales contracts, 4.1.2.1
wage assignments, see WAGE ASSIGNMENTS
ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES (ALFs)
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.4
ASSOCIATIONS IN FACT
RICO defendants, 7.4.2
ATTACHMENT
see PROCESS
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
RICO actions, 7.9.3
state actions, 8.6.3
telemarketing violation actions, 5.6.1.1
ATTORNEYS
CFPB rulemaking authority, scope, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
debt relief schemes, participation, 10.7.3, 10.8.2
fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 10.5.2.1–10.5.2.4
practice tips, see PRACTICE TIPS
RICO liability, 7.5.4
AUTO-DIALED TELEPHONE CALLS
see also TELEMARKETING
abandoned calls, 6.6.3
cell phone restrictions, 6.3
debt collection calls, 6.3.4.2, 6.3.5
exemptions, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4
generally, 6.3.1, 6.3.2
liability, 6.9.2.4
private remedies, 6.3.6
scope, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2
consent by recipient, 6.3.4, 6.7.3
defined, 6.3.2
residential phone lines, 6.4.1
text messages, 6.7.2
exceptions, 6.7.3
remedies, 6.7.4
AUTOMOBILE LEASES
see also LEASING AGREEMENTS
debt relief scams, 10.1
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.3
AUTOMOBILE LOANS
see also LOANS
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.3
AUTOMOBILE REPOSSESSIONS
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.3
AUTOMOBILE SALES
FTC streamlined rulemaking authority regarding dealers, Appx. A.2.2
used cars, see USED CAR PRACTICES
BANK ACCOUNTS
see also BANKS
account information, see ACCOUNT INFORMATION
BANK LOANS
see FINANCIAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
BANKRUPTCY
credit counseling requirement, 10.1, 10.2.1.4
debt relief services, claims against in, 10.8.5, 10.8.6
debt settlement to avoid, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.2.2
BANKS
see also FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS; SAVINGS AND LOANS INSTITUTIONS
account information, see ACCOUNT INFORMATION
CFPB authority, 2.3.2, 3.8
financial products and services, see FINANCIAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
FRB guidance, 2.3.2
FTC rules, application, 2.2.2
Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.2
Holder Rule, 4.2.2.5
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.2.3.4
holder-in-due-course status, 4.1.2.6
state law, application, 4.4.6
telemarketing fraud, liability, 5.7.5
BILLING ERRORS
telemarketing fraud, 5.10.1
BOOK-OF-THE-MONTH CLUBS
see NEGATIVE OPTION PLANS
BREACH OF CONTRACT
debt relief services, 10.8.4
BROKERS
see LOAN BROKERS; MORTGAGE BROKERS
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
False Claims Act, 9.3.1
RICO actions, 7.8.3
state actions, 8.6.1
TCPA exceptions, 6.11.5
BURIAL SPACE
see FUNERAL HOMES
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
franchises, see FRANCHISES
FTC rule, see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY RULE (FTC)
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.3.2, 5.5.6
state law, 2.8.4
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
history, 2.8.1, 2.8.3.1
scope, 2.8.3.2
spam e-mail, application, 6.14.3.2
substantive requirements, 2.8.3.3
text, Appx. A.8
BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS
autodialed or prerecorded calls
cell phones or sensitive numbers, 6.3.4.5
residential phone lines, 6.4.2–6.4.4
do-not-call list exception, 6.5.2.3
junk fax exception, 6.8.2.3
BUSINESSES
see also CORPORATIONS; ENTERPRISES
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.3.3
racketeering activities, 7.3.2
small businesses, see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
BUYERS GUIDE (FTC USED CAR)
common violations, 2.4.3
conflicts with warranty provided, 2.4.5
requirements, 2.4.2
CABLE TELEVISION CONSUMER PROTECTION COMPETITION ACT
negative option billing, prohibition, 2.7
CANCELLATION RIGHTS
door-to-door sales
see also COOLING-OFF PERIODS
defective notice of cancellation, 2.5.6.3
FTC Rule, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
mechanics of three-day right, 2.5.6.1
notice of rights, 2.5.1, 2.5.6.3
services performed prior to cancellation, 2.5.6.2
state law, 2.5.2, 2.5.5, 2.5.6
telephone sales, 2.5.4.5, 5.9.2
TIL rescission, interrelation, 2.5.3, 2.5.4.8
CAN-SPAM ACT
see CONTROLLING THE ASSAULT OF NON-SOLICITED PORNOGRAPHY AND MARKETING ACT (CAN-SPAM)
CAN-SPAM RULE (FTC)
see also SPAM E-MAIL; TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
generally, 6.14.2.1
text, Appx. C.3.2
CAR LEASES
see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
CAR LOANS
see AUTOMOBILE LOANS
CAR SALES
see USED CAR SALES
CARRIERS
see COMMON CARRIERS
CASE LAW
see also RESEARCH AIDS
False Claims Act, 9.8
RICO consumer actions, 7.10
successful cases, 7.10.1
unsuccessful cases, 7.10.2
unreported cases, 1.4.4
CATALOG SALES
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.2
CAUSATION
RICO actions, 7.6.3
CELL PHONES
auto-dialed or prerecorded calls, 6.3
autodialer, definition, 6.3.2
consent requirements, 6.3.4, 6.7.3
exemptions, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4
investigating and documenting, 6.3.7
liability, 6.9.2.4
nature of prohibition, 6.3.1
private remedies, 6.3.6
scope of prohibition, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2
do-not-call lists, application, 6.5.2.2
provision of number as consent to calls, 6.3.4.2.3
reassigned numbers, 6.3.4.3
TCPA, application, 6.2.4.1
text messages, see TEXT MESSAGES
CHARGES
see CREDIT PRACTICES; FEES
CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS
see also NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
abandoned calls, 6.6.3
calling time restrictions, 6.6.4
do-not call lists, 6.5.1, 6.5.2.3
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule
application, 5.2.3.4, 6.2.2
misrepresentations, 5.5.8
prompt disclosures, 5.3.2, 5.5.8
pre-recorded calls
cell phones, 6.3.4.1
residential lines, 6.4.2–6.4.4
TCPA, application, 6.2.2, 6.2.4.2
CHATTELS
see GOODS OR SERVICES
CHECKLISTS
see PRACTICE TIPS
CHECKS
see also BANKS; NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
holders in due course, 4.1.2.6
stop payments, see STOP PAYMENTS
telechecks, see TELECHECKS
CIVIL PENALTIES
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
see CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
CIVIL SUITS
see ACTIONS
CLAIMS
see ACTIONS; PLEADINGS
CLASS ACTIONS
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.7
TCPA, 6.12.5
CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
unreported cases, 1.4.4
COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
RICO claims, application
defensive collateral estoppel, 7.8.5
offensive collateral estoppel, 7.8.4
COLLECTION ACTIVITIES
see DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
COLLEGES
see EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
COMBINES
see ANTI-TRUST LAWS
COMMERCIALS
see ADVERTISEMENTS
COMMON CARRIERS
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.5
COMMON LAW
fraud, see FRAUD
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
torts, see TORT CLAIMS
COMPANIES
see BUSINESSES; CORPORATIONS
COMPENSATION
see DAMAGES
COMPETITION
see ANTI-TRUST LAWS
COMPLAINTS
see also ACTIONS
FCC, to, 6.13
fraud complaints, FTC database, 5.10.2
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
COMPUTER FRAUD AND ABUSE ACT (CFAA)
consumer remedies, 11.6.3
overview, 11.6.1
prohibitions relevant to consumers, 11.6.2
text, Appx. L
CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT
prohibition
FTC Cooling-Off Period Rule, 2.5.6.4
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.4
CONSPIRACY
RICO violations, 7.5.5
CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.1
FTC Funeral Practices Rule, 2.9.1
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.2.3, 6.6.5
state laws
anti-spam laws, 6.14.4.3
debt relief laws, 10.7.4
funeral services licensing, 2.9.2
telemarketing, 5.9.4
TCPA, 6.2.4.3
CONSUMER AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; REGULATORY BODIES
CONSUMER CONTRACTS
see also CONTRACTS
credit contracts, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
door-to-door sales, see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
language requirements, 11.4
plain language statutes, 11.3
CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS
assignee subject to seller-related defenses, 4.1.2.1
definition, 4.2.2.4
FTC Cooling-Off Period Rule, 2.5.6.4
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3
application, 2.3.1
prohibitions, 2.3.4–2.3.8
violation, effect, 2.3.10
FTC Holder Notice
effect, 4.3
requirements, 4.2.2
mortgage loans, see MORTGAGE LOANS
negotiable instrument status, 4.1.2.1
waiver of defense clauses, 4.1.2.1
waiver of exemption clauses, 2.3.5
CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
see FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA); TRUTH IN LENDING (TIL) ACT
CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
constitutionality of appointments, 3.1.2
enforcement of CFPB rules
federal enforcement, 3.8
private enforcement, 3.7
state enforcement, 3.9
enforcement of FTC rules
generally, 2.2.6
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.6.3
limits on removal of director, 3.1.2
overview, 3.1.1
scope of chapter, 3.1.3
scope of rulemaking authority, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
scope of this treatise, 3.1.4
selected statutory provisions, Appx. B
state law relationship, 3.10
UDAAP guidance, 3.4
consumer debt collection, 3.4.2
credit card add-ons, 3.4.4
credit card promotional offers, 3.4.5
generally, 3.4.1
mortgage servicing for relocating military homeowners, 3.4.3
UDAAP standards, 3.2
abusive practices, 3.2.4
deception, 3.2.2
generally, 3.2.1
unfairness, 3.2.3
UDAAP supervision and examination manual, 3.5
CONSUMER GOODS
see HOUSEHOLD GOODS
CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS
anti-trust statutes, 11.1
CFPA, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
debt relief services, see DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
FTC rules, see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
non-English speakers, 11.4
plain language statutes, 11.3
TCPA, see TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (TCPA)
telemarketing fraud, see TELEMARKETING FRAUD
UDAP, see UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
unsolicited goods, 11.2
CONSUMER SENTINEL
FTC consumer fraud database, 5.10.2
CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS; CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
deceptive, see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
online, see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
unconscionable, see UNCONSCIONABLE PRACTICES
unfair, see UNFAIR PRACTICES
CONSUMERS
False Claims Act, use by, 9.1.1
RICO application, 7.10, 8.7
CONTESTS
see PRIZE PROMOTIONS
CONTRACT LAW
debt relief services, application, 10.8.4
CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS; CONTRACT LAW
breach of contract, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
cancellation, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS
credit contracts, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
government contracts, fraudulent claims, see FALSE CLAIMS ACT (FEDERAL)
language requirements, 11.4
plain language statutes, 11.3
rescission, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS
CONTROLLING THE ASSAULT OF NON-SOLICITED PORNOGRAPHY AND MARKETING ACT (CAN-SPAM)
see also SPAM E-MAIL
background, 6.14.1
enforcement, 6.14.2.2
FTC Rule, see CAN-SPAM RULE (FTC)
preemption of state law, 6.14.4.2, 6.14.5.1
remedies, 6.14.2.2
substantive prohibitions, 6.14.2.1
text, Appx. C.3.1
text messages, application, 6.7.1
COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
see also CANCELLATION RIGHTS; DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES; TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
consumer remedies, 2.5.7
mechanics of three-day cancellation right, 2.5.6.1
notice of cancellation, 2.5.1, 2.5.6.3
other consumer protections, 2.5.6.4
overview, 2.5.1
scope, 2.5.4
buyer-initiated repairs, 2.5.4.3
covered sellers, 2.5.4.9
emergencies, 2.5.4.4
home improvements, 2.5.4.7
leases, 2.5.4.6
mail and telephone sales, 2.5.4.5
prior negotiated sales, 2.5.4.2
real property sales, 2.5.4.7
rent-to-own transactions, 2.5.4.6
sales outside home, 2.5.4.1
securities and insurance sales, 2.5.4.7
small transactions, 2.5.4.6
TIL rescindable transactions, 2.5.4.8
services performed prior to cancellation, 2.5.6.2
state law, interrelation, 2.5.2, 2.5.5.1
text, Appx. A.4
TIL rescission, interrelation, 2.5.3, 2.5.4.8
COOLING-OFF PERIODS
see also CANCELLATION RIGHTS
FTC rule, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
state law, 2.5.2, 2.5.5
consumer remedies, 2.5.7
consumer rights and protections, 2.5.6
coverage broader than FTC rule, 2.5.5.2
interpretation of scope provisions, 2.5.5.5
level of in-home contact required, 2.5.5.4
narrower coverage than FTC rule, 2.5.5.3
overview, 2.5.5.1
CORPORATE OFFICERS
racketeering activity, 7.4.4
telemarketing liability, 5.7.1
CORPORATIONS
see also BUSINESSES
directors and officers, see CORPORATE OFFICERS
RICO liability, 7.4.6
association in fact, 7.4.2
conspiracy, 7.5.5
distinctness, 7.4.4
enterprise, 7.4.1
COSIGNERS
see ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
COST
see FEES
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
COUNSELING SERVICES
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
COURIER SERVICES
telemarketing fraud liability, 5.9.3
CREDIT ACTIVITIES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
CREDIT AGREEMENTS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
CREDIT CARD ISSUERS
see also CREDIT CARDS
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.1.2.3
telemarketing fraud, liability, 5.7.5
CREDIT CARDS
see also FINANCIAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
add-ons, sales and marketing, CFPB guidance, 3.4.4
billing errors, 5.10.1
factoring, 5.7.3
independent service organizations, 5.7.5
issuers, see CREDIT CARD ISSUERS
laundering, 5.7.3
loss protection and reporting services, telemarketing protections, 5.5.5
online fraud, 5.2.4
preacquired account telemarketing, 5.4.2
promotional offers, CFPB guidance, 3.4.5
telemarketing fraud, withholding payment, 5.10.1
unauthorized charges, 5.4.3
CREDIT CHARGES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
CREDIT CLINICS
see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
CREDIT CONSULTANTS
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; DEBT RELIEF SERVICES; LOAN BROKERS
CREDIT CONTRACTS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
see also DEBT MANAGEMENT PLANS (DMPs); DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
bankruptcy prerequisite, 10.2.1.4
CROA, application, 10.4.2.1
history, 10.2.1.1
state licensing requirements, 10.7.2.2–10.7.2.4
CREDIT INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE
CFPB authority, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
CREDIT PRACTICES
advance fee loans, 5.5.1
CFPB authority, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
FTC rule, see CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
RICO violations, 7.3.4
precedent, 7.10.1.2
CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
application, 2.3.2
circumvention attempts, 2.3.11
confession of judgment provision, 2.3.4
cosigner provision, 2.3.9
FTC staff letters as precedent, 2.3.3
general overview, 2.3.1
household goods security, 2.3.7
private remedies, 2.3.10
pyramiding late charges, 2.3.8
text, Appx. A.9
wage assignments, 2.3.6
waiver of exemption clauses, 2.3.5
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
see also DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
CROA requirements, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.5.2
research aids, 10.1
state law, 5.5.2, 10.4
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
see also CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
overview, 10.4.1
remedies, 10.4.4
requirements, 10.4.3.1, 10.4.3.2
scope and applicability, 10.4.2.1
substantive prohibitions, 5.5.2
CREDIT SALES
see also CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
FTC Credit Practices Rule, see CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
FTC Holder Rule, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
insurance, see CREDIT INSURANCE
CREDIT TERMS
see CREDIT PRACTICES
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS; LOANS
CREDIT UNIONS
CFPB authority, 3.8
FTC rules, application
Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.2
Holder Rule, 4.2.2.5
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.2.3.4
CREDITOR REMEDIES
see CREDIT PRACTICES; DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
CREDITORS
see also CREDIT PRACTICES; DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES; LOAN BROKERS
CFPB rules
enforcement, 3.7–3.9
scope, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
FTC Credit Practices Rule, application, 2.3.2
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2
mortgage lenders, see MORTGAGE LOANS
seller-related claims and defenses
creditor’s own conduct, 4.3.7
FTC Holder Rule liability, 4.2.2, 4.3.1
securitized debt, 4.3.9
statutes limiting derivative liability, 4.3.8
CRIME VICTIMS
civil remedies, 8.8
general statutes, 8.8.2
theft statutes, 8.8.1
CRIMINAL ACTIVITY
see RACKETEERING ACTIVITY
DAMAGES
see also INJURY
actual damages, see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
mental anguish, see MENTAL ANGUISH
minimum, see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
multiple, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
pain and suffering, see PAIN AND SUFFERING
punitive, see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
treble, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
DAMAGES, ACTUAL
see also DAMAGES
CAN-SPAM Act, 6.14.2.2
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 6.6.3
RICO claims, 7.9.1
TCPA, 6.12.1
telemarketing violations, threshold for action, 5.6.1.1
DAMAGES, MINIMUM
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
see also DAMAGES
False Claims Act, 9.6
FCC rule violations, 6.5.3, 6.6.3
holder liability, 4.3.6
RICO violations, 7.9.2
state actions, 8.6.3
TCPA, 6.12.1, 6.12.3
DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
see also DAMAGES
CROA claims, 10.4.4
debt relief services, claims against, 10.7.5
holder liability, 4.3.6
RICO claims, 7.9.2, 8.6.3
DAMAGES, STATUTORY
see also DAMAGES
False Claims Act, 9.6
TCPA, 6.12.1–6.12.3
DEALERS
see RETAILERS; SELLERS
DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
autodialed or pre-recorded calls
cell phones, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4.2
identification, 6.4.3
liability for, 6.9.2.4
residences, 6.4.2–6.4.4
sensitive phone numbers, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4.2
text messages, 6.7.3
CFPB guidance, 3.4.2
FDCPA, application, 10.6
RICO, application, 7.3.4
DEBT CONSOLIDATION
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; REFINANCING PRACTICES
DEBT ELIMINATION SCHEMES
see also DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
overview, 10.2.4
state licensing requirements, 10.7.2.2–10.7.2.4
DEBT MANAGEMENT PLANS (DMPs)
see also CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
overview, 10.2.1.2
pros and cons, 10.2.1.3
DEBT MANAGEMENT SERVICES
see DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
DEBT NEGOTIATION SERVICES
see also DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
overview, 10.2.3
state licensing requirements, 10.7.2.2–10.7.2.4
DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
attorney participation, 10.7.3, 10.8.2
bankruptcy, claims against, in, 10.8.5, 10.8.6
common law claims, 10.8.4
counseling, see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
credit repair laws, application, 10.4
CROA, 10.4.2, 10.4.3.1, 10.4.3.2
generally, 10.4.1
credit repair organizations, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
elimination schemes, see DEBT ELIMINATION SCHEMES
FDCPA, application, 10.6
fees, 10.5.3.1, 10.5.3.2, 10.7.1.2
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.5.4, 10.5
collection of fees before results, 10.5.3.1
disclosures, 10.5.3.3
escrowing fees, 10.5.3.2
fee calculations, 10.5.3.1
overview, 10.5.1
recordkeeping, 10.5.4
remedies, 10.5.5
scope, 10.5.2.1–10.5.2.4
negotiation services, see DEBT NEGOTIATION SERVICES
non-profit versus for-profit services
background, 10.3.1
FTC non-profit standards, 10.3.3
IRS non-profit status, 10.3.2
overview, 10.2
RICO claims, 10.8.3
settlement services, see DEBT SETTLEMENT SERVICES
state regulation, 10.7, Appx. I
attorney exemption, 10.7.3
constitutional challenges, 10.7.4
jurisdictional challenges, 10.7.4
overview, 10.7.2.1
private remedies, 10.7.5
registration and licensing, 10.7.1.1, 10.7.2.2–10.7.2.4
substantive provisions, 10.7.1.2
summaries, Appx. I.3
types of, 10.2
UDAP claims, 10.8.1
unauthorized practice of law, 10.8.2
Uniform Debt-Management Services Act, Appx. I.2
DEBT SETTLEMENT SERVICES
see also DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
CROA, application, 10.4.2.1
overview, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.2.2
state licensing requirements, 10.7.2.2–10.7.2.4
DEBTS
see also DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
unlawful debts
collection, RICO prohibition, 7.3.4
definition, 7.1.1, 7.3.4
DECEIT
see FRAUD; MISREPRESENTATIONS
DECEPTION LAW
federal, see FEDERAL DECEPTION LAW
state, see STATE LAW; UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
abusive practices distinguished, 3.2.5
advertising, see MISLEADING ADVERTISING
business opportunities, 2.8.4
CFPB standards, 3.2.2
supervision and examination manual, 3.5
credit practices, 2.3
debt relief services, 10.5.3.4
definition, 2.2.3, 3.2.2
door-to-door sales, 2.5
financial products or services, 3.2.2
credit card add-ons, 3.4.4
credit card promotional offers, 3.4.5
franchising, 2.8.2, 2.8.4
FTC Holder Notice omission, 4.4.4.2
funerals, 2.9
liability, see LIABILITY
mail and telephone order sales, 2.6
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
negative option plans, 2.7
telemarketers, 5.3.3
debt relief services, 10.5.3.4
unfair practices distinguished, 3.2.5
unsolicited goods, 11.2, Appx. J
used car sales, 2.4
DEFENDANTS
see also PARTIES
RICO, distinct from enterprise, 7.4.4
TCPA actions, 6.9.2
DEFENSES
collateral estoppel, 7.8.5
consumers, preservation, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
holders-in-due-course, raising against, 4.1.2.1
in pari delicto, 7.8.6
liability, see LIABILITY
limitation period, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
state anti-spam actions, 6.14.7
TCPA exceptions
burden of proof, 6.11.5
consent, 6.3.4, 6.4.2–6.4.4, 6.8.4.2
established business relationship, 6.8.2.3
DEFENSIVE COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
RICO actions, application, 7.8.5
DEFINITIONS
abusive practice, 3.2.4.1
association in fact, 7.4.1
automatic telephone dialing system, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.7.2
charitable contribution, 5.5.8
consumer, 4.2.2.2
consumer credit contract, 4.2.2.4
debt relief service, 5.5.4, 10.5.2.1–10.5.2.4
deception, 2.2.3, 3.2.2
door-to-door sale, 2.5.4.1
enterprise, 7.4.1, 8.4.3
facsimile broadcaster, 6.9.2.2.2
financial product or service, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
household goods, 2.3.7
pattern of racketeering activity, 7.1.1, 8.4.2
person, 7.2
prize promotion, 5.5.7
purchase money loan, 4.2.2.7
racketeering activity, 7.1.1, 7.3.2.1
telemarketing, 5.2.1
unfair practice, 2.2.4.2, 3.2.3
unlawful debt, 7.1.1, 7.3.4
unsolicited advertising, 6.8.2.1, 6.8.2.2
upselling, 5.2.2
DEMAND DRAFTS
see TELECHECKS
DEPOSITIONS
see DISCOVERY
DIRECT MAIL SOLICITATIONS
see also MAIL ORDER SALES
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.2
DIRECTORS
see CORPORATE OFFICERS
DISCLOSURE
debt collectors, 6.4.3
FTC Business Opportunities Rule, 2.8.3.3
FTC Cooling-Off Period Rule, 2.5.1
FTC Franchising Rule, 2.8.2
FTC Funeral Rule, 2.9.1
FTC Negative Option Plans Rule, 2.7
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule
charitable solicitations, 5.5.8
debt relief services, 10.5.3.3
generally, 5.3.2, 6.6.2.1
negative option sales, 5.3.4
prize promotions, 5.5.7
FTC Used Car Rule, 2.4.2, 2.4.5
language requirements, 11.4
mail and telephone sales, state law, 2.6.2
material facts, see MATERIAL FACTS
mis-disclosure, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
online purchases, post-transaction third party solicitations, 11.5
prerecorded messages, 6.4.3
opt-out mechanism, 6.4.5
TCPC requirements, 6.4.3, 6.6.2.2
DISCOVERY
see also PRACTICE TIPS
NCLC resources, 1.4.3
TCPA litigation, 6.11.3
DISTRESS
see MENTAL ANGUISH
DO-NOT-CALL LISTS
see also OPT-OUT MECHANISMS
charities, 6.5.1, 6.5.2.3
company-specific lists, 6.5.1
nationwide list, 6.5.2
authority for, 6.5.2.1
exemptions, 6.5.2.3
operation of, 6.5.2.4
remedies for violations, 6.5.3
scope, 6.5.2.2
preventing telemarketing fraud, 5.10.3
state law, 6.5.2.5
violations, liability, 6.9.2.5
DOCUMENT REQUESTS
see DISCOVERY
DOCUMENTS
see RECORDS
DODD-FRANK WALL STREET REFORM AND CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT
CFPB, creation, 3.1.1
DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
definition, 2.5.4.1
FTC Rule, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
state law, 2.5.2, 2.5.5, 2.5.6, 2.5.7
e-mail spam, application, 6.14.5.3
DUE PROCESS
see CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
E-MAIL
see also INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
unsolicited bulk commercial, see SPAM E-MAIL
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
see also STUDENT LOANS; TRADE SCHOOLS
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.5, 4.2.2.10
ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFERS
EFTA protections, 5.4.3
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.4.4
stopping, consumer rights, 4.1.2.6
EMAIL SPAM
see SPAM E-MAIL
EMERGENCY TELEPHONE LINES
see SENSITIVE TELEPHONE NUMBERS
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
see MENTAL ANGUISH
EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
RICO liability, 7.4.4.2, 7.4.4.3
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see REGULATORY BODIES; STATE ENFORCEMENT
ENTERPRISES
see also BUSINESSES
RICO liability, 7.4, 7.5, 8.4.3
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
limits on assignee liability, 4.3.8.2
EQUITABLE RELIEF
RICO actions, 7.9.5
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF
pattern of racketeering activity, 7.3.3.6
EXECUTIONS
see PROCESS
FACTORING SERVICES
credit cards, 5.7.3
FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
telemarketing fraud, application, 5.10.1
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
debt relief services, application, 10.6
FALSE ADVERTISING AND CLAIMS
see MISLEADING ADVERTISING; MISREPRESENTATIONS
FALSE CLAIMS ACT (FEDERAL)
advantages, 9.2.1
arbitration agreements, validity, 9.5, 9.9.2
case law examples, 9.8
checklist, 9.12
disadvantages, 9.2.2
elements of a case, 9.3
generally, 9.1.1
history, 9.1.2
recent amendments, 9.1.2.5
incentives to relator, 9.7
litigation procedures, 9.4
remedies, 9.6
scope, 9.3.1
standards for liability, 9.3.2
standing, 9.3.3
exclusions, 9.3.3.2
“first-to-file” rule, 9.3.3.4
non-public information, 9.3.3.3
original source, 9.3.3.3
state false claims acts, relationship, 9.10.1
statute of limitations, 9.4
text, Appx. G
whistleblower protection, 9.9
FALSE CLAIMS ACTS (STATE)
arbitration agreements, validity, 9.5
federal False Claims Act, relationship, 9.10.1
generally, 9.1.1
practice tips, 9.10.5
procedural requirements, 9.10.4
scope, 9.10.3
standing, 9.10.2
summaries, Appx. H
FALSE STATEMENTS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
FAMILY USE
see HOUSEHOLD GOODS
FAX ORDERS
see TELEPHONE SALES
FAXES
see JUNK FAXES
FCC
see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
FEDERAL AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; REGULATORY BODIES
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
telemarketing regulations, 6.2.4, Appx. C.2.2
see also TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (TCPA)
abandoned calls, 6.6.3
auto dialers, 6.3
caller ID, 6.6.5
calling times, 6.6.4
constitutional challenges, 6.2.4.3
disclosure requirements, 6.4.3, 6.6.2.2
do-not-call lists, 6.5.1, 6.5.2
enforcement, 6.13
facsimile broadcasters, 6.9.2.2.2
FTC rule compared, 6.2.2
junk faxes, 6.8, Appx. C.2.2
overview, 6.2.4.1
prerecorded messages, 6.3, 6.4
FEDERAL COMPUTER FRAUD AND ABUSE ACT (CFAA)
see COMPUTER FRAUD AND ABUSE ACT (CFAA)
FEDERAL CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT
see CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
FEDERAL COURT
state RICO jurisdiction, 8.6.1
FEDERAL DECEPTION LAW
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
debt relief services, see DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
FTC rules, see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
government fraud, see FALSE CLAIMS ACT (FEDERAL)
NCLC treatise, 1.1
CFPB rules covered, 3.1.4
online version, 1.1.1, 1.4.3
organization, 1.4, 6.1
print version, 1.1.1
relation to UDAP treatise, 1.2
scope, 1.1.2, 3.1.4, 6.1
topics covered in other treatises, 1.3, 3.1.4, 10.1
practice tips, see PRACTICE TIPS
primary sources, 1.4.3
research aids, see RESEARCH AIDS
RICO, see FEDERAL RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT (RICO)
telemarketing, see TELEMARKETING
UDAP, meaning of term, 1.5
unreported cases, 1.4.4
unwanted calls, see UNWANTED TELEPHONE CALLS
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.3.10
RICO immunity, 7.2
FEDERAL FALSE CLAIMS ACT
see FALSE CLAIMS ACT (FEDERAL)
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
see also PREEMPTION
assignees, application, 4.4.6
CAN-SPAM, 6.14.4.2, 6.14.5.1
CFPB rules, 3.10
FTC rules
business opportunities, 2.8.1
cooling-off periods, 2.5.2, 2.5.5.1
credit practices, 2.3.1
franchises, 2.8.1
holders-in-due-course, 4.3.11.1, 4.4.6
mail and telephone orders, 2.6.2
telemarketing, 5.9.4
RICO claims, 7.1.3
TCPA, 6.2.4.2, 6.8.5
TIL rescission rights, 2.5.3
FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
see also BANKS
CFPB, relationship, 3.1.1
credit practices guidance, 2.3.2
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
CAN-SPAM Act, enforcement, 6.14.2.2
CFPB rules, enforcement, 3.8
consumer fraud database, 5.10.2
enforcement remedies
generally, 2.2.5
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.6.3
guides, see GUIDES (FTC)
informal staff guidelines
Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.3
Holder Rule, Appx. A.5.2
online fraud regulation, 5.2.4
rulemaking authority
standard authority, Appx. A.2.1
streamlined authority, Appx. A.2.2
rules, see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
selected statutory provisions, Appx. A.2
unfairness definition, 2.2.4.2
FEES
advance fees, see ADVANCE FEES
debt relief services, 10.5.3.1, 10.5.3.2, 10.7.1.2
FINANCE CHARGES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
FINANCE COMPANIES
see also FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
FTC Credit Practices Rule, application, 2.3.2
FINANCED SALES
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
FINANCIAL COUNSELING
see CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
see also BANKS; FINANCE COMPANIES; SAVINGS AND LOANS INSTITUTIONS
FTC rules, application
Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.2
Holder Rule, 4.2.2.5
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.2.3.4
FINANCIAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
CFPB rulemaking authority
enforcement, 3.7–3.9
scope, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
supervision and examination manual, 3.5
UDAAP guidance, 3.4
UDAAP standards, 3.2
definition, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
FTC Cooling-Off Period Rule, application, 2.5.4.7
FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL
CFPB rules, veto authority, 3.1.1
FINANCING ACTIVITIES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
see also CREDIT COUNSELING SERVICES; DEBT RELIEF SERVICES
research aids, 10.1
FRANCHISES
see also BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
FTC rule, see FRANCHISING RULE (FTC)
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.3.2
state law, 2.8.4
FRANCHISING RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
e-mail spam, application, 6.14.3.2
history, 2.8.1
overview, 2.8.2
text, Appx. A.7
FRAUD
see also MISREPRESENTATIONS
civil theft laws, 8.8.1
computer fraud, 11.6
CFAA prohibitions, 11.6.2, Appx. L
consumer remedies, 11.6.3
debt relief services, 10.8.4
e-mail scams, see SPAM E-MAILS
FTC database, 5.10.2
government contracts, see FALSE CLAIMS ACT (FEDERAL)
mail fraud, see MAIL FRAUD
online fraud, 5.2.4, 6.14.5.1, 6.14.5.3
RICO remedies, see RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATION LEGISLATION (RICO); RICO STATUTES (STATE)
tax and securities fraud, 9.11
telephone fraud, see TELEMARKETING FRAUD
theft laws, 8.8
whistleblower protections and rewards, 9.9, 9.11
wire fraud, see WIRE FRAUD
FRAUDULENT STATEMENTS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
FREE-TO-PAY CONVERSIONS
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.4.3, 5.4.4.4
FRINGE LENDERS
see PAWNBROKERS
FTC
see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
FTC RULES
see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
FUNERAL HOMES
FTC rule, see FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
Funeral Rule Offenders Program, 2.9.1
state claims, 2.9.2
FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
overview, 2.9.1
text, Appx. A.10
GAMBLING AND GAME PROMOTIONS
see PRIZE PROMOTIONS
GOODS OR SERVICES
see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS; MERCHANDISE
advertising, see ADVERTISEMENTS
credit sales, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
lease of, see LEASING AGREEMENTS
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
unrequested, see UNORDERED MERCHANDISE
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
RICO immunity, 7.2
GOVERNMENT FUNDS
false claims, see FALSE CLAIMS ACT (FEDERAL)
GUARANTORS
see ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
GUIDES (FTC)
overview, 2.1.1, 2.10
HARASSMENT
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, prohibition, 6.6.1
HEALTH CARE MESSAGES
cell phone calls, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4.1
text messages, 6.7.3
HOLDER NOTICE (FTC)
see also HOLDER RULE (FTC)
effect, 4.3
implied contract term, 4.4.2
inclusion where not required, effect, 4.2.1, 4.2.2.5
location in contract, 4.2.1
omission, remedies, 4.4
state law alternative to FTC notice, 4.5
sovereign immunity, application, 4.2.2.5
when must be included, 4.2.2
credit sales, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.5, 4.2.2.7
purchase money loans, 4.2.2.7
seller-arranged loans, 4.1.2.2, 4.2.2.2
HOLDER RULE (FTC)
see also HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE; TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
amounts already paid, recovering, 4.3.4
assignees, application, 4.1.2.1, 4.1.2.4
attorney fee liability, 4.3.5
claims based on, jurisdiction, 4.3.12
contradictory statements in contract, effect, 4.3.13
credit card transactions, application, 4.1.2.3, 4.2.2.7
credit sales, application, 4.1.2.1, 4.2.2.2
creditors, application, 4.2.2.5, 4.2.2.7
ECOA assignee liability, impact, 4.3.8.2
enforcement, 4.4
FDIC, application, 4.3.10
FTC advisory opinion, Appx. A.5.2
holder notice, see HOLDER NOTICE (FTC)
importance, 4.1.1
LaBarre decision, 4.3.11.2
leases, applicability, 4.1.2.5, 4.2.2.4
liability, refusal to accept, 4.3.14
loans over dollar threshold, application, 4.2.2.8, 4.2.2.9
Magnuson-Moss assignee liability, relation to, 4.3.8.3
maximum liability under Rule, 4.3
mortgage loans, application, 4.2.2.3
multiple damages, relation to, 4.3.6
non-profit corporations, application, 4.2.2.5, 4.2.2.6
offsetting remainder due on note, 4.3.2
operation of rule, 4.3
public entities, application, 4.2.2.5, 4.2.2.6
punitive damages, relation to, 4.3.6
purchase money loan, application, 4.2.2.7
refinancing, application, 4.2.2.7
related-seller claims, 4.2.2.7
remedies where notice not inserted, 4.4
scope, 4.2
legal scope, 4.2.2
operational scope, 4.2.1
securitized debt, application, 4.3.9
security interests, effect on, 4.3.3
seller-arranged loans, application, 4.1.2.2
sellers, application, 4.2.2.5
state law relationship, 4.3.4.4, 4.3.11, 4.4.3
student loans, application, 4.2.2.10, 4.4.4.4
text, Appx. A.5.1
TIL assignee liability, impact, 4.3.8.1
violations
aiding and abetting, 4.4.5
as UDAP violation, 4.4.4
generally, 4.4.1
state remedies, 4.4.3, 4.4.6, 4.5
UCC remedies, 4.4.2
waiver of claims under, 4.3.13
warranty claims, relation to, 4.3.8.3
HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE
see also ASSIGNEES
assignees, status, 4.1.2.1, 4.1.2.4
check or debit card payments, 4.1.2.6
deceptive practices, 4.4.4.2
FDIC, super status, 4.3.10
FTC rule, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
liability
government entities, 4.2.2.5
lease holders, 4.1.2.5
lender-related claims and defenses, 4.1.2.4
maximum liability, 4.3
refusal to accept, 4.3.14
seller-related claims and defenses, 4.1.2.1, 4.1.2.4, 4.3.1
prior holders, recovering from, 4.3.4.2
securitized debt, 4.3.9
state law, 4.3.11.1, 4.4.3, 4.5
UDAP violations, 4.4.4.3, 4.4.4.5
unfair practices, 4.4.4.4
HOME EQUITY LOANS
see MORTGAGE LOANS
HOME IMPROVEMENT SALES
FTC Cooling-Off Period Rule, application, 2.5.4.7
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.3
HOME PURCHASES AND SALES
see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
HOME-SAVER SERVICES
see FORECLOSURE RESCUE SCAMS
HOME-SECURED LOANS
see MORTGAGE LOANS
HOME-SOLICITATION SALES
see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
HOSPITAL TELEPHONE LINES
see SENSITIVE TELEPHONE NUMBERS
HOUSEHOLD GOODS
FTC Cooling-off Period Rule, application, 2.5.4.1
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.7
IDENTITY THEFT
state civil actions, 8.8.2
INDEPENDENT SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS (ISO)
telemarketing fraud, 5.7.5
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule violations, 5.6.1.1
RICO violations, 7.9.5
state actions, 8.6.3
TCPA violations, 6.12.1, 6.13
INJURY
see also DAMAGES
RICO actions, 7.6, 8.6.3
personal injury, 7.6.4, 7.9.1
third parties, 7.6.5
INSOLVENCY
see BANKRUPTCY
INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
INSURANCE
credit insurance, see CREDIT INSURANCE
fraud, RICO claims, 7.1.3
FTC rules, application
Cooling-off Period Rule, 2.5.4.7
Holder Rule, 4.2.2.5
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.2.3.4
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.6
TCPA claims, coverage, 6.11.7
INTEREST RATES
RICO violations, 7.3.4
INTERNET RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
fraudulent, see ONLINE FRAUD
FTC rules, application, 6.14.3.2
Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule, 2.6.1
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.2.4
negative option sales, 11.5
post-transaction third-party solicitations, 11.5
Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act, 11.5, Appx. K
state law, 2.6.2
unsolicited bulk commercial e-mail, see SPAM E-MAIL
INTERROGATORIES
see DISCOVERY
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES
see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
JUDGMENTS
confession of judgment, see CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT
enforcement, see PROCESS
JUNK FAXES
established business relationship, 6.8.2.3, 6.8.2.4
express permission, 6.8.2.2, 6.8.2.4
“fax blasters,” 6.9.2.2.2
opt-out notice, 6.8.2.4
provision of number as consent to receive, 6.8.2.2
state law claims, 6.8.5
TCFAPA, application, 6.1, 6.8.1
TCPA restrictions, 6.8
application, 6.8.1
exemptions, 6.8.2.2, 6.8.2.3
liability, 6.9.2.2
multiple violations, 6.12.2
other restrictions, 6.8.3
overview, 6.8.1
remedies, 6.8.4
types of faxes prohibited, 6.8.2
unsolicited advertising, 6.8.2.1, 6.8.2.2
“war dialing,” 6.8.3
JURISDICTION
e-mail spammers, 6.14.6
False Claims Act claims, 9.10.1
FTC Holder Rule, claims based on, 4.3.12
RICO actions, 7.8.1
state law actions, 8.6.1
TCPA actions, 6.11.1
LAND SALES
see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
LANGUAGE
door-to-door sales contracts, 2.5.1, 11.4.2
obscene language by telemarketers, 6.2.1
plain language statutes, 11.3
statutes protecting non-English speakers, 11.4
used car disclosures, 2.4.2
LATE PAYMENT PENALTIES
see also CREDIT PRACTICES
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.8
LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
LAWYERS
see ATTORNEYS; PRACTICE OF LAW
LEASING AGREEMENTS
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
FTC cooling-off period rule, application, 2.5.4.6
FTC holder rule, application, 4.1.2.5, 4.2.2.4
rent-to-own, see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.2, 7.10.1.3
sale-leaseback scams, see SALE-LEASEBACK SCAMS
LEGAL EXPENSES
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
LEGAL MALPRACTICE
debt relief schemes, 10.8.2
LEGAL PRACTICE
see PRACTICE OF LAW
LENDERS
see CREDITORS
LENDING PRACTICES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
LIABILITY
aiders and abettors
mail fraud, 7.3.2.4
RICO violations, 7.4.6.4
unwanted phone calls, 6.9.2.7
assignees, 4.1.2.1, 4.1.2.4
ECOA limits on, 4.3.8.2
Magnuson-Moss, 4.3.8.3
TILA limits on, 4.3.8.1
creditors, 4.3.7
derivative liability, 4.3.8
e-mail spam, 6.14.6
False Claims Act, 9.3.1
holders in due course, see HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE
junk faxes, 6.9.2.2
RICO violations
conduct or participation, 7.3
conspiracy, 7.5.5
corporations, 7.4.6
enterprises, 7.4
TCPA violations, 6.9.2
insurance coverage, 6.11.7
telemarketing fraud, 5.7
LIABILITY INSURANCE
RICO liability, 7.4.6.3
TCPA liability, 6.11.7
LICENSING REQUIREMENTS
debt relief services, 10.7.1.1, 10.7.2.2–10.7.2.4
attorney exemption, 10.7.3
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
LITIGATION AIDS
see PRACTICE TIPS
LITIGATION EXPENSES
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
LOAN BROKERS
see also CREDITORS; MORTGAGE BROKERS
advance fees, 5.5.1
LOAN PRACTICES
see CREDIT PRACTICES
LOANS
car loans, see AUTOMOBILE LOANS
collection, see DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES
FTC Holder Rule, application
direct loans, 4.1.2.4
loans over dollar threshold, 4.2.2.8, 4.2.2.9
purchase money loans, 4.2.2.7
seller-arranged loans, 4.1.2.2
interest rate, see INTEREST RATES
mortgage loans, see MORTGAGE LOANS
refinancing, see REFINANCING PRACTICES
RICO violations, 7.3.4
student loans, see STUDENT LOANS
LOTTERIES
see PRIZE PROMOTIONS
MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
FTC Holder Rule, relationship, 4.3.8.3
FTC Used Car Rule violations as violations of, 2.4.4
MAIL FRAUD
aiding and abetting, 7.3.2.4
detrimental reliance, necessity, 7.3.2.2
elements, 7.3.2.2
federal statute, Appx. E.2
mailing requirement, 7.3.2.3
RICO application, 7.3.2.1
MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
e-mail, application, 6.14.3.2
Internet transactions, application, 2.6.1
overview, 2.6.1
text, Appx. A.6
MAIL ORDER SALES
see also TELEPHONE SALES
cancellation rights, 2.5.4.5
delivery or non-delivery
FTC rule, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
state law, 2.6.2
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.2
online, see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
unsolicited goods, see UNORDERED MERCHANDISE
MAILING OF UNORDERED MERCHANDISE
federal statute, 11.2, Appx. J
MEDIA ADVERTISING
see ADVERTISEMENTS
MENTAL ANGUISH
RICO claims, 7.6.4, 7.9.1
MERCHANDISE
see also GOODS OR SERVICES
mail order, FTC rule, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
unsolicited, see UNORDERED MERCHANDISE
MERCHANTS
see RETAILERS; SELLERS
MILITARY PERSONNEL
mortgage servicing for relocating homeowners, CFPB guidance, 3.4.3
MISLEADING ADVERTISING
see also ADVERTISEMENTS; DECEPTIVE PRACTICES; MISREPRESENTATIONS
RICO actions, 7.10.1.7
MISLEADING PRACTICES
see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES; MISREPRESENTATIONS
MISREPRESENTATIONS
see also DECEPTIVE PRACTICES; FRAUD
business opportunities, 2.8.3.3, 2.8.4
debt relief services, 10.5.3.4, 10.8.4
False Claims Act, Ch. 9
franchises, 2.8.4
funeral homes, 2.9
telemarketers, 5.3.3, 6.6.2.1
see also TELEMARKETING; TELEMARKETING FRAUD
charitable solicitations, 5.5.8
debt relief services, 10.5.3.4
negative option features, 5.3.4
prize promotions, 5.5.7
Used Car Rule violations as, 2.4.4
MISSTATEMENTS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
MORTGAGE BROKERS
see also LOAN BROKERS; MORTGAGE LOANS
FTC Cooling-Off Period Rule, application, 2.5.4.7
MORTGAGE LOANS
assistance relief services, 10.1
brokers, see MORTGAGE BROKERS
CFPB rules
enforcement, 3.8
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.3
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.1
servicing, see MORTGAGE SERVICING
MORTGAGE SERVICING
see also MORTGAGE LOANS
military homeowners ordered to relocate, CFPB guidance, 3.4.3
MULTIPLE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS
RICO immunity, 7.2
NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION (NCUA)
credit practices guidance, 2.3.2
NATIONAL FRAUD INFORMATION CENTER
reporting telephone fraud, 5.10.2
NEGATIVE OPTION PLANS
cable TV services, 2.7
FTC rules
Negative Option Plans Rule (FTC), 2.7, Appx. A.3
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.3.4
Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act, 11.5, Appx. K
NEGATIVE OPTION PLANS RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
overview, 2.7
text, Appx. A.3
NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
checks, status, 4.1.2.6
consumer credit contracts, status, 4.1.2.1
holders in due course, see HOLDERS IN DUE COURSE
implied FTC Holder Notice, 4.4.2.2
NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CONSUMERS
statutes protecting, 11.4
federal requirements, 11.4.2
state law, 11.4.3
UDAP and UCC, 11.4.4
NON-MERCHANTS
see CONSUMERS
NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
CROA, application, 10.3.1, 10.3.2
debt relief services, 10.3
FTC Credit Practices Rule, application, 2.3.1
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.5, 4.2.2.10
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.3.4, 6.2.2, 10.3.1, 10.3.3
IRS non-profit status, 10.3.2
TCPA, application, 6.2.2, 6.2.4.2
telemarketing by, see CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS
UDAP, application, 10.3.1
NOTES
see NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
NOTICE
see also DISCLOSURE
cosigner warning notice, 2.3.9
default proceedings by creditors, waiver, 2.3.4
delivery, see SERVICE
door-to-door sales, cancellation
defective notice of cancellation, 2.5.6.3
disclosure of right, 2.5.1
exercise of rights, 2.5.6.1
FTC Holder Rule, see HOLDER NOTICE (FTC)
negative option plan merchandise, 2.7
opt-out rights
fax advertisements, 6.8.2.4
prerecorded telemarketing calls, 6.4.5
rescission, TIL, 2.5.3
NURSING HOMES
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.4
telephone lines, see SENSITIVE TELEPHONE NUMBERS
OBSCENE LANGUAGE
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, prohibition, 6.6.1
OFF-PREMISES SALES
see also DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
FTC Rule, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
OFFENSIVE COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
RICO actions, application, 7.8.4
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
credit practices guidance, 2.3.2
OTS authority, transfer to, 2.3.2
OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION (OTS)
see also SAVINGS AND LOAN INSTITUTIONS
OCC, authority transfer to, 2.3.2
OFFICERS
see CORPORATE OFFICERS
OMISSIONS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
ONLINE FRAUD
see also INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
remedies, 5.2.4, 6.14.5.1, 6.14.5.3
ONLINE RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
ONLINE SALES AND TRANSACTIONS
see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
OPPORTUNITY SCHEMES
see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES; FRANCHISES
OPT-OUT MECHANISMS
see also DO-NOT-CALL LISTS
fax advertisements, 6.8.2.2, 6.8.2.4
prerecorded telemarketing calls, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4.4, 6.4.5
ORGANIZED CRIME CONTROL ACT
racketeering provisions, see RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATION LEGISLATION (RICO)
OVERCHARGES
see BILLING ERRORS
PAIN AND SUFFERING
RICO claims, 7.6.4, 7.9.1
PARTIES
see also DEFENDANTS; THIRD PARTIES
burden of proof, see BURDEN OF PROOF
RICO actions, 7.2, 7.4
state law claims, 8.6.2
TCPA actions, 6.9.3, 6.9.2
PAWNBROKERS
RICO violations, 7.3.4
PAY-PER-CALL SERVICES
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, application, 5.2.3.2
PERSONAL PROPERTY
see HOUSEHOLD GOODS
PERSONS
see also CONSUMERS
RICO definition, 7.2
PLAIN ENGLISH STATUTES
overview, 11.3
PLEADINGS
see also PRACTICE TIPS
mail fraud, 7.7.2
NCLC resources, 1.3, 1.4.3
RICO claims, 7.7
respondeat superior, 7.4.6.2
state law actions, 8.6.1
TCPA litigation, 6.11.3
wire fraud, 7.7.2
PRACTICE OF LAW
unauthorized practice by debt relief services, 10.8.2
PRACTICE TIPS
see also RESEARCH AIDS
autodialed or prerecorded cell phone calls, 6.3.7
discovery, see DISCOVERY
False Claims Act, 9.12
junk faxes, 6.8.4
NCLC resources, 1.1–1.5
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
spammers, suing, 6.14.6
state statutes, 9.10.5
telemarketing fraud, 5.10
PREACQUIRED ACCOUNT INFORMATION
”free-to-pay” conversions, 5.4.3, 5.4.4.4
unauthorized charges, 5.4.3
unencrypted, restrictions, 5.4.2
PREAUTHORIZED DRAFTS
see TELECHECKS
PRECEDENT
see CASE LAW; RESEARCH AIDS
PREEMPTION
see also FEDERAL PREEMPTION
RICO claims by other statutes, 7.1.3
TIL rescission of other cancellation rights, 2.5.3, 2.5.4.8
PREJUDGMENT INTEREST
RICO claims, 7.9.4
PRERECORDED MESSAGES
cell phones and sensitive numbers, 6.3
consent requirements, 6.3.4
debt collection calls, 6.3.4.2
exemptions, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4
generally, 6.3.1, 6.3.2
liability, 6.9.2.4, 6.9.2.5
private remedies, 6.3.6
scope, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2
residential phone lines, 6.4
consent requirements, 6.4.2–6.4.4
debt collection calls, 6.4.2–6.4.4
disclosures, 6.4.3
exceptions, 6.4.2–6.4.4
generally, 6.4.1
liability, 6.9.2.5
opt-out mechanism, 6.4.5
private remedies, 6.4.6
PRESERVATION OF CONSUMER CLAIMS AND DEFENSES RULE (FTC)
see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
PRICE FIXING
see ANTI-TRUST LAWS
PRICING GIMMICKS
see PRIZE PROMOTIONS
PRIZE PROMOTIONS
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.5.7
PROCESS
service, see SERVICE
waiver of exemption clauses, 2.3.5
PRODUCTION
see DISCOVERY
PRODUCTS
see GOODS OR SERVICES; MERCHANDISE
PROMISSORY NOTES
see NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF; EVIDENCE
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
PURCHASE AGREEMENTS
see CONTRACTS; CONSUMER CONTRACTS
PURCHASE MONEY LOANS
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.7
PURCHASES
see SALES
RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT (RICO)
see also RICO ACTIONS; RICO STATUTES (STATE)
advantages and disadvantages, 7.1.2
association in fact
definition, 7.4.1
entities, 7.4.2
level of association, 7.4.3
collection of unlawful debt, 7.3.4
unlawful debt, defined, 7.1.1, 7.3.4
consumers, application, 7.10
corporate liability, 7.4.6
debt relief services, application, 10.8.3
enterprise, 7.4
continuing unit, 7.4.3.3
definition, 7.4.1
distinct from defendant, 7.4.4, 7.4.5
ongoing organization, 7.4.3.2
predicate offence, relationship, 7.6.2
relation to racketeering, 7.4.3.4, 7.5
illegal conduct
acquiring interest through, 7.5.3
conspiracy, 7.5.5
investment of proceeds, 7.5.2
participation through, 7.5.4
immunity, 7.2
injury element, 7.6
liberal construction, 7.1.5
mail fraud, 7.3.2.2–7.3.2.4
overview, 7.1
pattern of racketeering activity, 7.3.3
closed-ended continuity, 7.3.3.3
definition, 7.1.1, 7.3.3.1
open-ended continuity, 7.3.3.4
proving, 7.3.3.6
relationship test, 7.3.3.5
Supreme Court guidance, 7.3.3.2
persons, application, 7.2
predicate offenses, 7.1.1, 7.3.2.1
relation to enterprise, 7.5, 7.6.2
preemption, 7.1.3
racketeering activity, 7.3.2
crimes included, 7.3.2.1
defined, 7.1.1, 7.3.2.1
pattern of activity, 7.3.3
prohibited conduct, 7.3.1
relation of enterprise to, 7.4.3.4, 7.5
scope
covered defendants, 7.2
exclusions, 7.1.3
interstate or foreign commerce, 7.1.4
state law, see RICO STATUTES (STATE)
state law compared, 8.2.1
structure, 7.1.1
telemarketing fraud, application, 5.6.1.3
text, Appx. E.1
violations
aiding and abetting, 7.4.6.4
civil actions, see RICO ACTIONS
conspiracy, 7.5.5
pleading, 7.7
private remedies, 7.9
statute of limitations, 7.8.2
wire fraud, 7.3.2.5
REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
FTC cooling-off period rule, application, 2.5.4.7
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.3
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.4
RECORDS
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, requirements, 5.8
debt relief services, 10.5.4
RECOVERY ROOMS
telemarketing fraud, 5.5.3, 5.10.3
REFINANCING PRACTICES
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.7
REFUNDS
see CANCELLATION RIGHTS
REGISTRATION
see LICENSING REQUIREMENTS
REGULATIONS
FCC, see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
FTC, see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
REGULATORY BODIES
see also ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES; GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
FCC, see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
FRB, see FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
FTC, see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
OCC, see OFFICE OF THE CONTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
RELATORS
see FALSE CLAIMS ACT (FEDERAL); FALSE CLAIMS ACTS (STATE)
RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
see also LEASING AGREEMENTS
FTC cooling-off period rule, application, 2.5.4.6
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.2
REPOSSESSIONS
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.3
RES JUDICATA
RICO claims, application, 7.8.5
RESCISSION
see also CANCELLATION RIGHTS
TIL rescission, 2.5.3, 2.5.4.8
RESEARCH AIDS
see also PRACTICE TIPS
case law, see CASE LAW
NCLC resources, 1.3
companion UDAP treatise, 1.2
this treatise, 1.1, 1.4
primary sources, 1.4.3
unreported cases, 1.4.4
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
RESIDENTIAL PHONE LINES
prerecorded calls to, 6.4
TCPA violations, liability, 6.9.2.5
unwanted calls, see UNWANTED TELEPHONE CALLS
RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR DOCTRINE
RICO application, 7.4.6.2
RESTORE ONLINE SHOPPERS’ CONFIDENCE ACT
see also INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
overview, 11.5
text, Appx. K
RETAILERS
see also SELLERS
FTC Credit Practices Rule, application, 2.3.2
RETALIATION CLAIMS
FCA whistleblowers, 9.9
arbitration of claims, 9.9.2
RETIREMENT COMMUNITIES
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.4
RICO ACTIONS
see also RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT (RICO); RICO STATUTES (STATE)
actual damages, 7.9.1
advantages and disadvantages, 7.1.2
state actions, 8.2
attorney fees and costs, 7.9.3
case statements, local requirements, 7.7.1
conspiracy, 7.5.5
consumer precedents, 7.10
successful cases, 7.10.1
unsuccessful cases, 7.10.2
corporate liability, 7.4.6
debt relief services, 10.8.3
defensive collateral estoppel, 7.8.5
elements of the case
enterprise, 7.4, 8.4.3
injury, 7.6, 8.6.3
pattern, 7.3, 8.4.2
predicate offence, 7.3.2.1, 8.4.1
frivolous claims, sanctions, 7.7.3
in pari delicto defense, 7.8.6
indemnification and insurance, 7.4.6.3
injunctive relief, 7.9.5
injury precondition, 7.1.1, 7.3.2.2, 7.3.3.6, 7.6
jurisdiction, 7.8.1
state actions, 8.6.1
litigating, 7.8
state actions, 8.6
mail fraud, 7.3.2.2
offensive collateral estoppel, 7.8.4
parties, 7.2, 7.4
state actions, 8.6.2
personal injury, 7.6.4, 7.9.1
pleadings, 7.7
state actions, 8.6.1
prejudgment interest, 7.9.4
private remedies, 7.9
state actions, 8.6.3
proximate cause, 7.6.3
punitive damages, 7.9.2
Rule 11 sanctions, 7.7.3
service of process, 7.8.1
standard of proof, 7.8.3
standing, 7.6.4, 7.6.5
statute of limitations, 7.8.2
state actions, 8.5
telemarketing fraud, 5.6.1.3
treble damages, 7.9.2
unlawful debt collection, 7.3.4
venue, 7.8.1
wire fraud, 7.3.2.5
RICO STATUTE (FEDERAL)
see RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT (RICO)
RICO STATUTES (STATE)
see also RICO ACTIONS
advantages, 8.2
consumer fraud application, 8.7
debt relief services, application, 10.8.3
enterprise requirements, 8.4.3
interpretation, 8.3
jurisdiction, 8.6.1
overview, 8.1
pattern requirements, 8.4.2
predicate offences, 8.4.1
timing between, 8.5
private remedies, 8.6.3
procedural issues, 8.6.1
standard of proof, 8.6.1
statute of limitations, 8.5
strategic advantages over
federal RICO, 8.2.1
UDAP statutes, 8.2.2
summaries, Appx. F
telemarketing fraud, application, 5.6.1.3
validity, 8.3
RULES (FTC)
see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
SALE-LEASEBACK SCAMS
RICO violations, 7.3.4
SALES
door-to-door, see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
financing, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
mail orders, see MAIL ORDER SALES
telephone sales, see TELEPHONE SALES
used cars, see USED CAR PRACTICES
SALES CONTRACTS
see CONTRACTS; CONSUMER CONTRACTS
SALES REPRESENTATIONS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
SALESPERSONS
see SELLERS
SAVINGS AND LOANS INSTITUTIONS
see also FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
FTC rules, application
Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.2
Holder Rule, 4.2.2.5
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.2.3.4
state law, application, 4.4.6
SCHOOLS
see EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS; TRADE SCHOOLS
SECURITIES
fraud, whistleblowers, 9.11
FTC cooling-off period rule, application, 2.5.4.7
telemarketing, 5.1.2, 6.5.3
SECURITIES EXCHANGE COMMISSION
telemarketing rules, 5.1.2
SECURITIZED DEBT
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.3.9
SECURITY INTERESTS
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.7
FTC Holder Rule, effect, 4.3.3
household goods, 2.3.7
SELLERS
see also RETAILERS
bankruptcy, see BANKRUPTCY
credit sales, see CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS
door-to-door, see DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
FTC Cooling-Off Period Rule, application, 2.5.4.9
FTC Holder Rule
application, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.5, 4.2.2.7
enforceability, 4.4.1
notice requirements, 4.1.2.2, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.3
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule
application, 5.2.1, 5.7.2
records, retention requirements, 5.8
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
SENSITIVE TELEPHONE NUMBERS
auto-dialed or prerecorded calls, 6.3
autodialer, definition, 6.3.2
consent requirements, 6.3.4
exemptions, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.4
investigating and documenting, 6.3.7
nature of prohibition, 6.3.1
private remedies, 6.3.6
scope of prohibition, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2
SERVICE
False Claims Act, 9.4
RICO actions, 7.8.1
SERVICE MEMBERS
see MILITARY PERSONNEL
SERVICES
see GOODS OR SERVICES
SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY
FTC Holder Notice, application, 4.2.2.5
SPAM E-MAIL
background, 6.14.1
CAN-SPAM Act, see CONTROLLING THE ASSAULT OF NON-SOLICITED PORNOGRAPHY AND MARKETING ACT (CAN-SPAM)
door-to-door statutes, application, 6.14.5.3
FTC Rule, see CAN-SPAM RULE (FTC)
other federal restrictions, 6.14.3
criminal statutes, 6.14.3.3
FTC rules, 6.14.3.2
TCPA, application, 6.14.3.1
trademark infringement, 6.14.3.4
state anti-spam laws, 6.14.4
available defendants, 6.14.6
constitutional challenges, 6.14.4.3
generally, 6.14.4.1
preemption, 6.14.4.2
remedies, 6.14.4.4
suing spammers, 6.14.6
consent as defense, 6.14.7
telemarketing statutes, application, 6.14.5.3
tort claims, 6.14.5.2
UDAP claims, 6.14.5.1
SPAM FAXES
see JUNK FAXES
SPAM TEXT MESSAGES
TCPA prohibitions, 6.3.2
exceptions, 6.3.3.1, 6.3.3.2
STANDARD OF PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF
STANDING
False Claims Act, 9.3.3
RICO actions, 7.6.4, 7.6.5
state actions, 8.6.1
state anti-spam actions, 6.14.4.4
TCPA actions, 6.9.1, 6.9.3
“called party,” 6.3.4.3, 6.3.6, 6.4.6, 6.8.4
UDAP claims, 6.12.6
STATE AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
STATE ENFORCEMENT
CAN-SPAM Act, 6.14.2.2
CFPB rules, 3.9
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rules, 5.6.2, 10.5.5
TCPA, 6.13
STATE LAW
antitrust laws, 11.1.2
business opportunities, 2.8.4
CFPB rules, relationship, 3.10
civil theft statutes, 8.8.1
cooling-off statutes
consumer remedies, 2.5.7
consumer rights and protections under, 2.5.6
FTC rule, interrelation, 2.5.2, 2.5.5.1
scope, 2.5.5
credit repair services, 5.5.2, 10.4
debt relief services, 10.7
attorney exemption, 10.7.3
constitutional challenges, 10.7.4
licensing requirements, 10.7.1.1, 10.7.2.2–10.7.2.4
private remedies, 10.7.5
substantive provisions, 10.7.1.2
e-mail spam, 6.14.4
available defendants, 6.14.6
false claims acts, see FALSE CLAIMS ACTS (STATE)
federal preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
FTC Holder Rule, relationship, 4.3.4.4, 4.3.11, 4.4.3
funeral practices, 2.9.2
holder statutes, 4.3.11.1, 4.4.3, 4.5
junk faxes, 6.8.5
mail and telephone orders, 2.6.2
RICO statutes, see RICO STATUTES (STATE)
spam laws, 6.14.4
telemarketing fraud, 5.6.1.3, 5.9
federal preemption, 5.9.4
generally, 5.9.1
right to cancel, 5.9.2
scope, 5.9.3
summaries, Appx. D
theft laws, 8.8
UDAP statutes, see UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
unwanted telephone calls, 6.6.6
victims of crime, 8.8.2
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
CFAA, 11.6.3
CROA, 10.4.4
False Claims Act, 9.4
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule violations, 5.6.1.1, 5.6.3
RICO actions, 7.8.2
state law actions, 8.5
TCPA claims, 6.11.6
STATUTORY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
STOP PAYMENTS
seller misconduct, responding to, 4.1.2.6
STUDENT LOANS
debt relief scams, 10.1
FTC Holder Rule, application, 4.2.2.10
SUBSTANTIATION
see UNSUBSTANTIATED CLAIMS
SUITS
see ACTIONS
SUPPLIERS
see SELLERS
SURETIES
see ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
SWEEPSTAKES
see PRIZE PROMOTIONS
TAX FRAUD
whistleblowers, 9.11
TELECHECKS
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.4.4
TELEMARKETING
see also TELEPHONE SALES; UNWANTED TELEPHONE CALLS
abandoned calls, 6.6.3
auto dialing, see AUTO-DIALED TELEPHONE CALLS
billing restrictions, 5.4
express verifiable authorization, 5.4.4.1, 5.4.4.3
overview, 5.4.1
payment methods, 5.4.3, 5.4.4
preacquired account information, 5.4.2, 5.4.4.4
unsigned payments, 5.4.4
business-to-business, 5.2.3.3
calling time restrictions, 6.6.4
cell phones, to, 6.3, 6.7
consent requirements, 6.3.4.1, 6.7.3
charitable solicitations, see CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS
do-not-call lists, see DO-NOT-CALL LISTS
established business relationships, 6.3.4.5, 6.4.2–6.4.4, 6.5.2.3, 6.8.2.3
fraud, see TELEMARKETING FRAUD
FTC rule, see TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
junk faxes, see JUNK FAXES
prerecorded messages, see PRERECORDED MESSAGES
spam, see SPAM E-MAIL
TCPA liability, 6.9.2.5
text messages, see TEXT MESSAGES
“war dialing,” 6.8.3
TELEMARKETING AND CONSUMER FRAUD AND ABUSE PREVENTION ACT (TCFAPA)
enforcement
federal enforcement, 5.6.3
state enforcement, 5.6.2
FTC Rule, see TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
implementation, 6.1
overview, 5.1.2, 6.2.1
private remedies, 5.6.1.1
scope, 6.1
securities industry, application, 5.1.2
TCPA compared, 6.1, 6.2.1, 6.2.2
text, Appx. C.1.1
TELEMARKETING FRAUD
see also TELEPHONE SALES
advance-fee credit offers, 5.5.1
assisting, 5.7.4, 5.7.5
business opportunities, 5.2.3.2, 5.5.6
business-to-business, 5.2.3.3
cancellation rights, 5.9.2
Consumer Sentinel database, 5.10.2
credit card laundering, 5.7.3
credit card protection products, 5.5.5
credit repair services, 5.5.2
debt relief services, 5.5.4
definition, 5.2.1
disclosure requirements, generally, 5.3.2
EFTA protections, 5.4.3
federal statutes and regulations
FTC Rule, see TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
selected text, Appx. C
telemarketing and consumer fraud, see TELEMARKETING AND CONSUMER FRAUD AND ABUSE PREVENTION ACT (TCFAPA)
telephone consumer protection, see TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (TCPA)
telephone disclosure and dispute resolution, see TELEPHONE DISCLOSURE AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION ACT
“free-to-pay” conversion features, 5.4.3, 5.4.4.4
investment opportunities, 5.2.3.2, 5.5.6
liability, 5.7
negative option sales, 5.3.4
online fraud, 5.2.4, 6.14.5.1, 6.14.5.3
preacquired account information, 5.4.2, 5.4.4.4
preventing, 5.10
prize promotions, 5.5.7
record retention, 5.8
“recovery rooms,” 5.5.3, 5.10.3
“reloading,” 5.5.3
remedies, 5.6
federal remedies, 5.6.3
private remedies, 5.6.1
RICO actions, 5.6.1.3
state remedies, 5.6.1.3, 5.6.2
reporting, 5.10.2
state law, 5.6.1.3, 5.9
e-mail spam, application, 6.14.5.3
summaries, Appx. D
TIL protections, 5.4.3
unauthorized charges, 5.4.3, 5.4.4
unsigned payments, 5.4.4
upsells, 5.2.2
withholding payment, 5.10.1
TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
see also TELEMARKETING AND CONSUMER FRAUD AND ABUSE PREVENTION ACT (TCFAPA); TRADE REGULATIONS RULES (FTC)
abandoned calls, 6.6.3
advance fee loans, restrictions, 5.5.1
arbitration of claims, 5.7.6
banks and credit unions, application, 5.2.3.4
billing and payment restrictions, 5.4
express verifiable authorization, 5.4.4.1, 5.4.4.3
overview, 5.4.1
payment methods, 5.4.3, 5.4.4, 5.4.4.2
preacquired account information, 5.4.2, 5.4.4.4
telechecks, 5.4.4.2
unsigned payments, 5.4.4
business and investment opportunities, application, 5.2.3.2, 5.5.6
business-to-business transactions, application, 5.2.3.3
caller ID requirements, 6.6.5
calling hour restrictions, 6.6.4
constitutional challenges, 6.6.5
credit card laundering, application, 5.7.3
credit card protection products, 5.5.5
credit repair services, 5.5.2
customer initiated calls, application, 5.2.2
debt relief services, application, 5.5.4, 10.5
requirements, 10.5.3
disclosures, 5.3.2, 6.6.2.1
debt relief services, 10.5.3.3
do-not-call lists
company specific, 6.5.1
nationwide, 6.5.2
electronic funds transfers, application, 5.4.4.3
e-mail spam, application, 6.14.3.2
enforcement, 5.6, 10.5.5
federal enforcement, 5.6.3
private enforcement, 5.6.1, 6.2.3
state enforcement, 5.6.2
face-to-face transactions, application, 5.2.3.1
”free-to-pay” conversion features, 5.4.3, 5.4.4.4
general requirements, 5.3.1
harassment and abuse, 6.6.1
history of, 5.1.3
junk faxes, application, 6.8.1
liability, 5.7
misrepresentations, prohibitions, 5.3.3, 6.6.2.1
debt relief services, 10.5.3.4
negative-option sales, 5.3.4
obscene language, 6.6.1
overview, 5.1.1, 6.2.1
pay-per-call services, application, 5.2.3.2
preacquired account information, 5.4.2, 5.4.3.3
preemption of state law, 5.9.4
prerecorded calls, 6.4.2–6.4.4
prize promotions, requirements, 5.5.7
record retention, 5.8
debt relief services, 10.5.4
“recovery rooms,” 5.5.3
scope, 5.2, 6.2.2
debt relief services, 10.5.2.1–10.5.2.4
exemptions, 5.2.2, 5.2.3
general coverage, 5.2.1
online fraud, 5.2.4
unwanted telephone calls, 6.2.1
sellers, application, 5.2.1, 5.7.2
substantive prohibitions, 6.2.1
TCPA, comparison, 6.2.2
telechecks, application, 5.4.4.3
telemarketers, application, 5.7.1
text, Appx. C.1.2
third parties, application, 5.7.4
threats and intimidation, 6.6.1
unauthorized billing, 5.4.3
unencrypted account information, 5.4.2
unsigned payment methods, 5.4.4
violations
federal remedies, 5.6.3
other private remedies, 5.6.1.2
parties to sue, 5.7
private remedies under TCFAPA, 5.6.1.1, 10.5.5
state remedies, 5.6.2, 10.5.5
TELEPHONE CALLS
see TELEMARKETING; UNWANTED TELEPHONE CALLS
TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (TCPA)
Article III standing, 6.10
allegations of harm, 6.10.7
do-not-call rule, 6.10.4
informational injuries, 6.10.6
invasion of privacy, 6.10.3.2, 6.10.3.3
junk faxes, 6.10.5
overview, 6.10.1
practice aids, 6.10.8
residential lines, calls to, 6.10.4
risk of injury, 6.10.3.4
robocalls, 6.10.3.1
Spokeo, Inc. v. Robins, 6.10.2, 6.10.3.5
text messages, 6.10.3.1
constitutional challenges, 6.2.4.3
consumer remedies, 6.9
arbitration of claims, 6.11.2
attorney fees, 6.12.4
class actions, 6.12.5
defendant’s insurance policy, 6.11.7
jurisdiction, 6.11.1
pleadings and discovery, 6.11.3, 6.11.4
prerecorded calls, 6.3.6, 6.4.6
private cause of action, 6.3.6, 6.4.6, 6.6.5, 6.9.1
relief available, 6.12
standing, 6.9.3, 6.10
disclosure requirements, 6.4.3, 6.6.2.2
e-mail spam, application, 6.14.3.1
fax cases, 6.9.2.2
multiple violations, 6.12.2
FCC implementing rules, see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule compared, 6.2.1, 6.2.2
government enforcement, 6.3.5, 6.13
liability under, 6.9.2
multiple violations, 6.12.2
overview, 6.2.4.1
preemption of state law, 6.2.4.2
scope, 6.2.4.2, 6.3.5.2
selected provisions, Appx. C.2.1.2
statute of limitations, 6.11.6
TCFAPA compared, 6.2.1, 6.2.2
Truth in Caller ID Act, 6.6.5
UDAP, relationship, 6.12.6
unwanted calls, restrictions
abandoned calls, 6.6.3
auto dialers, 6.3, 6.7.2
caller ID blocking, 6.6.5
calling time restrictions, 6.3.5.4, 6.6.4
cell phones, 6.3
do-not-call lists, 6.5.1, 6.5.2
exceptions, burden of proof, 6.11.5
junk faxes, 6.8
prerecorded calls, 6.3, 6.4
residential lines, 6.4
sensitive phone numbers, 6.3
text messages, 6.7
willfulness or knowledge, effect, 6.12.3
TELEPHONE FRAUD
see TELEMARKETING FRAUD
TELEPHONE ORDER RULE (FTC)
see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
TELEPHONE SALES
see also MAIL ORDER SALES
cancellation rights, 2.5.4.5
customer initiated, 5.2.2
delivery or non-delivery
FTC rule, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
state law, 2.6.2
fraud, see TELEMARKETING FRAUD
negative option features, 5.3.4
online sales, 5.2.4
solicitations, see TELEMARKETING
upselling, 5.2.2
TELEPHONE SCAMS
see TELEMARKETING FRAUD
TELEPHONE SOLICITATIONS
see TELEMARKETING; TELEMARKETING FRAUD
TEXT MESSAGES
CAN-SPAM Act, application, 6.7.1
TCFAPA, application, 6.1
TCPA prohibitions, 6.7
auto dialing, 6.7.2
exceptions, 6.7.3
remedies, 6.7.4
telemarketing by, overview, 6.7.1
THEFT
see also FRAUD
online, see ONLINE FRAUD
state civil actions, 8.8
THIRD PARTIES
Internet post-transaction sellers, 11.5
RICO standing, 7.6.5
telemarketing fraud, liability, 5.7.4, 5.7.5
THREATS
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule, prohibition, 6.6.1
TIED SALES
antitrust laws, application, 11.1.2
TOLLING
statute of limitations
False Claims Act, 9.4
RICO, 7.8.2
TCPA, 6.11.6
TORT CLAIMS
debt relief services, 10.8.4
spam e-mail, 6.14.5.2
TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
business opportunities, see BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES RULE (FTC)
CFPB remedies, 2.2.6
credit practices, see CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
door-to-door sales, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
FTC remedies, 2.2.5
franchising, see FRANCHISING RULE (FTC)
funeral practices, see FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
guides, distinguished, 2.10
holders in due course, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
mail order sales, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
nature of, 2.2.1
negative option plans, see NEGATIVE OPTION PLANS RULE (FTC)
off-premises sales, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
overview, 2.1
private remedies, 2.2.4
no private right of action, 2.2.4.1
rule violation as UDAP violation, 2.2.4.2
scope, 2.2.2, 2.2.3
selected statutory provisions, Appx. A
spam e-mail, see CAN-SPAM RULE (FTC)
telemarketing, see TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
telephone order sales, see MAIL OR TELEPHONE ORDER MERCHANDISE RULE (FTC)
used cars, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
violations, 2.2.4–2.2.5
TRADE SCHOOLS
see also EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS; STUDENT LOANS
RICO precedent, 7.10.1.5
TREBLE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
TRUTH IN CALLER ID ACT
enactment, 6.6.5
TRUTH IN LENDING (TIL) ACT
assignee liability, 4.3.8.1
FTC Credit Practices Rule violations as violations of, 2.3.10
rescission rights, 2.5.3, 2.5.4.8
telemarketing fraud protections, 5.4.3
UDAAP
see UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
see also UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
business opportunities, application, 2.8.4
CFPB rule violations, relationship, 3.7
debt relief services, application, 10.8.1
federal preemption, 4.4.6
FTC rule violation as violation of
Business Opportunities Rule, 2.8.4
Cooling-Off Period Rule, 2.5.7
Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.10
Franchising Rule, 2.8.4
generally, 2.2.4.2
Holder Rule, 4.4.4, 4.4.6
Telemarketing Sales Rule, 5.6.1.2
Used Car Rule, 2.4.4
funeral practices, 2.9.2
mail and telephone orders, application, 2.6.2
negative option plans, application, 2.7, 11.5
non-English speaking consumers, application, 11.4.4
online fraud, application, 5.2.4, 6.14.5.1
online transactions, application, 11.5
overview, 1.5
plain language statute violations as violations of, 11.3
RICO statutes compared, 8.2.2
spam e-mail, application, 6.14.5.1
TCPA violations as violations of, 6.12.6
unsolicited merchandise, application, 11.2
UNCONSCIONABLE PRACTICES
see also DECEPTIVE PRACTICES; UNFAIR PRACTICES
non-English speaking consumer contracts, 11.4.4
UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
see also UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
acronym, use of term, 1.5
NCLC treatise, 1.2
UDAAP
distinguished, 1.5
relationship, 3.7
UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
abusive practices, see ABUSIVE PRACTICES
CFPB guidance, 3.4
collection of consumer debt, 3.4.2
credit card add-ons, 3.4.4
credit card promotional offers, 3.4.5
generally, 3.4.1
mortgage servicing for relocating military homeowners, 3.4.3
CFPB rules, 3.3
enforcement, 3.7–3.9
scope, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
state law relationship, 3.10
CFPB standards, 3.2
abusive practices, 3.2.4
deception, 3.2.2
generally, 3.2.1
unfairness, 3.2.3
CFPB supervision and examination manual, 3.5
deceptive practices, see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
UDAP distinguished, 1.5
UDAP relationship, 3.7
unfair practices, see UNFAIR PRACTICES
UNFAIR PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
abusive practices distinguished, 3.2.5
business opportunities, 2.8.4
CFPB standards, 3.2.3
supervision and examination manual, 3.5
deceptive practices distinguished, 3.2.5
definition, 2.2.4.2, 3.2.3
door-to-door sales, 2.5
financial products or services, 3.2.3
franchising, 2.8.2, 2.8.4
FTC Holder Notice omission, 4.4.4.4
funerals, 2.9
opportunity schemes, 2.8
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
Article 3, 4.4.2.2
Article 9, 4.4.2.1
holder notice, application, 4.4.2
holder status, application, 4.1.2.1
UNIFORM CONSUMER CREDIT CODE (UCCC)
FTC cooling-off period rule, conflicts, 2.5.2
UNIFORM DEBT-MANAGEMENT SERVICES ACT
text, Appx. I.2
UNITED STATES ATTORNEY
False Claims Act litigation, intervention, 9.4
UNORDERED MERCHANDISE
federal statute, 11.2, Appx. J
UDAP violations, 11.2
UNSOLICITED BULK COMMERCIAL EMAIL
see SPAM E-MAIL
UNSUBSTANTIATED CLAIMS
business opportunities, 2.8.3.3
debt relief services, 10.5.3.5
UNWANTED FAXES
see JUNK FAXES
UNWANTED TELEPHONE CALLS
see also TELEMARKETING
abandoned calls, 6.6.3
auto dialers, 6.3
caller ID, 6.6.5
calling times, 6.6.4
cell phones, 6.3
charitable organizations, 6.3.4.1
do-not-call lists, see DO-NOT-CALL LISTS
established business relationships, 6.3.4.5, 6.4.2–6.4.4, 6.5.2.3, 6.8.2.3
fax numbers, see JUNK FAXES
FTC Rule, see TELEMARKETING SALES RULE (FTC)
harassment, 6.6.1
obscene language, 6.6.1
prerecorded calls
cell phones and sensitive numbers, 6.3
residences, 6.4
private remedies, 6.3.6
residential lines, 6.4
sensitive phone numbers, 6.3
state law, 6.6.6
TCFAPA, application, 6.1
TCPA violations, liability, 6.9.2
text messages, 6.7
threats, 6.6.1
USED CAR PRACTICES
disclosures
language, 2.4.2
warranties, 2.4.2, 2.4.5
FTC rule, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
FTC streamlined rulemaking authority, Appx. A.2.2
UDAP liability, 2.4.6
USED CAR RULE (FTC)
see also TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC); USED CAR PRACTICES
common violations, 2.4.3
compliance, effect, 2.4.6
remedies, 2.4.4
requirements, 2.4.2
sales agreement conflicts, 2.4.5
scope, 2.4.1
text, Appx. A.11
USURY LAWS (STATE)
violation as RICO violation, 7.3.4
VENUE
False Claims Act suits, 9.4
RICO actions, 7.8.1
state actions, 8.6.1
VICTIMS OF CRIME
civil actions, 8.8
general statutes, 8.8.2
theft statutes, 8.8.1
WAGE ASSIGNMENTS
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 2.3.6
WAIVER
confession of judgment provisions, 2.3.4, 2.5.6.4
defenses, enforceability by assignees, 4.1.2.1
door-to-door sales contracts, 2.5.1, 2.5.6.4
WARRANTIES
Magnuson-Moss claims, see MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
used car sales, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
WEB RESOURCES
consumer fraud, 5.10.2
discovery, 1.4.3
junk fax litigation, 6.8.4
NCLC resources, 1.1.1, 1.3, 1.4.3
pleadings, 1.4.3
primary sources, 1.4.3
unreported cases, 1.4.4
WEB TRANSACTIONS
see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
WHISTLEBLOWERS
government-related fraud
False Claims Act, 9.9
other statutes, 9.11
WIRE FRAUD
federal statute, Appx. E.2
RICO actions, 7.3.2.5
RICO application, 7.3.2.1