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ACCESS TO INFORMATION
see also DISCLOSURE
Dodd-Frank Act, under, 3.3.11
FCRA, under, 3.3
ACCIDENT REPORTING BUREAUS
see also DRIVING RECORDS
FCRA, application, 2.7.9
ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
see COSIGNERS
ACCOUNTANTS
see also TAX PREPARATION SERVICES
GLBA, application, 18.4.1.3
ACCOUNT NUMBERS
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS; FINANCIAL INFORMATION; FINANCIAL PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
data brokers, “pretexting” to obtain, 18.4.2.3
sharing for marketing purposes, 18.4.1.9
truncation for identity theft protection, 9.2.5.1
ACCOUNTS
see also ACCOUNT NUMBERS
bank accounts, see FINANCIAL PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
credit accounts, see CREDIT ACCOUNTS
ACCURACY
see also INACCURATE INFORMATION
affiliate information sharing, 6.4.5
bankruptcy reporting, 4.3.2.4.5, 4.4.6.10
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
CRA obligations, 4.1.1, 4.2
liability, 4.4
credit scores, 16.8
definition, 4.2.1, 6.4.3.3
furnisher obligations, 4.2.1.4, 6.4
liability, 6.4.1, 6.4.4, 6.5.1
guidelines, 6.4.3
investigative consumer reports, 15.6.1
management policies discouraging, 4.4.6.1
Metro 2 Format, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.3.8, 6.4.2.5
missing information, 4.3.2, 4.4.6.9, 14.6.9, 16.8.2.3
public record information, 4.4.6.5
reinvestigations
CRA, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
directly by furnisher, see DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
reseller liability, 4.4.4
standards
affiliate information sharing, 6.4.5
applies to report not later explanation, 4.2.2
CRAs, 4.2, 4.4.5
furnisher accuracy and integrity guidelines, 6.4.3
furnishers of information, 4.2.1.4, 6.4.2
legislative history, 1.4.2, 1.4.3, 1.4.6, 1.4.9.2, 4.1.2
reasonable procedures, 4.4.4, 4.4.5, 4.4.6, 6.4.3.2
reinvestigations, 4.5.3
resellers, 4.4.4
studies and reports, 4.1.3
consumer groups, 4.1.3.2
FTC studies, 4.1.3.3
industry studies, 4.1.3.5
internal CRA analyses, 4.1.3.6
other government studies, 4.1.3.4
prevalence of errors shown, 4.1.3.1
technically accurate reports, 4.2.4
unrelated information, 4.2.5
verification, 4.2.6
violations, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
ACTIONS
see also DISCOVERY; JURY TRIALS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS; LITIGATION; PLEADINGS
burden of proof, see BURDEN OF PROOF
case selection, 11.3
civil rights, see CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
collection suits, see COLLECTION SUITS
credit repair violations
CROA violations, 17.2.8.2.1
state law violations, 17.3.6
telemarketing statutes, 17.4
damages, see DAMAGES
defamation, see DEFAMATION
defenses, see DEFENSES
evidence, see EVIDENCE
FCRA violations, see FCRA CLAIMS
identity theft, 9.5
invasion of privacy, see INVASION OF PRIVACY
jurisdiction, see JURISDICTION
liability, see LIABILITY
libel, see DEFAMATION
limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE
parties, see PARTIES
reporting, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
RESPA violations, 10.3
state law, see STATE CLAIMS
successful action, defined, 12.7.1.4
tort claims, see TORT CLAIMS
ACTIVE MILITARY ALERTS
see MILITARY DUTY ALERTS
ACTS
see STATUTES
ACTUAL DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
ADDRESS VERIFICATION SYSTEMS (AVS)
FCRA, application, 2.3.4.2.1
ADDRESSES
consumers
changes resulting in mismatched files, 4.3.3.6
credit card change of notice, 9.2.6.4
discrepancies, notice to user, 8.17.3, 9.2.6.3
furnishers of information, error notification, 6.4.4
investigating agencies, disclosure, 15.4.1.6
major credit reporting agencies, 3.4.2.2
Medical Information Bureau, 3.4.2.3
update reports, consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1
ADMINISTRATIVE ORDERS
child support enforcement, permissible use, 7.2.3.4.3
FCRA enforcement, examples, Appx. L
ADMINISTRATIVE SUMMONS OR SUBPOENAS
consumer reports, obtaining, 7.2.1
ADOPTION AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.6, 2.5.2
ADVERSE ACTION
account reviews, 8.5.4.3.9
affiliates, by, 3.3.1.3.4
auto financing, 8.6.1.4.1
check-writing denial, status, 8.5.4.6.2
consumer-initiated transactions, 8.5.4.6.1
consumer report, basis, 3.3.1.3, 7.1.9, 8.5.4
credit score provision, 3.3.1.3.5
free report, 3.3.1.3.1, 3.3.6
insufficient information, 8.5.4.1.2
investigation of information, 8.6.1.4.4
user disclosure, see ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
cosigner’s credit history, 8.6.1.4.3
counteroffer acceptance, status, 8.5.4.3.5
credit card authorizations, 2.4.5
credit denial
consumer reports, use, 7.2.3.2, 8.5.4.3
definition, 8.5.4.3.3
evidentiary issues, 12.1.7.4
notice to consumer, see ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
reasons, disclosure, 8.5.2.1
definition, 8.5.4.2, 8.5.4.3.1
ECOA obligations
notice requirements, 8.5.6, Appx. C.10
reasons for action, 8.5.2.1
record retention, 12.1.5
employment purposes, 8.11.1.1.2
employment report, disclosures prior to, 3.3.1.3.2, 7.2.4.3.3
employee misconduct exemption, 7.2.4.4, 15.2.4.2
government benefits and licenses, 8.5.4.5
impermissible purpose situations, 7.1.9
information other than consumer report, 3.3.1.3.3, 8.6
insurance purposes, 7.2.5, 8.5.4.4
investigative reports, 15.4.1.6
lease denial, status, 8.5.4.6.3, 8.6.1.2
loan information, verification, 8.6.1.4.2
notice, see ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
prescreening exclusion, 8.5.4.3.8
price quotes, status, 8.5.4.3.6
property sale, 8.5.4.6.4
reporting by creditor, status as consumer report, 2.7.2
risk-based pricing, 8.5.4.3.4, 8.7, 16.7.2
state law preemption, 10.7
third party credit requests, 2.4.6
third party information, 8.6
ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
see also ADVERSE ACTION
accepted counteroffers, 8.5.4.3.5
account reviews, 8.5.4.3.9
affiliate information sharing, 3.3.1.3.4, 8.6.2
catchall provision, 8.5.4.3.1, 8.5.4.6.1
check-writing denial, 8.5.4.6.1, 8.5.4.6.2
consumer-initiated transactions, 8.5.4.6.1
content, 8.5.2
affiliate sharing notice, 8.6.2.1
credit scoring information, 8.5.2.4
identification of action and actor, 8.5.2.2
identification of CRA, 8.5.2.3
overview, 8.5.2.1
third party information notice, 8.6.1.1
cosigners, 8.5.4.3.7, 8.6.1.4.3
credit denial, 8.5.4.3
credit score, inclusion, 1.4.11, 3.3.1.3.5, 8.4.2, 16.4.4
ECOA notice
comparison with FCRA notice, 8.5.6
model form, 8.5.6, Appx. C.9
reasons to be given, 8.5.2.1
record retention, 12.1.5
employee misconduct investigations, 8.11.1.2.1, 15.2.4.2
employment reports, 3.3.1.3.2, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.1.1
employment agency exemption, 8.11.1.2.4
national security exemption, 8.11.1.2.3
post-adverse action, 8.11.4
pre-adverse action, 8.11.3
enforcement of notice right, 8.5.5
affiliate sharing notice, 8.6.2.2
third party information, 8.6.1.5
entitlement to notice, 8.5.4
affiliate sharing, 8.6.2.1
generally, 8.5.4.1
third party information, 8.6.1.1
failure to send, 12.5.2.2.2
government benefits, 8.5.4.5
importance and role, 8.5.1.1
information other than consumer report, 3.3.1.3.3, 8.6
affiliate sharing, 8.6.2
third party information, 8.6.1
insurance purposes, 7.2.5, 8.5.4.4
investment opportunities, 8.5.4.6.1
lease denial, 8.5.4.6.1, 8.5.4.6.3, 8.6.1.2, 14.7.3
manner of giving notice, 8.5.3
third party information, 8.6.1.3
model form, 8.5.6
prescreening offers, 8.5.4.3.8
price quotes, 8.5.4.3.6
provision of notice, requirements, 8.5.3.1
risk-based pricing, 8.5.4.3.4, 8.7, 16.7.2
role, 8.1.1
sale of property, 8.5.4.6.1, 8.5.4.6.4
third party information use, 3.3.1.3.3, 8.6.1
ADVERSE INFORMATION
affiliate sharing, 3.3.1.3.4
checks as basis for, identification, 3.5.4.4
concealment
identity alteration, 17.2.7.3
misstatements, 17.2.7.2
consumer reporting agency obligations
investigative reports, 15.6.2
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
cosigners, 5.6.2, 5.6.3
credit record, protecting when settling disputes, 14.6.4
credit repair organizations, concealing, 17.2.7.2
deletion before obsolete, 5.2.2.2
disputed debts, 6.5.3
ECOA restrictions, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
explanations, 4.8.3
financial institutions, reporting by, 6.9, 8.9
fraudulent, blocking, 9.2.4
home mortgages, guidelines, 14.7.2.1
identifying information as, 7.2.10.2
inaccurate, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
investigative reports, verification, 15.6.2.2
management policies encouraging, 4.4.6.1
military personnel, 5.7.1
notice
cosigners, 5.6.3
financial institutions, 6.9, 8.9
model notices, proper use, 6.9
public record information, 8.11.5
state law, 5.6.3
student loans, 14.4.5
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
other than consumer report, 3.3.1.3.3, 8.6
public record information, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
settlements, reporting in violation of, 10.7.3.6, 14.6.4.3
source, disclosure, 3.3.1.3.3, 3.3.1.3.4
student loans, 14.4.5
theft-related debts, blocking, 9.2.4
third party, obtaining from, 3.3.1.3.3, 8.6
updating, 4.4.6.9.4
use, see ADVERSE ACTION
verification, reasonable procedures, 7.5.3
ADVERSE USE
see ADVERSE ACTION
ADVERTISEMENTS
centralized source, restrictions, 3.3.2.3
credit repair, 17.2.2.2.4, 17.2.2.7
fraud or deception, 17.2.7.5
misrepresentations, 17.2.7.4
free credit reports
annual free report, accompanying, 3.3.2.3
promotions offering, 3.3.3
AFFILIATE SHARING OF INFORMATION
see also AFFILIATES
accuracy standards, 6.4.5
adverse action, notice, 3.3.1.3.4, 8.6.2
consumer opt-out rights, 2.4.3.2, 8.12.1.1
financial information, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.6.2
marketing purposes, 2.4.3.2.3, 8.12.3
model notice, Appx. C.11
notice to consumer, 2.4.3.2.2, 8.12.3.3
third party information, 2.4.3.2.2
disputed debts, 6.4.5
FCRA application, 2.4.3, 6.2.2.1, 8.12.1.1
financial institutions, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.6.2
legislative history, 1.4.6
marketing information, 2.4.3.2.3, 8.12.3
medical information, 5.4.4
notice to consumers, 8.12
adverse action, 3.3.1.3.4, 8.6.2
exclusion notice, 8.12.2
marketing information sharing, 2.4.3.2.3, 8.12.3, Appx. C.11
use of information, 2.4.3.2.2, 8.12
state law preemption, 2.4.3.2.4, 10.7.5
types of affiliate sharing, 8.12.1.1
AFFILIATES
adverse action, 3.3.1.3.4, 8.6.2
debt collectors affiliated with reporting agencies, 3.3.7
defined, 18.4.1.6.2
disputing debts with, 6.4.5
information sharing, see AFFILIATE SHARING OF INFORMATION
nationwide reporting agencies, reinvestigation, 4.5.2.6
AGE
prescreened lists, 7.3.3.1.2
reports containing, consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1
AGENCIES
adoption, see ADOPTION AGENCIES
child support, see CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
credit reporting, see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
federal, see FEDERAL AGENCIES
government, generally, see GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
law enforcement, see LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
local government, see LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
state, see STATE AGENCIES
welfare, see WELFARE AGENCIES
AGENTS
consumer reports, obtaining, 7.1.6
power of attorney, 3.4.4
AGREEMENTS
see also CONTRACTS
arbitration agreements, see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
repayment plans, see REPAYMENT AGREEMENTS
settlement of disputes, see SETTLEMENT
ALERTS
see also IDENTITY THEFT
active military service, see MILITARY DUTY ALERTS
fraud alerts, see FRAUD ALERTS
ALIMONY
see also CHILD SUPPORT; DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
consumer reports, use, 7.4.2, 14.2.4
ALTERNATIVE CREDIT BUREAUS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; SPECIALTY AGENCIES
credit scoring, 16.9.1
FCRA, application, 2.7.11
APARTMENT LEASES
see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
APARTMENT MANAGERS
consumer reports, obtaining, 7.1.6
APPLICATIONS FOR CREDIT
see CREDIT APPLICATIONS
ARBITRATION CLAUSES
credit score purchases, 3.3.4.6
enforceability, 12.4
application to dispute, 12.4.3.1
bankruptcy situations, 12.4.3.8
class-wide arbitration, 12.4.5.1
consumer reporting agencies, by, 12.4.2.2, 12.4.2.2
credit repair organizations, 17.2.8.4
debt collectors, by, 12.4.2.5, 12.4.2.4
determination of arbitrability, 12.4.4
existence of agreement, 12.4.2
formation of agreement, 12.4.3.2
home mortgage loans, 12.4.2.3
manufactured home loans, 12.4.2.3
military personnel, 12.4.2.3
NAF as forum, 12.4.3.5
punitive damages, 12.4.5.2
report users, by, 12.4.2.4
state insurance restrictions, 12.4.2.3
unconscionability, 12.4.3.4
waiver, 12.4.3.3
ARRESTS
see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
ASSEMBLING OF INFORMATION
consumer reporting agency status, 2.5.3.2
ASSIGNEES
CROA, application, 17.2.2.7, 17.2.2.2.6
ASSOCIATED CREDIT BUREAUS, INC.
see CONSUMER DATA INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION, INC. (CDIA)
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
CROA claims, 17.2.8.5.1, 17.2.8.6
FCRA claims
bad faith, 12.7.1.2
costs, 12.7.1.5
mandatory award, 12.7.1.3
maximizing awards, 11.1, 12.7.3
prevailing party, 12.7.1.4
right to, 12.7.1.1
settlements, 12.7.4
standards, 12.7.2
federal fee shifting standards, 12.7.2.2
lodestar approach, 12.7.2.2
Rule 68, 12.7.5
settled cases, 12.7.4
settlement breach, 14.6.4.3
successful action, 12.7.1.4
tort claims, 12.7.3
ATTORNEYS
advising regarding credit reporting, 14.1
consumer files
power of attorney disclosures, 3.4.4
reinvestigation requests, 4.5.2.5
consumer reports
certification of permissible use, 7.5.2.2
impermissible use, 7.4.4
obtaining, 7.1.6, 7.2.1, 12.1.3.10
permissible user, 7.2.3.4.1
prospective clients, 7.4.4
credit scores, considerations, 16.10
creditor status, 1.4.12.1, 2.3.6.3.1
CROA, application, 17.2.2.5
credit repair organization status, 17.2.2.4, 17.2.2.5
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.3.1, 2.7.8
fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
practice aids, see PRACTICE AIDS
Red Flag Guidelines, application, 1.4.12.1, 2.3.6.3.1, 9.2.6.2.2
reinvestigation requests, 4.5.2.5
subpoenas issued by, court order status, 7.2.1, 12.1.3.10
AUDIT TRAIL
consumer files, disclosure, 3.5.5.2
AUTHORIZED USERS
reporting of debts, 5.6.2
AUTOMATED CONSUMER DISPUTE VERIFICATIONS (ACDVs)
see also CONSUMER DISPUTE VERIFICATION (CDV) FORM
challenging system, 4.5.3.4.4
dispute codes, 4.5.6.2
electronic processing of, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.1.2
reinvestigation notice, 4.5.4.2, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.3.2
reinvestigation results, 6.10.6.6
sample form, Appx. I.3
AUTOMATED REINVESTIGATION SYSTEM
see also E-OSCAR
nationwide reporting agencies, 4.6.4, 6.10.1.2
problems with, 6.10.1.2, 6.10.4.2.3
use by furnishers, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
AUTOMATED UNIVERSAL DATA FORMS (AUDFs)
see also UNIVERSAL DATA FORM
e-OSCAR processing system, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.1.2
AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
see also DEALER PAPER
credit repair laws, application
CROA, 17.2.2.7
state law, 17.3.4
disclosure obligations, 8.6.1.4.1
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.5
FTC regulations, Appx. B.3.2
GLBA, application, 18.4.1.3
AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE
see INSURANCE
AUTOMOBILE LEASES
see also PERSONAL PROPERTY LEASES
blemished credit record, impact, 14.7.1
fraud lists, 14.7.7
return of car, advertised rewards, bad debt list exemption, 14.2.3
AUTOMOBILE LOANS
blemished credit record, impact, 14.7.1
BACKGROUND CHECK DATABASES
accuracy requirements, 4.3.5.1
file contents, 3.2.4
mismerged information, 4.4.6.6
BAD CHECK LISTS
see CHECK CASHING LISTS
BAD DEBT LISTS
see also CONSUMER LISTS
publication, 14.2.3
BAD DEBTS
see CHARGED-OFF ACCOUNTS; DELINQUENT ACCOUNTS
BAD DRIVING LISTS
see also CONSUMER LISTS
specialized agencies, 3.2.4
BANKING REGULATORS
credit unions, see NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION (NCUA)
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.3, 13.2.6
FCRA regulatory powers, 1.3.3.1
citations, Appx. B.4
summary of current regulations,1.3.3.1.2
FRB, see FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
GLBA enforcement powers, 18.4.1.2
identity theft, red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2
national banks, see OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
state-chartered banks, see FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
BANKRUPTCY
advantages, 14.6.8
arbitration of core matters, 12.4.3.8
cosigner, reporting, 5.6.2
discharged debts, reporting
improper reporting, 4.3.2.4, 4.4.6.10.2
time limit, 14.7.2.2
FCRA claims
jurisdiction, 11.4.1
relationship, 12.3.1.9
Metro 2 Format reporting, 6.3.3.13
mortgage applications, impact, 14.7.2.2
reporting inaccuracies, 4.4.6.10
discharged debts, 4.3.2.4, 4.4.6.10.2
erroneous report, 4.4.6.10.3
other issues, 4.4.6.10.4
sample complaint, Appx. J.2.5
time limits, 5.2.3.8
risk scoring, 16.2.2.4
spouses, 4.4.6.10.3
Metro 2 reporting, 6.3.3.13.2
stay violations, 10.3
student loans, impact, 14.6.5, 14.7.8
updating files after, 4.3.2.4
utility services, effect, 14.7.4
BANKS
see also CREDITORS; DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
accounts
see also FINANCIAL PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
number sharing, 18.4.1.9
pretexting, 18.4.2.1, 18.4.2.3
credit denial, see ADVERSE ACTION
CROA exemption, 17.2.2.3.4
FCRA enforcement authority over, 13.2.2, 13.2.3, 13.7.2
financial information, see FINANCIAL INFORMATION
GLBA, application, 18.4.1
regulatory authorities, see BANKING REGULATORS
BENEFITS
see GOVERNMENT BENEFITS; INSURANCE BENEFITS
BILLING ERRORS
see also CREDIT DISPUTES; DISPUTED INFORMATION
claims re, 10.3
definition, 5.3.4
FCBA, regulation, 5.3.4
home mortgages, 5.3.5
notification address, 6.4.4
open-end credit, 5.3.4
BOUNCED CHECKS
see DISHONORED CHECKS
BROKERS
data brokers, see DATA BROKERS
information brokers, see RESELLERS
loan brokers, see LOAN BROKERS
real estate brokers, see REAL ESTATE AGENTS
BULK SALES
consumer files, 7.1.7
BULLETINS
see LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETINS
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
FCRA violations
actual damages, 12.5.2.1
attorney fees, 12.7.2.2
punitive damages, 12.5.4.1.1
reasonable procedure violations, 4.4.5.1.2, 6.10.4.3
reasonable procedures as defense, 12.3.1.2
willful noncompliance, 12.5.3.2
tort claims, 10.4.6.1
BUSINESS CREDIT
see also COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS; CREDIT
consumer reports
impermissible use, 7.1.9
permissible use, 7.2.3.1.3
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.2, 2.3.6.3.1
reports for, see COMMERCIAL REPORTS
BUSINESS DEBTS
collection, consumer report use, 7.2.3.1.3
BUSINESS HISTORIES
consumer report status, 2.3.3.3, 2.3.6.2
BUSINESS INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE
consumer reports use, 7.2.5
BUSINESS PURPOSES
see BUSINESS CREDIT; COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
BUSINESS REPORTS
see COMMERCIAL REPORTS
BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS
see also BUSINESSES
commercial purposes, see COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
consumer report, permissible purpose, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2
eligibility determination, necessity, 7.2.8.2.2.3
examples, 7.2.8.2.2.2
initiated by consumer, 7.2.8.2.3
legitimate business need, 7.2.8.2.4
personal, family, or household purposes, 7.2.8.2.2.1
definition, 7.2.8.2.2.2
BUSINESSES
see also CORPORATIONS; PARTNERSHIPS; SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPS
affiliated, see AFFILIATES
credit for, see BUSINESS CREDIT
FCRA, application, 2.3.3.3, 2.3.6.2, 2.3.6.8, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.8
insurance, see BUSINESS INSURANCE
legitimate need for information, consumer report use
account review, 7.2.8.3
impermissible use, 7.4.11
insurance benefit issuance, 2.3.6.5.2
permissible use, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8
transactions initiated by consumer, 7.2.8.2.4
reports on, see COMMERCIAL REPORTS
transactions
commercial purpose, see COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
involving consumers, see BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS
CDIA
see CONSUMER DATA INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION, INC. (CDIA)
CDV
see CONSUMER DISPUTE VERIFICATION (CDV) FORM
CENTRALIZED SOURCE
free annual credit reports, 3.3.2.3
CERTIFICATION
see also VERIFICATION
consumer reports, permissible use
blanket certification, 4.9.1, 7.5.2.2
child support purposes, 7.2.9
continuing reports, 7.5.2.3
counterterrorism, 7.2.10.5
electronic communication, 7.5.4
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.1
generally, 7.5.2
obsolete information, 5.2.5.4
resellers, 2.6.3.3
verification of certifying user, 7.5.3
investigative reports, 15.4.1.5
reinsertion of information, 4.7.2.3
CHARGED-OFF ACCOUNTS
see also DELINQUENT ACCOUNTS
date of charge-off, duty to provide, 5.2.3.4.3
nature of charge-offs, 5.2.3.4.2
reporting restrictions, 5.2.3.4
CHARGES
see FEES
CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; SPECIALTY AGENCIES
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.3.2
GLBA, application, 18.4.1.3
identity theft, blocking of information, 9.2.4.1.5
information found in databases, 3.2.4
lists issued by, see CHECK CASHING LISTS
nationwide agencies, 2.6.2
CHECK CASHING LISTS
see also CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES; CONSUMER LISTS
adverse use, notice, 8.5.4.6.1, 8.5.4.6.2
blemished credit record, implications, 14.7.7
coding requirement, 14.7.7
consumer report status, 2.3.4.1, 2.3.6.3.2
CHECK CASHING REPORTS
see CHECK CASHING LISTS
CHECK GUARANTEE BUSINESSES
see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES; CHECK CASHING LISTS
CHECKS
see also CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES; CHECK CASHING LISTS
adverse characterizations, identification disclosure, 3.5.4.4
credit, status as, 7.2.3.1.2
payment by
consumer report, permissible use, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.3.1.2, 7.2.8.2.2.1
denial, notice requirements, 8.5.4.6.2
returned checks, see DISHONORED CHECKS
CHEXSYSTEMS
see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
CHILD CUSTODY
see CHILD SUPPORT; DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
CHILD IDENTITY THEFT
problem of, 9.4.5
CHILD SUPPORT
see also DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
consumer report
impermissible uses, 7.2.3.4.3, 14.2.4
permissible uses, 2.3.6.9, 7.2.3.4.3, 7.2.9, 7.4.2
enforcement, see CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
FAST Act amendments, 1.4.12.2
overdue, inclusion in consumer report, 5.8.2, 7.4.2
CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see also CHILD SUPPORT
computer linkups with reporting agencies, 7.5.4
consumer reports, permissible users, 7.2.3.4.3, 7.4.2
determination of support levels, 2.3.6.9, 7.2.9
disclosure notice
content and nature, 8.13.2
reporting of debts, 5.8.2, 7.4.2
CHILDREN’S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION ACT
scope, 18.4.2.1
CHOICEPOINT
see DATA BROKERS
CIVIL PENALTIES
furnishers, against, 13.3.4, 13.7.3
CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
credit reporting abuses, 10.3
privacy from governmental intrusion, 18.2
CIVIL SUITS
see ACTIONS; COLLECTION SUITS; FCRA CLAIMS; LITIGATION
CLASS ACTIONS
class-wide arbitration, 12.4.5.1
credit repair violations, 17.2.8.7
class arbitration bans, 17.2.8.4.4
credit reporting violations, 11.2.3
attorney fee awards, 12.7.2.2
challenges to, 11.2.3.3
discharged debts, 4.4.6.10.2.4
discovery of class members, 12.1.4.2
examples, 11.2.3.2
generally, 11.2.3.1
offers of judgment, 11.2.3.3.8
superiority, 11.2.3.3.4
settlements, 11.2.3.4
CLUE
see DATA BROKERS
CODED LISTS
see also CONSUMER LISTS
check cashing lists, 14.7.7
consumer report status, 2.3.3.2
CODING SCHEMES
bankruptcy reporting, 4.3.2.4.7
check cashing lists, 14.7.7
medical furnisher information, 5.4.3
reinvestigations, 4.5.6.2
COLLECTION AGENCIES
see DEBT COLLECTORS
COLLECTION OF INFORMATION
consumer reporting agency status, 2.5.3.2
COLLECTION SUITS
see also CREDITORS
consumer reports, use, 14.2.4
court orders covering reporting issues, 14.6.4.5
credit accounts, 7.2.3.4
reporting limitations, 5.2.3.5
settlement, resolving reporting issues, 14.6.4, 16.6.2.5
COLLEGE PLACEMENT OFFICES
FCRA, application, 2.7.7
COMMERCIAL REPORTS
consumer report status, 2.3.3.3, 2.3.5.2, 2.3.5.4, 2.3.6.2
false pretenses, obtaining under, 7.7.4
litigation, use, 7.4.4
COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
see also BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS
consumer reports, impermissible use, discovering, 7.1.9
credit transactions, see BUSINESS CREDIT
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.2, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.3.1.3, 7.2.8.2.2.1
insurance transactions, see BUSINESS INSURANCE
reports in connection with, see COMMERCIAL REPORTS
COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CFTC)
FCRA regulatory and enforcement authority, 1.3.3.1.2, 13.2.5
GLBA regulatory authority, 18.4.1.2
identity theft, red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2.1
COMMON LAW
privacy protections, 18.3, 18.5
torts, see TORT CLAIMS
COMPANIES
affiliated, see AFFILIATES
businesses, see BUSINESSES
check approval companies, see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
consumer reporting companies, see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
corporations, see CORPORATIONS
credit reporting companies, see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
tenant screening, see TENANT SCREENING COMPANIES
COMPLAINTS
see CONSUMER COMPLAINTS; PLEADINGS
COMPUTER DATING SERVICES
see DATING SERVICES
COMPUTER ERRORS
see also ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION
consumer files
data retrieval, 4.4.6.8
legislative response, 1.4.3
mismerged files, 4.3.3, 4.4.6.6
transcription errors, 4.4.6.8
Metro 2 Format, 6.3.3.8
public record information, 4.3.5.2
COMPUTER FRAUD AND ABUSE ACT
see also COMPUTER FRAUD LAWS
claims under, 10.3
criminal sanctions, 13.6
financial information, protections, 18.4.2.1
COMPUTER FRAUD LAWS
civil claims, 10.3
criminal penalties, 13.6
federal statute, see COMPUTER FRAUD AND ABUSE ACT
financial information, protections, 18.4.2.1
COMPUTER HOOKUPS
see ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION
CONDITIONAL PRIVILEGE
see QUALIFIED PRIVILEGE
CONFIDENTIALITY
see also PRIVACY
consumer files, legislative history, 1.4.2, 1.4.3
credit score calculations, 16.5.4
discovery requests and, 12.1.3.8
financial information, 18.5
investigative reports, sources, 15.4.2.3, 15.4.4
Metro 2 Format, 6.3.3.1
purpose of FCRA, 7.1.1
CONSENT
see also WAIVER
consumer reports
consumer’s, effect, 7.2.2
employment reports, requirement, 7.2.4.3.2, 15.5.1
insurance report, business purpose, 7.2.5
medical information, inclusion, 5.4.2
employee agency communications, 2.4.4.2.5
FCRA disclosures
form of disclosure, 3.6.1, 3.6.2
presence of another person, 3.6.2
CONSOLIDATION SERVICES
see RESELLERS
CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
DPPA restrictions, 18.4.2.4
FCRA class statutory damages, 12.3.1.5
FCRA identity theft provisions, 9.2.5.1.4
FCRA restrictions on obsolete information, 5.2.1.2, 12.3.1.5
security freeze laws, 9.4.4.5
CONSUMER
see CONSUMERS
CONSUMER COMPLAINTS
CFPB referral process, 13.3.5
credit disputes, complaint address, 6.4.4, 14.6.2.3
identity theft, 9.1.3
inaccurate information
complaints to furnisher, 6.5.2
complaints to reporting agency, 4.5, 6.10
complaints to regulators, 4.1.3.4
CONSUMER CREDIT INFORMATION
see CONSUMER REPORTS
CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
see also EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA); FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA); FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA); FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
Dodd-Frank amendments, 1.4.11
rights under, exercise, discrimination, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
CONSUMER CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
see CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
CONSUMER DATA INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION, INC. (CDIA)
accuracy studies, 4.1.3.5
e-OSCAR, creation, 6.10.1.2
Metro 2
creation, 6.3.1
information regarding, 6.3.2.1
professional liability insurance, 12.1.3.11
CONSUMER DISPUTE VERIFICATION (CDV) FORM
electronic (ACDV) communication, 6.10.3.2, 6.10.6.6
on-line processing system, 6.10.1.2
problems with, 6.10.4.2.3
notification of furnisher, 6.10.3.2
problems with, 6.10.1.2, 6.10.3.2
use, circumstances, 6.3.2.5
CONSUMER DISPUTES
see CREDIT DISPUTES; DISPUTED INFORMATION
CONSUMER FILES
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CREDIT RECORD
access rights, 3.3
adverse action, 3.3.6
affiliated debt collector communications, 3.3.7
contents of disclosure, 3.5
credit repair organizations, disclosure, 17.2.3
credit scores, 3.3.4, 3.5.5.1
fee payment, 3.3.10
fraud, 3.3.5
free annual disclosure, 3.3.2, 3.4.2.1
identity theft, 3.3.5
location of information irrelevant, 3.5.3
mechanics of exercising, 3.4
representative of consumer, 3.4.4
time limits, 3.3.10.3
users, from, 3.3.1
additional information
consumer rights, 4.8, 14.6.9
updated information, 4.4.6.9.4, 4.4.6.9.5
adverse information, see ADVERSE INFORMATION
alerts, 4.8.2, 9.2.2
active military duty, see MILITARY DUTY ALERTS
fraud alerts, see FRAUD ALERTS
audit trail, 3.5.5.2
authorized users, 5.6.2, 16.8.3
bankruptcy, effect, 14.6.8
“big three” nationwide agencies, 3.2.3, 3.4.1
building by reporting agency, 4.3.3.2.1
bulk sales, 7.1.7
business reports, commingling, 2.3.5.4
cleaning up, 14.6, 16.6.2.4
computer access, 7.5.4
consumer report distinguished, 2.3.1.2
contents, 3.2
disclosure, see DISCLOSURE
“big three” nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.2, 3.4.1
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
restrictions, 3.2.2
right to dispute, 4.5.1
specialized agencies, 3.2.4
third party’s information, 3.5.1.6, 4.3.3.1
corrections
automated reinvestigation system, 4.6.4, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
following reinvestigations, 4.6.2
monitoring, 4.6.4, 4.7.1, 14.6.4.7
credit account information, 3.2.3.2.3
credit limits, missing, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.2
credit scores, see CREDIT SCORES
dating of information, 5.2.5.3
defined, 3.2.2, 5.6.1
deletion of information
accurate information, 6.4.2.7, 14.6.2.4.3
agency rights, 5.2.2.2
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
following reinvestigation, 4.6.2
furnisher rights, 6.4.2.7, 14.6.2.4.3
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
“pay for deletion,” 6.4.2.7, 14.6.2.4.3
reinsertion, see REINSERTION OF INFORMATION
reporting, 4.9.1
soft-deletes, 4.6.2, 4.7.1.2, 14.6.4.3
disclosure distinguished from consumer report, 4.4.3
disclosure requests, see CONSUMER REPORTS, obtaining
disclosure rights, 3.3, 3.5, 15.4.4
disputed information
cleaning up after resolution, 14.6.4.6
cloaking, 4.6.2
correction, 4.6.2, 6.5.4, 14.6.4.5
date conformity reviews, 6.10.4.2.3
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2
missing accounts, 4.4.6.9.2, 14.6.9
monitoring after resolution, 14.6.4.7
notation on file, 4.8.1, 4.8.2, 6.6, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
past users, notification, 4.9, 8.17.4
public record information, 14.6.3
reinsertion after deletion, see REINSERTION OF INFORMATION
reinvestigation, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
removal, 14.6.4.1
right to dispute, 4.5.1
soft-deletes, 4.6.2, 4.7.1.2, 14.6.4.3
employment agencies, 2.4.4.2.5
errors, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
examining
importance of, 3.1.2
mechanics of, 3.4
practice tips, 3.7
right to, 3.3, 3.5
explanations, inclusion, 4.8.3
favorable information, 5.2.2.1, 5.2.2.2
flat file system, 4.3.3.2.1
fraud alerts, see FRAUD ALERTS
“header” information, 2.3.4.2, 3.2.3.2.2, 3.7.1
identifying information, 3.2.3.2.2
altering to confuse reporting agency, 14.5.5, 17.2.7.3
furnishing to government agencies, 7.2.10.2
theft of, see IDENTITY THEFT
identity theft related information, blocking, 9.2.4
illogical files, 4.4.6.3
inaccurate, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
incomplete files, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
inconsistencies, 4.4.6.3
information collected, purpose, 2.3.5
inquiries, 3.2.3.2.4
see also INQUIRY ACTIVITY
insurance purposes, segregation, 14.7.5
investigative report materials, 3.2.1
location of information, 3.5.3
matching of data, errors, 4.3.3
matching procedures, 4.3.3.2
medical information, see MEDICAL INFORMATION
mismerged/mixed files, 4.3.3, 4.4.6.6
fragmentary files, 4.3.3.9
identity theft and, 4.3.3.7
reason for, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.3
sample complaint, Appx. J.2.3
studies on, 4.3.3.3
missing accounts
see also INACCURATE INFORMATION
adding, 4.4.6.9.2, 4.8.4, 14.6.9
adverse action based on, 8.5.4.1.2
nationwide agencies, 3.2.3
negative information, see ADVERSE INFORMATION
new files or information, 4.4.6.9.2, 4.8.4, 14.5.9
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
OFAC list, 3.5.1.4
overview, 3.1.1
PINing, 4.3.3.2.1
prescreened inquiries, see PRESCREENED REPORTS
prior use, effect, 2.3.5.2
public record information, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
reinsertion of information, see REINSERTION OF INFORMATION
reinvestigation of information, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
repayment schedules, reporting, 14.6.7.3
reports on, see CONSUMER REPORTS
retrieval errors, 4.3.3.10, 4.4.6.8
sales between agencies, 2.3.1, 7.1.7
security freezes, 9.4.4, 14.6.6.2
segregation techniques, 14.5.5, 17.2.7.3
insurance purposes, 14.7.5
settled disputes, 14.6.4
monitoring file, 14.6.4.7
sources of information
see also FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
disclosure, 3.5.4.2
inaccurate sources, 4.4.6.4
nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.3
specialized agencies, 2.7.3, 3.2.4
spouses
ECOA requirements, 5.6.1, 14.6.9
FCRA restrictions, 5.6.1
standards, legislative history, 1.4.2
statement of dispute, inclusion, 4.8.1, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
supplementing information, 14.6.9
tenant screening companies, 14.7.3
third party information in, 3.5.1.6, 4.3.3.1
“tradeline” information, 3.2.3.2.3
transcription errors, 4.4.6.8
updating, 4.4.6.9.4, 4.4.6.9.5
after dispute settlement, 14.6.4.6, 14.6.4.7
furnishers, 6.5
variation, 3.4.1
withdrawing information, 14.6.4.1
CONSUMER FINANCIAL MARKETS
see FINANCIAL PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
bulletins, 1.3.3.2.3
compliant reports, 1.3.3.2.3
consumer complaint referral process, 13.3.5
consumer reporting, definition, 2.3.1.1, 2.5.1, 13.2.4.5
CRA annual report to, 9.2.1.3
creation by Dodd-Frank Act, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11
credit score study, 3.3.4.3, 16.4.5.1
“larger participants” rule, 13.2.4.5, Appx. B.2.3
rulemaking and enforcement authority, 1.4.11
depository institutions and credit unions, 13.2.2
enforcement powers, 13.3.2
examples of enforcement actions, 13.4
exclusions, 13.2.5
FCRA, 1.3.3.1, 13.2, 13.3.2
GLBA, 18.4.1.2
nondepository covered persons, 13.2.4
regulations and interpretations, 1.3.3.1, 13.2.7
summary of current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2
supervisory authority, 13.2.8
supervisory highlights, 1.3.3.2.3
CONSUMER LISTS
address updates, 2.3.4.2.1
bad debts, see BAD DEBT LISTS
blemished record, implications, 14.7.7
check cashing, see CHECK CASHING LISTS
coded lists, 2.3.3.2, 14.7.7
consumer report status, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.4.2.1, 2.3.4.2.3, 2.3.4.2.4, 7.3.2
FCRA, application, 2.3.3.2, 2.3.4.2.3, 2.3.4.2.4, 7.3.2.1
fraud lists, use by banks, 14.7.7
identifying information, consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1, 7.2.10.2
impermissible use, 7.4.8
insurance claims, see INSURANCE CLAIM LISTS
judgment debtors, 14.2.3
law enforcement agencies, see LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETINS
mailing lists, see MAILING LISTS
permissible uses, 7.3
prescreened, see PRESCREENED REPORTS
skip tracing, 2.3.6.3.2
specialized lists, 3.2.4
targeted marketing, see TARGETED MARKETING LISTS
trigger lists, see TRIGGER LISTS
younger consumers, 7.3.3.1.2
CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
see also CREDIT BUREAUS; INSPECTION BUREAUS; RESELLERS
arbitration requirements, enforcement, 12.4.2.2, 12.4.2.2
accident reporting bureaus, status, 2.7.9
account numbers, information sharing, 18.4.1.9
accuracy standards, 4.1.1
see also ACCURACY; INACCURATE INFORMATION
internal studies, 4.1.3.5, 4.1.3.6
address discrepancies, monitoring, 8.17.3.1, 9.2.6.3
affiliated collection agencies, 3.3.7
agents, status, 7.1.6
alternative agencies, see ALTERNATIVE CREDIT BUREAUS
assembly of information, 2.5.3.2
purpose of assembly, 2.5.4
attorneys, status, 2.7.8
bad debt lists, publication, 14.2.3
big three, see NATIONWIDE REPORTING AGENCIES
blocking procedures, 9.2.4.1, 12.1.3.2.10, 14.6.6.1
business reporting, 2.3.6.2
CFPB terminology, 2.5.1, 13.2.4.5
check approval companies, status, 2.3.6.3.2, 2.6.2.2
see also CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
collection agencies, status, 2.7.4
college placement offices, status, 2.7.7
complaint referral from CFPB, 13.3.5
consumer reports
see also CONSUMER REPORTS
discretion to provide, 7.1.2.1, 7.1.6, 7.2.2
interdependence, 2.3.2, 2.5.1
purpose of reporting agency, 2.5.4
refusal to provide, 4.3.7, 7.1.2, 12.1.3.10
release for improper purpose, 13.6
requests, response time, 3.3.10.3
consumer’s guide, Appx. M
consumer’s written instructions, effect, 7.2.2
cooperative loan exchanges, status, 2.5.5
credit bureau collection departments, status, 2.7.4
credit bureaus, status, 2.7.1
see also CREDIT BUREAUS
credit header information, disclosure, 2.3.4.2.2
credit repair organizations
abuses by, 17.1.1
misstatements by, 17.2.7.2
credit scores
credit risk scores, 16.2.2.2
disclosure requirements, 3.3.4, 16.4
creditors, receipt of information, see CONSUMER REPORTS
creditors, status, 2.5.5, 2.7.2
creditors, supply of information, see FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
data brokers, status, 2.7.5
data mining companies, status, 2.7.13
definition, 2.1.1, 2.5, 6.4.3.3
detective agencies, status, 2.7.6
disclosure in adverse action notice, 8.5.2.3
disclosure obligations, 15.4.4
consumer assistance, 3.6.3
file information, 3.3, 3.5
office hours, 3.6.2
discovery
formal, 12.1.3.2
informal, 12.1.2
disputed information
see also REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
deletion, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.3.1, 4.5.5.2, 4.6.2
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
formal dispute process, 6.10
notice from furnisher, 6.5.2.6
notice to furnisher, 6.10.2.2, 6.10.3
reporting restrictions, 5.3.2.1
electronic communications, 6.3.1, 7.5.4
Metro 2 Format, 6.3.2, 6.3.3
see also METRO 2 FORMAT
electronic processing systems, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.1.2
employees
criminal liability, 7.6
disclosure assistance, 3.6.3
dispute processing, procedures, 4.5.6.4
reasonable procedures, following, 4.4.5.1.4
employers, status, 2.7.6
employment agencies, status, 2.3.6.4.2, 2.7.6
employment purpose information, see EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
Equifax, see EQUIFAX
errors
see also INACCURATE INFORMATION
duty to correct, 4.5.2.5
mismatched files, 4.3.3, 4.4.6.6
prevalence, 4.1.3
retrieval errors, 4.3.3.10, 4.4.6.6, 4.4.6.8
transcription errors, 4.4.6.8
evaluation of information, 2.5.3.2
purpose of evaluation, 2.5.4
examples, 2.7
exceptions
conveyers of credit decisions, 2.4.6
federal government agencies, 2.5.7
joint lenders and users, 2.5.6
Experian, see EXPERIAN (TRW)
FBI security clearances, 7.2.10.4
FCRA application, 2.1.1, 2.5
FCRA definition, 2.5.1
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.5
FCRA rights notice, provision 8.2.2.2
employment purposes, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3.1
FCRA violations
civil actions, see FCRA CLAIMS
criminal sanctions, 13.6
generally, 7.5.1
impermissible reports, 7.5.1, 7.6
inaccurate reports, 4.1.1
per se UDAP violation, 10.6.2
reasonable procedures, failure to maintain, 7.5.1
testers, use, 12.1.2
federal agencies, status, 2.5.7
fees, see FEES
files, see CONSUMER FILES
financial institution status, 2.3.4.2.2
FTC enforcement orders, Appx. L
furnishers of information to, see FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
furnishing of information by, see CONSUMER REPORTS
GLBA, application, 2.3.4.2.2, 18.4.1.3, 18.4.1.6.3, 18.4.1.9
government agencies, status, 2.5.7, 2.5.8
identification requests, 7.5.3
identity theft
address discrepancy notice, 9.2.6.3
alerts, implementation, 9.2.2
blocking of information, 9.2.4.1, 12.1.3.2.10, 14.6.6.1
notice of refusal to block, 9.2.4.1.3, 8.10.4
inaccurate information, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
independent contractors, status, 2.5.5
information collected by, see CONSUMER FILES
information furnished by, see CONSUMER REPORTS; INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
information furnished to, see FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
information sources, reliance on, 4.2.1.3, 4.4.6.4, 4.5.4.1
inquiries, reporting, 2.3.4.2.4
inspection bureaus, status, 2.7.1
see also INSPECTION BUREAUS
insurance claim compilers, status, 2.7.9
insurance claim exchanges, status, 2.3.6.5.2
investigative reports
see also INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
disclosure obligations, 15.4.4
preparation, 15.1
joint lenders or users, status, 2.4.6, 2.5.6
liability, see under LIABILITY
limited qualified immunity, 10.4
listing of, Appx. O
local government agencies, status, 2.5.8
management policies, improper, 4.4.6.1
medical information, see MEDICAL INFORMATION
medical information agencies, status, 2.6.2.2
see also MEDICAL INFORMATION AGENCIES
missing accounts, obligations, 4.4.6.9.2, 4.8.4, 14.6.9
misstatements to, 17.2.7.2
motor vehicle departments (state), status, 2.5.8, 2.7.9
nationwide agencies, see NATIONWIDE REPORTING AGENCIES
notice obligations
address discrepancies, 8.17.3, 9.2.6.3
corrections following reinvestigation, 4.6.2
employment reports, 4.4.7.2
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2
fraud alerts, 9.2.2.3.3
frivolous disputes, 4.5.2.7.4, 8.14.1
identity theft block refusal, 9.2.4.1.3, 8.10.4
inaccurate information received, 6.4.2.2
prescreening opt-out, 7.3.3.4
public record information, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
reinsertion of information, 4.7.2.4, 8.10.2
reinvestigation request, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.3
reinvestigation results, 4.6.1, 6.10.6.4, 8.10.1
notice of dispute, receipt, 4.5.2, 8.15
notice of inaccurate information from furnisher, 6.5.2.6
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
overview of industry, 1.2.2
police departments, status, 2.7.9
prescreening, see PRESCREENED REPORTS
public record information, reporting, 4.4.7, 8.11.5
purpose requirement, 2.5.4
qualified immunity, 10.4, 18.3.2
reasonable procedures, see REASONABLE PROCEDURES
record retention, 12.1.5
preservation for litigation purposes, 12.1.3.6
request records, 7.5.5
refusal to issue report, 4.3.7
impermissible purpose, 7.1.2
refusal to provide report to litigant, 12.1.3.10
regularly engages, 2.5.3.1
regulation, 1.3.1
reinsertion of deleted information, 4.7
certification from furnisher, 4.7.2.3
notice, 4.7.2.4
standards, 4.7.2.2
reinvestigation of information, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
reports, see CONSUMER REPORTS
resellers, status, 1.2.2, 2.6.3.2
see also RESELLERS
retailer database services, status, 2.7.12
security procedures, 4.4.6.8
sheriff’s departments, status, 2.7.9
social service agencies, status, 2.5.2
specialized agencies, 2.6.2, 2.7.3, 3.2.4
see also SPECIALTY AGENCIES
state agencies, status, 2.5.8
state law, application, 10.6.1
federal preemption, 10.7.3.3, 10.7.8.2
statements of dispute, obligations, 4.8.1.2
student loan defaults, report receipt, 14.4.5
suits against, 11.2.2
Summary of Consumer Rights, provision, 3.5.4.1, 8.2.2
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3.1
telephone companies, status, 2.7.10
tenant screening companies, status, 2.6.2.2
see also TENANT SCREENING COMPANIES
terminology, use, 1.2.1
third parties, reporting to, 2.5.5
TransUnion, see TRANSUNION
trigger lists, 2.3.4.2.4
trucker database services, status, 2.6.4
TRW, see EXPERIAN (TRW)
types, 2.6, 2.7
UDAP violations, 10.6.2
Universal Data Form, see UNIVERSAL DATA FORM
unsolicited reports, 7.1.2.1
unverifiable information, reporting, 4.2.6
updating procedures, 4.4.6.9.4, 4.4.6.9.5
CONSUMER REPORTING MARKET
see also CREDIT REPORTING
consumer reporting, defined, 2.3.1.1, 2.5.1, 13.2.4.5
larger participants, defined, 13.2.4.5, Appx. B.2.3
CONSUMER REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CONSUMER FILES
access, see CONSUMER REPORTS, obtaining
accuracy concerns, 4.1.3
see also INACCURATE INFORMATION
consumer complaints, 4.1.3.4
consumer groups, 4.1.3.2
FCRA intent to combat, 4.1.2
FTC studies, 4.1.3.3
internal CRA analyses, 4.1.3.6
other government studies, 4.1.3.4
prevalence of inaccurate reports, 4.1.3.1
active military alerts, 9.2.2.4
additional information, 14.6.9
administrative summons, 7.2.1
adverse information, see ADVERSE INFORMATION
adverse use, see ADVERSE ACTION
affiliate information sharing, status, 2.4.3
agents, obtaining, 7.1.6
bankruptcy, special procedures, 4.4.6.10.2
between agencies, 7.1.7
“big three” nationwide agencies, contents, 3.2.3.2
blemished, implications, 14.7
business reports, status, 2.3.3.3, 2.3.5.2, 2.3.5.4, 2.3.6.2
CFPB terminology, 2.3.1.1, 13.2.4.5
child support debts, inclusion, 1.4.12.2, 5.8.2, 7.4.2
closed accounts, voluntary, 6.8
commercial reports, status, 2.3.3.3, 2.3.5.2, 2.3.5.4, 2.3.6.2
confidentiality, 7.1.1
consent of consumer
business purposes, 7.2.5
employment purposes, 7.2.4.3.2, 15.5.1
medical information, 5.4.2
written instructions, 7.2.2
consumer lists, status, 2.3.4.2.1, 7.3.2
check cashing lists, 2.3.6.3.2
coded lists, 2.3.3.2
prescreening lists, 2.3.4.2.3
consumer reporting agencies, interdependence, 2.3.2, 2.5.1
consumer’s file, distinguished, 2.3.1.2, 4.4.3
consumer’s guide, Appx. M
consumer’s right to free report, see FREE CONSUMER REPORTS
contents, restrictions, 5.1, 5.2.2.1
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
continuing reports, 7.5.2.3
copies, see CONSUMER REPORTS, obtaining
corrections
disputed debts, 4.6.1.2, 4.6.2, 14.6.4.7
notification of previous users, 4.9
cosigners, 5.6.2
court orders, 7.2.1
credit card accounts, 5.3.4
credit card authorizations, status, 2.4.5
credit headers, status, 2.3.4.2.1
credit purposes, 2.3.6.3
credit scores
see also CREDIT SCORES
inclusion in report, 3.2.3.2.6
status as, 2.3.1.2, 16.2.3.1
definition, 2.1.1, 2.3
denial of credit, see ADVERSE ACTION
different to consumer than creditor, 3.3.4.3, 3.7.2.2, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.5.1
directories, status, 2.3.4.2.1, 2.3.5.3
disclaimers, effect, 2.3.5.1, 2.5.4.3
disclosure distinguished, 4.4.3
disclosure re, see DISCLOSURE
disposal regulations, 9.2.5.3
disputed information
direct dispute with furnisher, 6.5.2
notation, 4.8.1, 4.8.2, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
notice to past users, 4.9
restrictions, 5.3
right to dispute, 4.5.1
distinguished from consumer’s file, 2.3.1.2
distinguished from file disclosure, 4.4.3
driving records, status, 2.3.4.1
electronic communication, 7.5.4
employment reports
see also EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
status as consumer report, 2.3.4.1, 2.3.6.4, 2.4.4, 7.2.4.4
erroneous information, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
evidentiary issues, 12.1.3.9, 12.1.7.3
permissible purpose, 7.4.4, 12.3.1.7
examining
assistance from reporting agency, 3.6.3
first considerations, 14.6.1
mechanics of obtaining, 3.4
practice tips, 3.7
exemptions, 2.4
employee misconduct investigations, 2.4.4.1, 7.2.4.4, 15.2.4.2
explanation from consumer
giving to creditor, 14.6.9
inclusion, 4.8.3
FACTA amendments
application, 5.4.3
key provisions, 1.4.9.2
factors bearing on, 2.3.4
false pretenses, obtaining under, 7.2.2, 7.7.3, 7.7.4, 13.6
favorable information, 5.2.2.1
FBI access, 1.4.8, 7.2.1, 7.2.10.4
FCRA definition, 2.3.1.1
FCRA enforcement authorities, subpoenas, 7.2.1
FCRA scope, 2.1.1, 2.3, 2.4
FDIC, use by, 2.3.6.10, 7.2.10.6
fees, 3.3.10.2
see also FREE CONSUMER REPORTS
file, distinguished, 2.3.1
first-hand experience, 2.4.2
follow-up reports, 7.5.2.3
form, 3.6
fraud alerts, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3.3
fraudulent information, blocking, 9.2.4
free reports, see FREE CONSUMER REPORTS
FTC subpoenas, 7.2.1
furnishers of, see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
GLBA exemption, 2.3.4.2.2, 18.4.1.6.3
governmental use, 14.7.9
grand jury subpoenas, 7.2.1
guarantors, 5.6.2
home mortgages, use, 7.2.7, 14.7.2.2
identifiable person, necessity, 2.3.3
identifying information, status, 2.3.4.2, 7.2.10.2
identity theft issues, see IDENTITY THEFT
impermissible purposes, see IMPERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
inaccurate, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
incomplete, 4.3.2.2, 4.3.2.3, 4.4.6.9, 14.6.9
industry overview, 1.2.2
information about another, 5.6
information based on interviews, 5.5
information gathered for, see CONSUMER FILES
insurance reports
see also INSURANCE REPORTS
status as consumer report, 2.3.6.5, 2.7.9
intended purpose, effect, 2.3.5
investigative reports, see INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
IRS summons, 7.2.1
joint accounts, 7.4.6.4
law enforcement bulletins, status, 2.3.5.3
law enforcement requests, 7.2.1, 7.2.10.4
legislative history, 2.3.6.1, 2.3.6.2
lists of consumers, status, 7.3.2, 7.3.3.2
marketing data, status, 2.7.13
medical information, inclusion, 5.4.2, 7.4.9
military personnel, 5.7.1
active military alerts, 9.2.2.4
misidentification, 4.3.3, 4.3.3.10
see also IDENTITY THEFT
misleading, 4.2.4, 5.2.2.2
monitoring services, see CREDIT MONITORING SERVICES
NCUA, use by, 2.3.6.10, 7.2.10.6
neutral information, 5.2.2.1
notice requirements, see NOTICE
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
obtaining
agency time response, 3.3.10.3
consumer’s representative, 3.4.4
contents of report, 3.5
corrected reports, 4.6.12.
deciding from which agency, 3.4.1
Dodd-Frank Act, under, 3.3.11
enforceability of rights, 3.3.12
examining report, 3.7
fee payment, 3.3.10, 3.4.2.3
form of report, 3.6
free reports, see FREE CONSUMER REPORTS
identification, 3.4.3
mechanics of obtaining, 3.4
model form, Appx. C.2
requesting a report, 3.4.2
subpoenas, 12.1.3.10
unreasonable preconditions, 3.4.5
users, from, 3.3.1
open-end account customers, 5.3.4
permissible purposes, see PERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
personal interviews, restrictions, 5.5
prescreened reports, see PRESCREENED REPORTS
previous recipients or inquiries
activity reports, 2.3.4.2.4
disclosure to consumer, 5.2.3.9, 7.5.5
prescreened lists, disclosure, 5.2.3.9
record retention, 7.5.5
prior report, partial use, 2.3.5.2
public record information, status, 2.3.4.1, 2.3.4.2.1
purpose requirement, 2.5.4
reading, 3.7.2.3, 14.6.1
refusal by agency to provide report, 4.3.7
impermissible purpose, 7.1.2
release
agent of user, 7.1.6
between agencies, 7.1.7
criminal liability, 13.6
discovering impermissible use, 7.1.9
FCRA violations, 7.5.1
impermissible purpose, effect, 7.1.8
impermissible purposes, see IMPERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
objection, effect, 7.1.3
permissible purpose only, 7.1.2, 7.1.4
permissible purposes, see PERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
reasonable procedures, see REASONABLE PROCEDURES
refusal, 4.3.7, 7.1.2
restrictions, 7.1.2, 7.1.4
written instructions of consumer, 7.2.2
request records, disclosure
prescreened inquiries, 5.2.3.9
record retention, 7.5.5
trigger lists, 2.3.4.2.4
requests for, see CONSUMER REPORTS, obtaining
resellers, see RESELLERS
restriction on information in, 5.1, 5.2.2.1
obsolete information, see OBSOLETE INFORMATION
sample reports, Appx. I.1
scope, 2.3, 2.3.6.1
settlement negotiations
impermissible purpose, 7.4.4
issues, resolving, 14.6.4
snapshot in time, 3.7.2.1
spouses of consumers, restrictions, 5.6.1, 7.4.6
state law preemption, 5.8.1, 10.7
state law restrictions, 5.8
state law summaries, Appx. H
statement of dispute, inclusion, 4.8.1.2, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
statutory exemptions, 2.4
student loans, 14.6.5
subpoenas
attorneys, 12.1.3.10
court orders, 7.2.1
enforcement authorities, 7.2.10.3
targeted marketing lists, 7.3.2.2
technically accurate, 4.2.4
tenant screening reports, status, 2.3.6.3.3
terminology, use, 1.2.1
third party credit requests, exemption, 2.4.6
tort claims, 10.4, 10.5
“trimerge” reports, 12.1.2
understanding, assistance to consumers, 3.6.3
unfavorable, policies encouraging, 4.4.6.1
unsolicited, restrictions, 7.1.2.1
unverifiable information, 4.2.6
updated information only, 4.4.6.9.4, 4.4.6.9.5
use
actual use, 2.3.5.2, 7.1.9
adverse use, see ADVERSE ACTION
business purposes, effect, 2.3.5.4, 2.3.6.2
disclosure, see DISCLOSURE; NOTICE
expected use, 2.3.5.3
impermissible, see IMPERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
landlords, 14.7.3
mortgage lenders, 14.7.2.2
permissible purpose only, 7.1.2, 7.1.4
permissible uses, see PERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
prior use, 2.3.5.2
reasonable procedures, see REASONABLE PROCEDURES
restrictions, 7.1.2, 7.1.4
utilities, 14.7.4
users, see USERS OF REPORTS
variations
between agencies, 3.4.1
between consumer and users, 3.7.2.2
withdrawal by creditor, 14.6.4.2.3
CONSUMER RIGHTS SUMMARY
see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMERS; CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
family purposes, see FAMILY PURPOSE TRANSACTIONS
household purposes, see HOUSEHOLD PURPOSE TRANSACTIONS
legitimate business need for information, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2
personal purposes, see PERSONAL PURPOSE TRANSACTIONS
CONSUMERS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
advising, 14.1
business histories, 2.3.3.3, 2.3.6.2
business transactions involving, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2
initiated by consumer, 7.2.8.2.3
consumer reports, obtaining
mechanisms of, 3.4
rights, 3.3
credit record, see CREDIT RECORD
credit reporting rights, generally, 1.3.1
debts, see DEBTS
definition, 2.2, 2.3.3
CROA, 17.2.2.2.6
GLBA, 18.4.1.4
disclosure rights, see DISCLOSURE; NOTICE
disputing debts, 14.6.2
see also CREDIT DISPUTES
directly with creditor, see DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
importance of, 14.6.2.1
through CRA, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
FCRA, application, 2.2
FCRA rights summary, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
files on, see CONSUMER FILES
GLBA, application, 18.4.1.4
guides to credit reporting, 14.1, Appx. M
identification
see also IDENTIFYING INFORMATION
alteration, 17.2.7.3
consumer report, obtaining, 3.4.3
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
information on, see CONSUMER REPORTS; INFORMATION ON CONSUMERS
medical information, see MEDICAL INFORMATION
power of attorney, 3.4.4
prescreening, see PRESCREENING REPORTS
spouses, see SPOUSES
summary of rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
younger consumers, credit card marketing, 7.3.3.1.2
CONTRACTS
arbitration clauses, see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
credit repair organizations
arbitration clauses, 17.2.8.4
disclosure requirements, 17.2.3
required terms, 17.2.4
state regulation, 17.3
void contracts, 17.2.8.1, 17.3.6
waiver of FCRA rights, 12.3.1.10
CONVICTIONS
see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
COOPERATIVE LOAN EXCHANGES
FCRA, application, 2.5.5
CORPORATIONS
see also BUSINESSES
affiliated, see AFFILIATES
credit applications, see BUSINESS CREDIT
employees, reports on, see EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
FCRA, application, 2.3.3.3
reports on, see COMMERCIAL REPORTS
COSIGNERS
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.3.7, 8.6.1.4.3
adverse information reporting, 5.6.2, 5.6.3
business credit, consumer report, use, 7.2.3.1.3
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
COUNTERCLAIMS
FCRA claims, to, 12.3.2
COUNTERTERRORISM
see also NATIONAL SECURITY; SECURITY CLEARANCES
permissible purpose, 7.2.10.5
FBI access, 7.2.10.4
COURT ORDERS
see also COURTS; PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
attorney-issued subpoenas, status, 7.2.1, 12.1.3.10
consumer reports, permissible purpose, 7.2.1, 7.4.5, 12.1.3.10
disputed debts
reporting issues, 14.6.4.5
settlement approval, 14.6.4.4
grand jury subpoenas, status, 7.2.1
law enforcement agencies, consumer report requirement, 7.2.1
COURT RECORDS
see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
COURTS
credit reporting claims, selection, 11.4
federal, see FEDERAL COURTS
jurisdiction, see JURISDICTION
orders, see COURT ORDERS
state, see STATE COURTS
CREDIT
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
accounts, see CREDIT ACCOUNTS
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
applications for, see CREDIT APPLICATIONS
business credit, see BUSINESS CREDIT
cards, see CREDIT CARDS
checks, status, 7.2.3.1.2
consumer reports, permissible uses, 7.2.3
collections, 7.2.3.4.1
extension of credit, 7.2.3.2
generally, 7.2.3.1
prescreened reports, 7.3.3
review of accounts, 7.2.3.3, 7.2.8.3
risk assessment, 2.3.6.7, 7.2.7
definition, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.3.1.2, 8.5.4.3.2
CROA, 17.2.2.2.6
denial
see also ADVERSE ACTION
consumer reports, use, 7.2.3.2
definition, 8.5.4.3.3
evidentiary issues, 12.1.7.4
reasons, disclosure, 8.5.2.1
disputes, see CREDIT DISPUTES
extension
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
consumer report, permissible use, 7.2.3.2
FCBA, application, 5.3.4
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.3
information, see CONSUMER REPORTS
offers, see CREDIT OFFERS
public utility credit, see PUBLIC UTILITY CREDIT
purposes, prescreened reports, 7.3.3.1.1
reporting agencies, see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
residential leases, status, 8.6.1.2
risk-based pricing, 16.7.2
notice requirements, 8.5.4.3.4
CREDIT ACCOUNTS
see also CREDIT CARDS; OPEN-END CREDIT
account numbers, information sharing, 18.4.1.9
applications for, see CREDIT APPLICATIONS
authorized users, reporting restrictions, 5.6.2
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
charged-off, see CHARGED-OFF ACCOUNTS
closed accounts
review by creditor, 7.2.3.3
voluntarily closed, reporting, 6.8
delinquent, see DELINQUENT ACCOUNTS
disputes, see CREDIT DISPUTES
missing from consumer file, adding, 4.4.6.9.2, 4.8.4, 14.6.9
new accounts, establishing, 14.5.4
permissible purposes
account reviews, 7.2.3.3, 7.2.8.3
collections, 7.2.3.4.1
risk assessment, 2.3.6.7, 7.2.7
placed for collection, see COLLECTION SUITS; DEBT COLLECTORS
review by creditor, 7.2.3.3, 7.2.8.3
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.3.9
closed accounts, 7.2.3.3
spouses, designation, 14.6.9
CREDIT AND DEBIT CARD TRUNCATION CLARIFICATION ACT
retroactive immunity, 1.4.10.2, 9.2.5.1.2
CREDIT APPLICATIONS
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
automated underwriting systems, 16.2.2.5
home mortgages, 14.7.2
credit score notice, 8.4.3.1.3
misstatements, 17.2.7.2
rejection see ADVERSE ACTION; CREDIT; DENIAL
scoring systems, 16.2.2.5
CREDIT BUREAUS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; NATIONWIDE REPORTING AGENCIES
alternative bureaus, see ALTERNATIVE CREDIT BUREAUS
“Big Three” bureaus, 1.2.1, 1.2.2
CRA status, 2.7.1
collection departments, 2.7.4
Equifax, see EQUIFAX
Experian, see EXPERIAN (TRW)
files, see CONSUMER FILES
overview of industry, 1.2.2
examples of credit bureaus, 2.7.1
reports, see CONSUMER REPORTS
terminology, use, 1.2.1
TransUnion, see TRANSUNION
TRW, see EXPERIAN (TRW)
CREDIT CARD ACCOUNTABILITY, RESPONSIBILITY AND DISCLOSURES (CARD) ACT
FCRA amendments, 1.4.10.3
CREDIT CARDS
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS
authorized users, 5.6.2, 14.7.6
piggybacking, 16.6.2.7, 16.8.3
billing errors, 5.3.4
blemished credit record, implications, 14.7.6
disputed amounts, 5.3.4
withholding payment, 14.4.2
FCBA, application, 5.3.4, 14.4.2
government-sponsored charge cards, 7.2.3.6
identity theft prevention
see also IDENTITY THEFT
change of address regulations, 9.2.6.4
number truncation, 9.2.5.1
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2
retroactive immunity, 1.4.10.2, 9.2.5.1.2
immigrants, 14.8
issuers, use of credit scores, 16.3
limits, importance to credit scores, 16.6.2.3, 16.6.2.6, 16.8.2.2
no-limit credit cards, 16.8.2.2
number truncation, 9.2.5.1
obtaining, 14.7.6
secured credit cards, 14.7.6
state law preemption, 10.7.8.6
transaction authorizations, FCRA, application, 2.4.5
using to build credit history, 14.5.4
younger consumers, 7.3.3.1.2
CREDIT CLINICS
see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
CREDIT COUNSELORS
contacting, 14.6.7.3
CROA, application, 17.2.2.2.1, 17.2.2.2.4, 17.2.2.2.5
impact on credit scores, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.6
repair organizations, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
use to improve credit record, 14.5.2
CREDIT DISPUTES
see also DISPUTED INFORMATION
arbitration of, see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
collection of disputed debts, 5.3.3
complaint address, 6.4.4, 14.6.2.3
court orders covering reporting issues, 14.6.4.5
CRA obligations, 4.5, 14.6.2.2
credit card accounts, 5.3.4, 14.4.2
credit repair organizations, using, 17.1.1
credit scores and, 16.7.3
dealing directly with creditor, 6.5.2, 6.10.1.1, 14.6.2.3
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
FCBA, application, 5.3.4
FCRA violations, inaccuracy, necessity, 4.5.3.2
frivolous disputes, 4.5.2.7, 6.5.2.5
notice of frivolous dispute, 8.14.1
furnishers
address to notify, effect, 6.4.4
notice of formal dispute, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.2.2, 6.10.3
notice of inaccuracies, 6.5.2, 6.10.1.1, 14.6.2.3
obligations, 4.5.4, 6.5.2.6, 6.10.1, 6.10.4, 14.6.2.2
reporting restrictions, 6.4.4, 6.5.3
home equity loans and mortgages, 14.4.4
identity theft related, see IDENTITY THEFT
inaccurate information
correcting, 4.5.2.5, 6.5, 14.6.2
direct dispute rights, 6.5.2
formal dispute process, 4.5, 6.10
notification address, 6.4.4
investigations into
CRA, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
direct requests to creditor, see DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
irrelevant disputes, 4.5.2.7, 6.5.2.5, 8.14.1
litigation aids, 14.6.4
notation of dispute
by consumer, 4.8.1, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
by furnisher, 4.8.2, 6.6
notice of dispute, 4.5.2, 6.5.2.3, 14.6.2.1
identity theft, Appx. C.5
open-end credit, 5.3.4
procedures
disputing with agency, 4.5, 6.10, 14.6.2.1, 14.6.2.2
disputing with creditor, 6.5.2, 14.6.2.3
disputing with reseller, 4.5.2.6
formal process, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
reporting of disputed information, restrictions, 5.3
settlement
breach of agreement, 14.6.4.3
cleaning up file after, 14.6.4.6
court approval, 14.6.4.4
monitoring file after, 14.6.4.7
negotiating, 14.6.4.2
resolving credit reporting issues, 14.6.4.1
selecting correct language, 14.6.4.3, Appx. K
statement of dispute, 4.8.1
telephone charges, 14.4.3
utility charges, 14.4.3
withholding payment, effect, 14.4
CREDIT FILES
see CONSUMER FILES
CREDIT HEADER INFORMATION
consumer file, inclusion, 3.2.3.2.2
consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1
examining, 3.7.1
FCRA, application, 2.3.4.2.1
GLBA, disclosure restrictions, 2.3.4.2.2
CREDIT HISTORY
see CREDIT RECORD
CREDIT INFORMATION
see CONSUMER REPORTS; CREDIT RECORD; FINANCIAL INFORMATION; INFORMATION ON CONSUMERS
CREDIT INSURANCE
consumer report, permissible purpose, 7.2.3.5
CREDIT LIMITS
furnishers, failure to report, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.2
importance to credit score, 16.8.2.2
CREDIT MONITORING SERVICES
abuses, 3.3.3.1.2
credit reporting agencies, 2.3.1, 2.6.1.4, 4.4.6.7
consumer disclosures, 2.3.1, 2.6.1.4, 3.3.3.1.3
overview, 3.3.3.1.1
CREDIT OFFERS
“firm offers,” 7.3.4.3
prescreened lists, 7.3.3
CREDIT PURPOSES
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
prescreening, 7.3.3.1
CREDIT RATING
see CREDIT RECORD; CREDIT SCORES
CREDIT RECORD
see also CONSUMER FILES
bankruptcy, impact, 14.6.8
blemished records
automobile loans and leases, impact, 14.7.1
banking and check cashing, impact, 14.7.7
credit card applications, impact, 14.7.6
explaining with additional information, 14.6.9
first considerations, 14.6.1
home mortgages, impact, 14.7.2
identifying, 14.6.1
implications, 14.7
improving, right way, 14.6
improving, wrong way, 14.5
insurance, impact, 14.7.5
repair agencies, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
residential leases, impact, 14.7.3
spouses, impact, 14.2.5
student loans and grants, impact, 14.7.8
utility service, impact, 14.7.4
building, 14.5.4
contents, see CONSUMER FILES
court orders, 14.6.4.5
disputing, see CREDIT DISPUTES; REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
ECOA, application, 5.6.1, 7.4.6.2, 14.2.5, 14.6.9
examining, see CREDIT REPORTS
first considerations, 14.6.1
identity theft cleanup, 14.6.6
immigrants, 14.8
impermissible purposes, see IMPERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
improving
right way, 14.6
wrong way, 14.5
inaccurate, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
incomplete, providing additional information, 14.6.9
insufficient
adding missing accounts, 4.4.6.9.2, 4.8.4, 14.6.9
establishing new accounts, 14.5.4
joint accounts, 5.6, 7.4.6.4
publication in the community, 14.2.2, 14.2.3
rating, see CREDIT SCORES
recent delinquencies, removing, 14.6.7
repair agencies, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
settlement negotiations, protecting, 14.6.4
sample language, Appx. K
spouses
ECOA reporting requirements, 5.6.1, 14.6.9
effect on consumer, 7.4.6.1, 14.2.5
explanation to creditor, 14.6.9
requests to consider, 14.6.9
use by creditor, 7.4.6, 14.2.5
student loan defaults, 14.6.5
threats to damage, 14.3
withholding of payments, effect, 14.4
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
ancillary services, status, 17.2.2.4
attorneys, status, 17.2.2.5
cancellation rights, 17.2.4
concerns with, 14.5.1, 17.1.1
contract terms, 17.2.4
arbitration clauses, 17.2.8.4
non-complying contracts void, 17.2.8.1
three-day right to cancel, 17.2.5
creditors restructuring debt, status, 17.2.2.3.3
CROA
application, 17.2.2
exemptions, 17.2.2.3
violations, 17.2.8, 17.2.11
debt collectors, status, 17.2.2.7
defined, 17.2.2.2
exemptions, 17.2.2.3
disclosure requirements, 17.2.3
depository institutions, status, 17.2.2.3.4
federal law, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
fees, 17.2.2.2.2
advance payment, 17.2.6, 17.3.5
state law requirements, 17.3.4.2
fraud and deception, 17.2.7.5
FTC Telemarketing Rule, application, 17.4.1
misrepresentations regarding services, 17.2.7.4
misstatements to reporting agencies or creditors, 17.2.7.2
non-profit organizations, status, 17.2.2.3.2
overview, 17.1
credit repair laws, 17.1.2, 17.1.3, 17.2.1
nature of credit repair organizations, 17.1.1
regulation, 17.2
reinvestigation requests, 4.5.2.7.2
state law, see STATE CREDIT SERVICES (REPAIR) STATUTES
suits against, 17.2.8
class actions, 17.2.8.7
damages, 17.2.8.5
jurisdiction, 17.2.8.8
jury trials, 17.2.8.11
standing, 17.2.8.2.1
state law violations, 17.3.6
statute of limitations, 17.2.8.10
Telephone Consumer Protection Act, application, 17.4.2
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
see also CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
advance payments, prohibition, 17.2.6
ancillary services, application, 17.2.2.4
attorneys, application, 17.2.2.5
contract terms, 17.2.4
arbitration clauses, validity, 17.2.8.4
cancellation right, 17.2.5
debt collectors, application, 17.2.2.7
deceptive practices, prohibition, 17.2.7
definitions
credit repair organization, 17.2.2.2
other definitions, 17.2.2.2.6
disclosure requirements, 17.2.3
enforcement
federal and state agencies, 17.2.11
private enforcement, 17.2.8
exemptions, 17.2.2.3
overview, 17.1.2, 17.2.1
private remedies, 17.2.8
arbitration clauses, application, 17.2.8.4
attorney fees, 17.2.8.6
class actions, 17.5.8.7
damages, 17.2.8.5
jurisdiction, 17.2.8.8
jury trials, 17.2.8.11
pleading, 17.2.8.9
scope, 17.2.8.3
standing, 17.2.8.2.1
statute of limitations, 17.2.8.10
voiding of contract, 17.2.8.1
prohibited practices, 17.2.7
scope, 17.2.2
persons, 17.2.7.1
surprising reach, 17.1.3
state law relationship, 17.2.10
text, Appx. F
violations, 17.2.8
damages formula, 17.2.8.5.1
liability, 17.2.8.3
pleading, 17.2.8.9
statute of limitations, 17.2.8.10
waiver of rights under, 17.2.9
CREDIT REPORTING
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CONSUMER REPORTS
consumer guides, Appx. M
federal legislation, see FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
FTC studies, 1.3.3.2.4
legislative history, see LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF FCRA
market, see CONSUMER REPORTING MARKET
NCLC treatise, using, 1.1
online version, 1.1.1, 1.1.3.3
scope of FCRA, 2.1
structure of treatise, 1.1.3
supplemental materials, 1.1.3.3
terminology, 1.2.1
updates, 1.1.1
NCLC web-based text searches, 1.1.3
overview, 1.2
industry overview, 1.2.2
regulation, 1.3.1
state law summaries, Appx. H
see also STATE CREDIT REPORTING STATUTES
terminology and convention, 1.2.1
CFPB terminology, 2.3.1.1, 2.5.1, 13.2.4.5
CREDIT REPORTING AGENCIES
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CREDIT BUREAUS
CREDIT REPORTING RESOURCES GUIDE
Metro 2 manual, 6.3.2.1
CREDIT REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTS
terminology, use, 1.2.1
CREDIT SCORES
see also CONSUMER REPORTS; CREDIT RECORD
accuracy concerns, 16.8
account type, 16.8.2.6
disputed debts, 16.7.3
duplicate accounts, 16.8.2.5
inaccurate information, 16.8.1, 16.8.2
lack of validation and re-validation, 16.8.4.1
lender misuse, 16.8.5
missing credit limits, 16.8.2.2
obsolete information, 16.8.2.7
unreported information, 16.8.2.3
actual damages calculations, use, 12.5.2.2.2
adverse action notice, inclusion, 3.3.1.3.5, 16.4.4
automated underwriting systems, 16.2.2.5
basic concept, 16.2.1.1
calculations, 16.5
black box, 16.5.1
confidentiality, 16.5.4
FICO scores, 16.5.2
Freddie Mac, 16.5.3
concerns with
accuracy concerns, 16.8
discrimination, 16.9
lender misuse, 16.8.5
reliability during recession, 16.8.4.2
scoring systems, 16.7, 16.8.4.1
consumer’s guide, Appx. M
credit applications, 16.2.2.5
credit limits, importance, 16.6.2.3, 16.6.2.6, 16.8.2.2
credit risk scores, 16.2.2.2
consumer report status, 2.3.1.2, 16.2.3.1
consumer reports, inclusion in, 3.2.3.2.6
credit reporting agencies, 16.2.2.2
custom versus generic, 16.2.2.3
debt management plans, effect, 16.8.6
definition, 16.2.3
ECOA, 16.2.3.2
FCRA, 16.2.3.1
disclosure, 3.3.1.3.5, 3.3.4, 3.5.5.1, 16.4
different from what creditor receives, 3.3.4.3, 3.7.2.2, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.5.1
fees, 3.3.4.5
generic scores, 3.3.4.3, 16.4.1
mortgage transactions, 3.3.1.4, 8.4.3, 16.4.3
notices, accompanying, 8.4.3, 8.5.2.4, 8.7.3, 16.4.4
obtaining, 3.3.4, 8.4.1, 8.4.2.1, 16.4.1.5
preemption of state law, 10.7.6
required disclosure, 3.3.4, 8.4.2.1, 16.4.1.2, 16.4.1.4
variations between agencies, 16.4.5.1
discovery relating to, 12.1.3.2.11
discrimination, 16.9
disparate impact, 16.9.1, 16.11
growing credit score gap, 16.9.2
disputed debts, effect, 16.7.3
fees, 3.3.4.5, 16.4.1.3
FICO scores, 16.2.2.2, 16.4.5.3, 16.5.2
fraud alerts, 9.2.2.3.3
generic scores, 3.3.4.3, 16.2.2.3, 16.4.1
improving
additional advice, 16.6.2
industry advice, 16.6.1
organizations assisting, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
re-scoring, 16.6.3
ways to improve, 14.6
in-house educational scores, 16.4.5.2
insurance scores, 16.11
missing information, 16.8.2.3
credit limits, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.2
models
“alternative” models, 16.9.1
concerns with, 16.7
development, 16.2.2.2, 16.5.1
FICO, 16.2.2.2, 16.4.5.3, 16.5.2
in-house educational scores, 16.4.5.2
misuse by creditors, 16.8.5
notice of model used, 8.4.2.1, 8.4.3.1
validation, 16.8.4.1
VantageScore, 16.4.5.2
mortgage lenders, use, 3.3.1.4, 14.7.2.2, 16.4.3
mortgage scoring notice, 8.4.3
notice of preparation and scoring model, 8.4
adverse action, 8.5.2.4
enforcement of notice right, 8.4.2.2, 8.4.3.3
entitlement, 8.4.2.1, 8.4.3.1.1
fee payment, 8.4.2.1
mortgage transactions, 8.4.3
nature and content, 8.4.2.1, 8.4.3.1
risk-based pricing, 8.7.3
time and manner, 8.4.2.2, 8.4.3.2
objective standard, 6.3.3.2
obtaining, 3.3.4, 16.4.1.5
fees, 3.3.4.5, 16.4.1.3
overview, 16.1
“piggybacking,” 16.6.2.7, 16.8.3
policy concerns, 16.7
conflicts with FCRA, 16.7.3
lack of flexibility, 16.7.1
risk-based pricing, 16.7.2
practice concerns, 16.10
predictiveness, 16.8.4
problems with, 16.2.1.2
public utilities, use, 16.12
risk-based pricing notice, inclusion, 3.3.1.3.5, 8.7.3.2, 16.4.4
risk scores, 16.2.2.2
specialty scores, 16.2.2.4
student loan deferments, effect, 16.8.2.4
VantageScore, 16.4.5.2
variations, 3.4.1, 16.2.2, 16.4.5
between agencies, 16.4.5.1
between creditor vs. consumer, 3.3.4.3, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.5.1
different types of scores, 16.2.2
effect on consumers, 16.4.5.1
FICO variations, 16.4.5.3
in-house educational scores, 16.4.5.2
VantageScore, 16.4.5.2
widespread use, 16.3
voluntary provision, 16.4.2
CREDIT SELLERS
information on consumers, see CONSUMER REPORTS
CREDIT SERVICES ORGANIZATIONS
see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS
CREDIT SOLICITATIONS
see CREDIT OFFERS
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
see also CREDIT APPLICATIONS
accepted counteroffers, 8.5.4.3.5
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
commercial transactions, see BUSINESS CREDIT
consumer reports
see also CONSUMER REPORTS
obsolete information, 5.2.4
permissible use, 7.2.3
spouses, 7.4.6.2
credit scores, use, 16.3
defined, 7.2.3.1.2
CROA, 17.2.2.2.6
ECOA, application, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.3
information concerning, see CONSUMER REPORTS
residential lease, status, 8.6.1.2
CREDIT UNIONS
see also DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
CROA exemption, 17.2.2.3.4
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.2, 13.2.3
CREDITORS
see also FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
account reviews, 7.2.3.3, 7.2.8.3
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.3.9
address for error complaints, 6.4.4, 14.6.2.3
affiliates, see AFFILIATES
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
consumer reports, permissible use, 2.3.6, 7.2.3, 7.2.7, 7.2.8.3, 14.2.4
credit card transactions, 2.4.5
credit denial, see ADVERSE ACTION
credit limits, failure to report, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.2
credit reporting agency status, 2.5.5, 2.7.2
credit scoring systems, misuse, 16.8.5
CROA, application, 17.2.2.3.3
dealer paper sales, notice obligations, 8.6.1.4.1
dealing directly with, 6.5.2, 6.10.1.1, 14.6.2.3
definition, 2.3.6.3.1, 17.2.2.3.3
red flag purposes, 1.4.12.1, 2.3.6.3.1
discrimination prohibited, 5.7.2
disputed debts, see CREDIT DISPUTES; DISPUTED INFORMATION
ECOA application, 2.4.5, 2.4.6, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
FCRA application, 2.3.6.3, 2.5.5, 2.7.2, 6.2.2.2
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4
first-hand experience, 2.4.2, 2.5.5
direct selling of information, 6.2.2.2
social media, 2.4.2
friendly, use as testers, 12.1.2
identity theft obligations, 6.12, 9.2
address discrepancies, 9.2.6.3
change of address verification, 9.2.6.4
data security breach, 9.6
duty of care, 9.5.2
number truncation, 9.2.5
red flag guidelines, 1.4.12.1, 9.2.6.2
inaccurate information, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
information obtained from non-reporting agency, 2.3.2, 3.3.1.3.3, 8.6
information obtained from reporting agency, see CONSUMER REPORTS
information supply to reporting agency, see FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
joint lenders, FCRA, application, 2.4.6, 2.5.6
judgment creditors, see JUDGMENT CREDITORS
landlords, status, 15.3.3
law suits, see COLLECTION SUITS
medical information restrictions, 5.4.5, 7.4.9
misstatements to, 17.2.7.2
mortgage lenders see HOME MORTGAGES
negotiating repayment plans with, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.6
non-furnishing of information, 4.3.2.2, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.2, 16.8.2.3
notice obligations
adverse action, 2.4.5, 2.4.6, 8.5, 8.6
affiliate information sharing, 8.12
disputes, 4.8.2, 6.6
risk-based pricing, 8.7
prospective creditors, alerting to unreported history, 14.6.9
record retention, 12.1.5
Red Flag Guidelines, application, 1.4.12.1, 9.2.6.2.2
retaliation prohibited, 5.7.2
third party credit requests, 2.4.6
threats to report debt, 14.3
tort liability, 10.4, 10.5
use of consumer reports, see USERS OF REPORTS
CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS
see CRIMINAL RECORDS; PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
CRIMINAL OFFENSES
alleged criminals lists, see LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETINS
arrests, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, 13.6, 18.4.2.1
consumer information, unauthorized obtaining, 7.7.4, 13.6
convictions, see CRIMINAL RECORDS; PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
FCRA violations, 13.6
Financial Information Privacy Act, 18.4.2.2
identity theft
Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act, 9.3
state law, 9.4.1
indictments, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
investigations, consumer reports, use, 7.4.5
prosecutions, see PROSECUTIONS
CRIMINAL RECORDS
see also CRIMINAL OFFENSES; PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
assemblers of information, 2.5.3.2, 2.7.1
background check databases, see BACKGROUND CHECK DATABASES
reporting limitations, 5.2.3.7
DAC SERVICES
consumer reporting agency status, 2.6.4
DAMAGES
see also ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
actual, see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
class actions, 11.2.3
CROA claims, 17.2.8.5
FCRA claims, 12.5
class actions, 11.2.3.3.2, 11.2.3.3.3
maximizing, 11.1
multiple, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
nominal, see DAMAGES, NOMINAL
published awards, quick reference, 12.8
punitive, see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
reasonable procedures claims, 4.4.5.3
state claims
credit repair, 17.3.6
credit reporting, 11.1
statutory, see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
Telephone Consumer Protection Act, 17.4.2
DAMAGES, ACTUAL
see also DAMAGES
class actions, 11.2.3
CROA violations, 17.2.8.5.2
definition, 12.5.2.1
FCRA violations, 12.5.2
generally, 12.5.2.1
intangible damages, 12.5.2.3
mitigation, 12.5.2.2.6
negligent violations, 11.1
pecuniary loss, 12.5.2.2
reasonable procedures violations, 4.4.5.3
willful violations, necessity, 4.4.5.3, 12.5.4.1.2
nominal damages alternative, 12.5.2.4
published awards, quick reference, 12.8
punitive damages prerequisite, 12.5.4.1.2
tort claims, 11.1, 12.5.2.1
DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
see also DAMAGES
credit reporting claims, 12.5.3.3
DAMAGES, NOMINAL
recovering, 12.5.2.4
DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
see also DAMAGES
class actions, 11.2.3, 12.4.5.2
CROA violations, 17.2.8.5.3
FCRA violations
actual damages, no need, 12.5.4.1.2
amount, determination, 12.5.4.2
determination by judge or jury, 12.5.4.2.1
prerequisites, 12.5.4.1
purpose, 12.5.4.1.1
willful noncompliance, 12.5.4.1.1
financial standing of defendant, discovery, 12.1.3
jury trials, 12.5.4.2.1, 12.2
obsolete information reporting, 5.2.5.1
published awards, quick reference, 12.8
reasonable procedures violations, 4.4.5.3
tort claims, 12.5.4.1.1
DAMAGES, STATUTORY
see also DAMAGES
credit reporting violations
FBI provision, 7.2.10.4
FCRA claims, 12.5.3
state law claims, 12.5.3.3
willful violations, 4.4.5.3, 12.5.3.3
DATABASE SERVICES
see DATA BROKERS
DATA BROKERS
see also SPECIALTY AGENCIES
background checks, see BACKGROUND CHECK DATABASES
check approval companies, see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
employment-related, 2.7.6
FCRA, application, 2.7.5
file contents, 3.2.4
FTC enforcement order, Appx. L.5
listing of, Appx. O
marketing services, 2.7.13
obtaining reports from, 3.4.2.3
“pretexting” to obtain financial information, 18.4.2.3
public record information, 4.3.5.1
retail services, 2.7.12
sources of information, 2.7.5, 3.2.4
trucker services, 2.6.4
DATA COMMUNICATION
electronic, see ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION
preservation for litigation purposes, 12.1.3.6
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.8
universal form, see UNIVERSAL DATA FORM
DATA MANAGEMENT COMPANIES
use by creditors, 6.3.1
DATA MINING AND MARKETING COMPANIES
see DATA BROKERS
DATA SAFEGUARD
financial information, 18.4.1.10
FTC rules, Appx. G.2.2
DATING SERVICES
consumer report use, 7.2.8.2.2.2, 7.4.10
DEALER PAPER
see also AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
sales, disclosure requirements, 8.6.1.4.1
DEALERS
see AUTOMOBILE DEALERS; CREDITORS; MERCHANTS
DEBIT CARDS
credit card alternative, 14.7.6
identity theft prevention
see also IDENTITY THEFT
change of address regulations, 9.2.6.4
number truncation, 9.2.5.1
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2
retroactive immunity, 1.4.10.2, 9.2.5.1.2
state law preemption, 10.7.8.6
DEBT BUYERS
FDCPA requirements, 14.4.6
DEBT COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT ACT
reporting of federal government debts, 14.4.5
DEBT COLLECTORS
see also COLLECTION SUITS
accounts placed with, reporting, 5.2.3.4
creditor’s delinquency date, using, 5.2.3.4.6
re-aging of delinquency date, 5.2.3.4.5, 6.7
affiliated collectors, communications giving rise to free report, 3.3.7
arbitration clauses, enforcement, 12.4.2.5, 12.4.2.4
bad debt lists, publication, 14.2.3
consumer reports, permissible user, 7.2.3.4
CRA status, 6.13
CROA, application, 17.2.2.4, 17.2.2.7
disputed debts, reporting and collection restrictions, 5.2.3.4.6, 5.3.3, 6.13, 14.4.6
false threats or information, 5.2.3.4.7, 14.3
FCRA, application, 2.7.4, 6.13
FDCPA requirements, 5.3.3, 6.13, 14.4.6
furnishers, as, 6.13
identity theft information, obligations, 9.2.3.2
Metro 2 Format, use, 6.3.3.9
re-aging of accounts, 5.2.3.4.5, 6.7
creditor’s delinquency date to be used, 5.2.3.4.6
state law restrictions, federal preemption, 10.7.8.5
threats to report debt, 14.3
obsolete information, 5.2.3.4.7
validation notice, 14.4.6
DEBT COUNSELORS
see CREDIT COUNSELORS
DEBT ELIMINATION COMPANIES
concerns with, 14.5.2
DEBT MANAGEMENT PLANS
credit score, effect, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.6
negotiating, 14.6.7.3
DEBTS
bad debts
charged-off to, see CHARGED-OFF ACCOUNTS
lists, see BAD DEBT LISTS
bankruptcy discharge, see BANKRUPTCY
delinquent, see DELINQUENT ACCOUNTS
discharging through bankruptcy, 5.2.3.8, 14.6.8
disputed debts, see CREDIT DISPUTES; DISPUTED INFORMATION
elimination companies, 14.5.2
fraudulent
blocking, 9.2.4
sale of, 9.2.4.2.2
new debt, taking on to improve credit record, 14.5.4, 14.6.7.2
payment, priorities, 14.5.3
purchasers of debt, see ASSIGNEES
repayment, effect on reporting limitations, 5.2.3.4
repayment plans, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.6
DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES
CROA prohibitions, 17.2.7
application, 17.2.7.1
pleading violations, 17.2.8.9
state laws, see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAP)
DECLARATORY JUDGMENT ACT (DJA)
FCRA violations, application, 12.6
DECLARATORY RELIEF
FCRA violations, 12.6
class actions, 11.2.3.3.5
DEFAMATION
see also TORT CLAIMS
actual damages, 12.5.2.1
elements of claim, 10.5.2
false reports, 10.5.2
FCRA qualified immunity, 10.4
exception for malice or willful intent, 10.4.6
inaccurate reports, 10.5.2
qualified privilege defense, 10.5.2
DEFENSES
abstention, 12.3.1.8
bankruptcy as exclusive remedy, 12.3.1.9
claim preclusion, 12.3.1.8
conditional privilege, 10.5.2
constitutional arguments, 12.3.1.5
counterclaims, 12.3.2
defamation claims, 10.5.2
disputed debts, see CREDIT DISPUTES
equitable defenses, 12.3.1.3
exhaustion of other remedies, 12.3.1.6
FCRA claims, 12.3
GLBA as, 18.4.1.12
indemnification, 12.3.3
lack of standing, 12.3.1.3
litigation privilege, 12.3.1.7
mitigation, 12.5.2.1
pleading, 12.3.1.1
preemption defense, 12.3.1.11
qualified privilege, 10.5.2
reasonable procedures, 10.2.3.5, 12.3.1.2, 15.4.3
res judicata, 12.3.1.8
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, 12.3.1.8
standing, 12.3.1.3
statutory affirmative defenses, 12.3.1.2
student loans, raising, 14.4.5, 14.6.5
technical accuracy, 4.2.4
third party claims, 12.3.3
waiver of rights, 12.3.1.10
DEFINITIONS
accuracy, 4.2.1, 6.4.3.3
active duty military consumer, 9.2.2.4
actual damages, 12.5.2.1
adverse action, 8.5.4.2, 8.5.4.3.1
affiliate, 18.4.1.6.2
assemble, 2.5.3.2
billing error, 5.3.4
business transaction, 7.2.8.2.2.2
consumer, 2.2, 17.2.2.2.6, 18.4.1.4
consumer credit transaction, 17.2.2.2.6
consumer report, 2.1.1, 2.3.1.1
consumer reporting, 2.3.1.1, 2.5.1, 13.2.4.5
consumer reporting agency, 2.1.1, 2.5.1, 6.4.3.3
credit, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.3.1.2, 8.5.4.3.2, 17.2.2.2.6
credit repair organization, 17.2.2.2
credit score, 16.2.3
creditor, 1.4.12.1, 2.3.6.3.1, 17.2.2.3.3
customer relationship, 18.4.1.4
denial, 8.5.4.3.3
eligibility information, 8.12.3.2.2
employment purposes, 2.3.6.4.1, 7.2.4.2
evaluate, 2.5.3.2
file, 3.2.2, 5.6.1
financial institution, 18.4.1.3
free credit report, 3.3.3.2.2
furnisher of information, 2.1.2, 6.2.1, 6.4.3.3
governmental agency, 7.2.10.2
identity theft, 9.2.1.2
identity theft report, 9.2.2.3.2
integrity, 6.4.3.3
investigation, 4.5.3.4.1
investigative consumer report, 15.2
larger participants, 13.2.4.5
malice, 10.4.6.1
material terms, 8.7.2.2
materially less favorable, 8.7.2.3
medical information, 5.4.1
negligence, 10.2.2
nonpublic personal information, 18.4.1.1
person, 2.5.2, 15.4.1.1
personal, family, or household purpose, 2.3.6.3.1
personally identifiable financial information, 18.4.1.5
pre-existing business relationship, 8.12.3.2.3
privacy notice, 18.4.1.7.1
reasonable cause to believe, 6.4.2.2
red flag, 9.2.6
regularly engages, 2.5.3
reseller, 2.6.3.2
solicitation for marketing purposes, 8.12.3.2.4
successful action, 12.7.1.4
user, 2.1.2, 7.1.4.2
willful intent, 10.4.6.1
DELINQUENT ACCOUNTS
see also COLLECTION SUITS
bringing up-to-date, 14.6.7
payments on old accounts, 14.5.3
student loans, 14.7.8
charged-off to bad debts, see CHARGED-OFF ACCOUNTS
date of delinquency to be furnished, 5.2.2.4, 5.2.3.4.3, 6.7
debt collectors must use creditor’s date, 5.2.3.4.6
disclosure of date to consumer, 5.2.5.3
Metro 2 and, 5.2.3.2
re-aging by debt collectors, 5.2.3.4.5, 6.7
discharging in bankruptcy, 14.6.8
importance of resolving issues, 14.6.4.1
reporting limitations
obsolete information, 5.2.2.3
sent for collection or charged-off, 5.2.3.4
time periods, 5.2.3
DENIAL
see ADVERSE ACTION
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
insured home mortgages, see FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA)
DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES (STATE)
see MOTOR VEHICLE DEPARTMENTS (STATE)
DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS
see also BANKS; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
charge-offs, 5.2.3.4.2
CROA exemption, 17.2.2.3.4
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.2, 13.2.3
DETECTIVE AGENCIES
consumer reports
certification of permissible use, 7.5.2.2
obtaining, 7.1.6
use, 7.4.5
electronic communication with reporting agencies, 7.5.4
FCRA, application, 2.7.6
identifying information, obtaining, 7.2.10.2
investigative consumer reports, preparation, 15.1.1
DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
see also REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
advantages, 6.5.2.7, 14.6.2.3
allowable circumstances, 6.5.2.2
exceptions, 6.5.2.4
frivolous or irrelevant requests, 6.5.2.5
furnisher’s duties, 6.5.2.6
notice of dispute, 6.5.2.3, 14.6.2.3
DIRECTORIES
consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1, 2.3.5.3
DISCLAIMERS
screening products, effect, 2.3.5.1, 2.5.4.3
DISCLOSURE
see also NOTICE
accessible personnel, 3.6.3, 3.6.4
adverse action, 3.3.1.3
see also ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
employment report, 3.3.1.3.2, 7.2.4.3.3, 15.2.4.2
information used, 3.3.6
legislative history, 1.4.7
affiliate information sharing, 2.4.3.2.2, 8.12
financial information, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.6.2
audit trail, 3.5.5.2
checks, dishonored, 3.5.4.4
consumer files
additional information, 3.5.4
all information, 3.5.1, 3.5.2
check identification, 3.5.4.4
cleaning up after a dispute, 14.6.4.6
clear and accurate, 3.5.2
contents of disclosure, 3.5
differences in information, 3.4.1
distinguished from consumer report, 4.4.3
exceptions, 3.5.5
fee, upon payment, 3.3.10
form, 3.6
free annual reports, 3.3.2, 3.3.9, 3.4.2.1, 10.7.7
free reports, other circumstances, 3.3.5–3.3.9, 15.4.4
investigative reports, 15.4.4
mechanics of obtaining, 3.4
model form, Appx. C.2
oral disclosure, 3.6.2
other persons in consumer’s file, 3.5.1.6
practice tips, 3.7
previously reported information, 3.5.1.5
right to, 3.3
scope, 3.5
sources, 3.5.4.2, 15.4.2.3
time limits, 3.3.10.3
unreasonable preconditions, 3.4.5
written disclosure, 3.6.1
consumer reporting agencies
assistance to consumers, 3.6.3, 3.6.4
disputed information, notification rights, 4.9.2
free annual reports, 3.3.2
location, 3.6.2
public record information, 8.11.5
consumer reports
adverse action, 3.3.6, 7.2.4.3.3
affiliated debt collector communications, 3.3.7
contents by users, 3.3.1
distinguished from file disclosure, 4.4.3
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.3
fraud alerts, 3.3.5
free annual reports, 3.3.2, 3.3.9
investigative reports, 15.4.4
paid reports, 3.3.10
previously reported information, 3.5.1.5
unemployed persons, 3.3.8
use for counterterrorism purposes, 3.5.4.3.2, 7.2.10.4, 7.2.10.5
users, 3.5.4.3, 3.7.3
credit card rejections, 2.4.5
credit header information, 2.3.4.2.2
credit repair organizations, 17.2.3
credit report advertisements, 3.3.3.2
credit scores, 3.3.1.3.5, 3.3.4, 3.5.5.1, 16.4
adverse action, 8.5.2.4, 16.4.4
mortgage transactions, 3.3.1.4, 8.4.3, 16.4.3
obtaining, generally, 3.3.4.1, 8.4.2, 16.4.1.5
preemption of state law, 10.7.6
risk-based pricing, 8.7.3, 16.4.4
Dodd-Frank Act rights, 3.3.11
date of delinquency, 5.2.5.3
disputed information, right to request notification, 4.9.2
electronic disclosure, 3.6.1
employment agency files, 2.4.4.2.5
employment reports
employee misconduct, 7.2.4.4, 15.2.4.2
prior to adverse action, 7.2.4.3.3
prior to information request, 7.2.4.3
Summary of Consumer Rights, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3.1
FBI, consumer report access by, 3.5.4.3.2, 7.2.10.4
FCRA rights, 3.5.4.1, 8.2
fraud alerts, 9.2.2.1.1
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.3
federal agencies, debtor information, 5.7.3, 8.13.1
financial institutions
consumer opt-out rights, 18.4.1.8
Dodd-Frank Act disclosures, 3.3.11
privacy notice, 18.4.1.7
restrictions, 18.4.1
financial product or service, information obtained regarding, 3.3.11
form of disclosure, 3.6
free credit report advertisements, 3.3.3.2
GLBA restrictions, 18.4.1
exempt disclosures, 18.4.1.6
opt-out rights, 18.4.1.8
identification of consumer, 3.4.3, 3.6.2
in-person disclosures, 3.6.2
investigative consumer reports, 15.4
complete disclosure, 15.4.2, 15.4.4
form of disclosure, 15.4.2.4
nature of investigation, 15.4.2
notice of request for report, 15.4.1
reasonable procedures defense, 15.4.3
rights, 15.4.1.3
sources, 15.4.2.3, 15.4.4
time, 15.4.2.4
waiver of rights, 15.4.5
mail disclosures, 3.6.1
mortgage lenders, 3.3.1.4, 8.4.3, 16.4.3
nonpublic personal information, 2.3.4.2.2, 18.4.1.5
obtaining, 3.4
power of attorney requests, 3.4.4
prescreening lists, 5.2.3.9, 8.8
presence of another person at disclosure, 3.6.2
qualified immunity, 10.4.3
reading disclosures, 3.7.2.3
resellers, 2.6.3.3
security clearance usage, 3.5.4.3.2
social security number, 3.5.5.3
sources of information, 3.5.4.2, 15.4.2.3
state law requirements, 8.14.2
federal preemption, 10.7.6
Summary of Consumer Identity Theft Rights, 9.2.2.1.1
Summary of Consumer Rights, 3.5.4.1, 8.2.2
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3.1
telephone disclosures, 3.6.2
tenant screening reports, 14.7.3
third party credit rejections, 2.4.6
users receiving reports, 3.5.4.3, 3.7.3
FBI exception, 3.5.4.3.2, 7.2.10.4
DISCOVERY
see also ACTIONS; LITIGATION
attorney fee rates, 12.7.3
background information about defendants, 12.1.3.7
confidentiality agreements re, 12.1.3.8
consumer dispute cases, 12.1.3.2.8, 12.1.3.2.9, 12.1.3.3.2
consumer reporting agencies, 12.1.3.2
consumer reports
admissibility groundwork, 12.1.3.9
determination of use, 7.1.9, 7.4.4
subpoena, 12.1.3.10
CRA blocking procedures, 12.1.3.2.10
credit scores, 12.1.3.2.11, 16.5.4
electronic data, 12.1.3.6
employers, 12.1.3.4
financial information, 12.1.3.7
insurance coverage, 12.1.3.11
formal discovery, 12.1.3
furnishers, 12.1.3.3
generally, 12.1.1, 12.1.3.1
informal discovery, 12.1.2
investigative consumer reports, sources, 15.4.2.3, 15.4.4
pitfalls to avoid, 12.1.3.2.6
plaintiffs, directed at, 12.1.4
class members, 12.1.4.2
individual litigation, 12.1.4.1
preservation of documents and data, 12.1.3.6
protective orders, 12.1.3.8
public record CRAs, 12.1.3.2.12
reinvestigation procedures, 4.5.6.5
scope of discovery, 12.1.3.2.5
willfulness, 12.1.3.5
DISCRIMINATION
credit scores, 16.9
insurance context, 16.11
ECOA protections, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
medical information, based on, 5.4.5.1
DISHONORED CHECKS
consumer report, permissible use, 7.2.3.4.1
Metro 2 Format reporting, 6.3.3.12
DISPUTED INFORMATION
see also CREDIT DISPUTES
credit scores and, 16.7.3
data conformity reviews, 6.10.4.2.3
dealing directly with creditor, 6.5.2, 6.10.1.1, 14.6.2.3
see also DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
notification address, 6.4.4
deletion, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.3.1, 4.5.5.2, 4.6.2, 5.3.2.1
discovery related to, 12.1.3.2.8, 12.1.3.2.9, 12.1.3.3.2
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
formal dispute process, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
frivolous or irrelevant disputes, 4.5.2.7, 6.5.2.5
notice of frivolous dispute, 4.5.2.7.4, 6.5.2.5, 8.14.1
home mortgages, 5.3.5
open-end lines of credit, 5.3.4
identity theft related, see IDENTITY THEFT
not inaccurate, effect, 4.5.3.2
notation on file
by consumer, 4.8.1, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
by furnisher, 4.8.2, 6.6
notice to reporting agency, 4.5.2, 14.6.2.1
identity theft, Appx. C.5
reporting restrictions, 5.3
consumer reporting agencies, 5.3.2.1
credit cards, 5.3.4
debt collectors, 5.3.3
FCBA restrictions, 5.3.4
FCRA restrictions, 5.3.2
FDCPA restrictions, 5.2.3.4.6, 5.3.3
furnishers, 5.3.2.2, 6.4.4
open-end accounts, 5.3.4
RESPA restrictions, 5.3.5
TILA restrictions, 5.3.4
DISTRESS
see EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
see also ALIMONY; CHILD SUPPORT
consumer reports, use, 7.4.2, 7.4.4, 14.2.4
spousal reporting, effect on, 5.6.1
DOCTORS
see FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION; MEDICAL INFORMATION
DOCUMENTS
see RECORDS
DODD-FRANK WALL STREET REFORM AND CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT (DODD-FRANK ACT)
access to information under, 3.3.11
CFPB, creation, 1.3.3.1.1
FCRA rulemaking authority, 1.3.3.1.1
overview, 1.4.11
GLBA, 18.4.1.2
DRIVER’S PRIVACY PROTECTION ACT
overview, 18.4.2.4
state DMVs, restrictions on information disclosure, 18.2, 18.4.2.4
DRIVING RECORDS
see also ACCIDENT REPORTING BUREAUS
bad driving lists, 3.2.4
DPPA, application, 18.4.2.4
FCRA, application, 2.3.4.1
resellers, restrictions, 18.4.2.4
E-OSCAR
see also AUTOMATED REINVESTIGATION SYSTEM
electronic data processing system, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.1.2
dispute codes, 4.5.6.2
problems with, 6.10.1.2, 6.10.4.2.3
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION
see also COMPUTER ERRORS; DATA COMMUNICATION
adverse action notice, 8.5.3.2
consumer reports, 3.6.1, 7.5.4
disputes via Internet, 4.5.2.4.2
discovery, 12.1.3.6
e-OSCAR, see E-OSCAR
furnishing of information, 6.3.1
Metro 2 Format, see METRO 2 FORMAT
preservation for litigation purposes, 12.1.3.6
privacy protections, 18.4.2.1
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.8, 7.5.4
reinvestigation of disputed information
ACDV, 4.5.4.2, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.3.2
e-OSCAR processing system, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.1.2, 6.10.4.2.3
notice to furnisher, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.3
processing of disputes, 4.5.6
requests via, 4.5.2.4.2
results, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
transmission, 7.2.2
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS PRIVACY ACT
scope, 18.4.2.1
ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS
credit card truncation, 9.2.5.1.3
ELECTRONIC DATA SYSTEMS, INC.
data management services, 6.3.1
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
damages for, 12.5.2.3
EMPLOYEES
see also EMPLOYMENT PURPOSES
consumer reporting agencies
criminal liability, 7.6
disclosure assistance, 3.6.3
dispute processing, procedures, 4.5.6.4
reasonable procedures, following, 4.4.5.1.4
FCRA violations, employer liability, 7.7.5
misconduct investigations, 2.4.4.1, 7.2.4.4, 8.11.1.2.1, 15.2.4.2, 15.5.1
reports on, see EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
EMPLOYERS
see also EMPLOYMENT PURPOSES; FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
adverse action notice, 3.3.1.3.2, 7.2.4.3.3
post-adverse action, 8.11.4
pre-adverse action, 8.11.3
consumer reports, 7.2.4
see also EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
authorization, 7.2.4.3.2
certification, 7.2.4.3.1
disclosure requirements, 3.3.1.3.2, 7.2.4.3, 8.11
employee misconduct exemption, 2.4.4.1, 7.2.4.4, 8.11.1.2.1, 15.2.4.2
impermissible purpose, vicarious liability, 7.7.5
notice prior to use, 7.2.4.3.2, 8.11
permissible use, 7.2.4.2
Summary of Consumer Rights, providing, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3.1
widespread use, 7.2.4.1.2
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.4, 2.7.6, 7.2.4.2
former employers, provision of information, 7.2.4.2
EMPLOYMENT
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
agencies, see EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
denial, see ADVERSE ACTION
purposes, see EMPLOYMENT PURPOSES
reports, see EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
CRA status, 2.7.6
FCRA exemptions, 2.3.6.4.2, 2.4.4.2
adverse action notice, 8.11.1.2.4
investigative reports
certification to agency, 15.4.1.5
exclusions, 2.4.4.2.2
EMPLOYMENT PURPOSES
adverse action, 8.11.1.1.2
certification of authorization, 7.2.4.3, 15.3.2
credit scores, use, 16.3
definition, 2.3.6.4, 7.2.4.2
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.4
investigative reports, 15.3.2, 15.4.1.5
jurors, reports on, status, 7.2.4.2
licenses, status, 7.2.4.2
permissible purpose, 2.3.6.4, 7.2.4.2
public record information, 4.4.7, 8.11.5
relatives, impermissible purpose, 7.2.4.2, 14.2.5
reports, see EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
security clearances, 2.3.6.4, 3.5.4.3.2, 4.4.7.4, 7.2.4.2
workers’ compensation claims, status, 7.2.4.2
EMPLOYMENT-RELATED COMPANIES
consumer reporting agency status, 2.7.6
employment agencies, see EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
inspection bureaus, see INSPECTION BUREAUS
screening databases, see BACKGROUND CHECK DATABASES
EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTS; EMPLOYMENT PURPOSES
adverse action notice, 3.3.1.3.2, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.1.1.2
employee misconduct exemption, 8.11.1.2.1
national security investigations, 8.11.1.2.3
truckers, 8.11.1.2.2
authorization from consumer, 7.2.4.3.2, 8.11.2, 15.5.1
employee misconduct exemption, 8.11.1.2.1, 15.5.1
truckers, 8.11.1.2.2
certification, 7.2.4.3, 15.3.2
consumer report status, 2.3.6.4, 2.4.4
employee misconduct investigations, 2.4.4.1, 7.2.4.4, 8.11.1.2.1, 15.2.4.2
employment agency communications, 2.3.6.4.2, 2.4.4.2, 8.11.1.2.4
FACTA amendment provisions, 1.4.9.2, 2.4.4.1
investigative, see INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
medical information, inclusion, 5.4.2
national security exemptions, 3.5.4.3.2, 4.4.7.4, 7.2.10.5, 8.11.1.2.3
nationwide agencies, 2.6.2
notice obligations, 8.11
exceptions, 2.4.4, 8.11.1.2
overview, 8.11.1.1.1
prior to use, 8.11.2
post-adverse action, 8.11.4
prior to adverse action, 3.3.1.3.2, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3
prior to information request, 7.2.4.3.2
public record information, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
truckers, 8.11.1.2.2
obsolete information, 5.2.4
obtaining by consumer, 3.4.2.3
overview, 7.2.4.1
permissible use, 7.2.4.2
public record information, protections, 4.4.7, 8.11.5
spouses and relatives, restrictions, 7.2.4.2
Summary of Consumer Rights, inclusion, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3.1
trucker database services, 2.6.4
employment use notice, 8.11.1.2.2
use notice, 7.2.4.3.2, 8.11
widespread use, 7.2.4.1.2
workers’ compensation
lists at specialized agencies, 3.2.4
use for claims, 7.2.4.2
EMPLOYMENT SCREENING DATABASES
see BACKGROUND CHECK DATABASES
ENFORCEMENT OF FCRA
criminal enforcement, 13.6
private enforcement, see FCRA CLAIMS
public enforcement
federal enforcement, see FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT
state enforcement, see STATE ENFORCEMENT
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
adverse action notices
comparison with FCRA notice, 8.5.6
model form, Appx. C.9
record retention, 12.1.5
claims under, 10.3
codes, use in Metro 2 Format, 6.3.3.3
credit discrimination, prohibition, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
credit score definition in Regulation B, 16.2.3.2
disputed debts, application, 5.3.1, 6.5.3
furnishers of information, application, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
identity theft suits under, 9.5.1
insufficient credit history, application, 14.6.9
spouses, reporting requirements, 5.6.1, 7.4.6.2, 14.2.5, 14.6.9
EQUIFAX
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; NATIONWIDE REPORTING AGENCIES
consumer disputes, processing, 4.5.6.4
consumer files, 3.2.3
contents, 3.2.3.2
sources of information, 3.2.3.3
contact information, 3.4.2.2, 4.5.2.4.2
credit scores
FICO variations, 16.4.5.3
in-house educational scores, 16.4.5.2
obtaining, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.1.5
VantageScore, 16.2.2.2, 16.4.5.2
discovery, 12.1.3.2.2
FCRA, application, 2.7.1
special provisions, 2.6.1
FTC enforcement orders, Appx. L.3
investigative consumer reports, specialization, 15.1.1
liability insurance, 12.1.3.11
overview, 1.2.2
sample credit report, Appx. I.1.1
toll-free number with accessible personnel, 3.6.3, 3.6.4
EQUITABLE RELIEF
FCRA violations, 12.6
ERRORS
see also ACCURACY; INACCURATE INFORMATION
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
consumer files, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
consumer report use, liability, 7.1.4.1, 7.7.1
disputing, see CREDIT DISPUTES
Metro 2 Format, 6.3.3.8
EVALUATORS OF INFORMATION
consumer reporting agency status, 2.5.3.2
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF; WITNESSES
consumer reports
admissibility, 12.1.3.9, 12.1.7.3
permissible purpose, 7.4.4
credit denial, 12.1.7.4
based on erroneous information, 12.5.2.2.3
damages
intangible damages, 12.5.2.3.4
pecuniary loss, 12.5.2.2
expert testimony, 12.1.6
issues in litigation, 12.1.7
malice, 10.4.6.3
motions in limine, 12.1.7.6
reasonable procedures
non-utilization, 4.4.5.2.2
what are, 4.4.5.1.5
willfulness, 10.4.6.3, 12.5.3.2
EXPERIAN (TRW)
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; NATIONWIDE REPORTING AGENCIES
consumer disputes, processing, 4.5.6.4
consumer files, 3.2.3
contents, 3.2.3.2
sources of information, 3.2.3.3
contact information, 3.4.2.2, 4.5.2.4.2
credit scores
FICO variations, 16.4.5.3
in-house educational scores, 16.4.5.2
obtaining, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.1.5
VantageScore, 16.2.2.2, 16.4.5.2
discovery, 12.1.3.2.4
FCRA, application, 2.7.1
special provisions, 2.6.1
FTC enforcement orders, Appx. L.2
liability insurance, 12.1.3.11
overview, 1.2.2
sample credit report, Appx. I.1.2
toll-free number with accessible personnel, 3.6.3, 3.6.4
EXPLANATIONS
see also STATEMENT OF DISPUTE
adverse information, 4.8.3
blemished credit records, 14.6.9
consumer file, inclusion, 4.8.3
creditors, provision, 4.2.2
FAIR AND ACCURATE CREDIT TRANSACTIONS ACT (FACTA)
FCRA, amending, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.9
key provisions, 1.4.9.2
identity theft, 9.2.1.1
legislative history, 1.4.9.1
post-FACTA legislation, 1.4.10, 1.4.11
privacy protections, 18.6
regulations under, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.9.2
FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
billing errors, application, 5.3.4
claims under, 10.3
credit card charges, application, 14.4.2
credit scores, conflicts with dispute mechanisms, 16.7.3
disputed information, reporting restrictions, 5.3.4, 6.5.3
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA); CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CONSUMER FILES; CONSUMER REPORTS; FAIR AND ACCURATE CREDIT TRANSACTIONS ACT (FACTA)
actions under, see FCRA CLAIMS
amendments, see LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF FCRA
application
business reports, 2.3.6.2
consumer reporting agencies, 2.5, 2.6
consumer reports, 2.3, 2.4
consumers, 2.2
debt collectors, 6.13
furnishers of information, 6.2
generally, 1.3.1, 2.1
investigative consumer reports, 15.2
resellers, 2.6.3
banking regulator authority, 1.3.3.1.1
current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2, Appx. B.4
bright line requirements, 10.2.3.2
CFPB authority
current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2, Appx. B.2.1
enforcement, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2, 13.3.2
generally, 1.4.11
guidelines, 13.2.7, Appx. B.2.2
rulemaking, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2.7, Appx. B.2
circumvention provisions, 2.6.1.3
compliance, reasonable procedures, 5.2.5
consumer guides, Appx. M
credit scores
conflicts with dispute mechanisms, 16.7.3
definition, 16.2.3.1
disclosure requirements, 16.4
cross-reference table, section numbers, Appx. A.1
disputed information, reporting restrictions, 5.3.2
ECOA notice obligations, comparison, 8.5.6
enforcement, Ch. 13
administrative, 13.2.6
agency powers, 13.3
CFPB authority, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2, 13.3.2
consumer reports, subpoena, 7.2.1
criminal enforcement, 13.6
federal enforcement, see FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT
FTC authority, 13.2.6, 13.3.3, 13.3.4
furnisher duties, 6.1.2, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.2.1
private enforcement, see FCRA CLAIMS
sample orders, Appx. L
state enforcement, see STATE ENFORCEMENT
supervisory authority, 13.2.8
exemptions, 2.4
affiliate exemption, 2.4.3
FACTA amendments, see FAIR AND ACCURATE CREDIT TRANSACTIONS ACT (FACTA)
federal agency enforcement, see FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT
federal agency interpretations, 1.3.3
FTC authority
current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2, Appx. B.3.1
enforcement, 13.2.6, 13.3.3, 13.3.4
interpretations, 1.3.3.2, 13.2.7
motor vehicle dealers, Appx. B.3.2
Official Staff Commentary, 1.3.3.2.1
opinion letters, 1.3.3.2.2, Appx. E
reports and studies, 1.3.3.2.4
rulemaking, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2.7, Appx. B.3
sample enforcement orders, Appx. L
Staff Summary, 1.3.3.2.1, Appx. D
GLBA impact, 18.4.1.11
identity theft provisions, see IDENTITY THEFT
interpretations, 13.2.7
CFPB guidelines, Appx. B.2.2
FTC interpretations, 1.3.3.2
legislative history, see LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF FCRA
limited qualified immunity, 6.11, 10.4, 18.3.2
litigation use, 1.3.2
see also FCRA CLAIMS
medical information, reporting restrictions, 5.4
notice requirements
importance, 8.1.2
overview, 8.1.1
overview, 1.3.1
preemption of state law, see PREEMPTION OF STATE LAW
privacy protections, 7.1.1, 18.1
published awards, quick reference, 12.8
purpose, 1.3.1, 7.1.1
reasonable procedures, 10.2.3.3
regulations, see REGULATIONS (FCRA)
reinsertion provisions, 4.7.2
rights under
Summary of Rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
waiver, 7.2.2, 12.3.1.10
scope, Ch. 2
scrivener’s error, 10.2.1.4
state enforcement, see STATE ENFORCEMENT
supervisory authority, 13.2.8
terminology, 1.2.1
text of Act, Appx. A.2
user notice, 7.1.5, 8.17.2
model form, Appx. C.7
utilization, 1.3.2
violations
accuracy standards, 4.1.1, 6.4.1
actual damages, 12.5.2
attorney fees and costs, 12.7
civil suits, see FCRA CLAIMS
continuing violations, 12.3.1.3.1.3
criminal penalties, 13.6
declaratory relief, 12.6
defenses, see DEFENSES
false pretenses, 7.2.2, 7.7.3
identity theft provisions, 9.2.4.1.5
injunctive relief, 12.6
investigation, 7.2.10.3
knowing non-compliance, 7.7.2
liability, 7.7, 11.2.2
negligent, 10.2.2
obsolete information, 5.2.5.1
private remedies, 11.1
punitive damages, 12.5.4
state enforcement, 13.7.1
statute of limitations, 12.3.1.3.1
statutory damages, 12.5.3.3
systematic practices, 11.2.3
testers, 12.1.2
uncertified use, 7.7.2
unfair or deceptive practice, as, 10.6.2
vicarious liability, 7.7.5
willful noncompliance, 12.5.3.1, 12.5.3.2
weaknesses, 1.3.2
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
see also CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
bad debt lists, restrictions, 14.2.3
claims under, 10.3
disputed debts, restrictions, 5.3.3, 6.5.3
furnishing of information, restrictions, 6.13
re-aging of debts, application, 5.2.3.4.5
FAIR ISAAC & CO. (FICO)
see FICO SCORES
FALSE INFORMATION
see also INACCURATE INFORMATION
credit repair organizations, 17.2.7.2
debt collectors, 14.3
tort liability, 10.4.6
FALSE PRETENSES
see also FRAUD
consumer reports, obtaining under
civil liability, 7.7.3
criminal liability, 7.7.4, 13.6
impermissible purpose, 7.7.3, 7.7.4
testers, 12.1.2
written permission, 7.2.2
FALSE THREATS
see also THREATS
debt collectors, 5.2.3.4.7, 14.3
investigative consumer report, 15.4.1.2
FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS
see CHILD SUPPORT; DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS; PATERNITY PROCEEDINGS
FAMILY PURPOSE TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
consumer report, permissible purpose, 2.3.6.1, 7.2.3.1.3
business transactions, 7.2.8.2.2.1
defined, 2.3.6.3.1
FANNIE MAE
see FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE)
FARMERS HOME ADMINISTRATION (FmHA)
see RURAL HOUSING SERVICE (RHS)
FCRA CLAIMS
see also FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA); LITIGATION
actual damages, 12.5.2
affiliate information sharing, 8.12.4
arbitration agreements, effect, 12.4
attorney fees and costs, 12.7
bankruptcy filing, effect, 12.3.1.9
blocking of reports by agency due to, 5.7.2
case selection, 11.3
class actions, 11.2.3
consumer report, failure to provide, 3.3.12
counterclaims, 12.3.2
court selection, 11.4
credit card truncation
constitutional challenges, 9.2.5.1.4
damages, 9.2.5.1.5
electronic transactions, 9.2.5.1.3
other issues, 9.2.5.1.6
retroactive immunity, 1.4.10.2, 9.2.5.1.2
credit scores, 8.4.2.2
damage awards, quick reference, 12.8
defenses, 12.3.1
see also DEFENSES
reasonable procedures, 10.2.3.4
discovery, see DISCOVERY
discrimination based on, 5.7.2
disputes, improper handling 10.2.2.2
evidence, see EVIDENCE
furnishers of information, 6.1.2, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.1.3, 6.10.2.1, 10.2.1.2
statute of limitations, 6.10.7
government agencies, against, 11.2.2.2
identity theft, 9.2.4.1.5, 9.5.1, 14.6.6
indemnity and contribution, 12.3.3
injunctive relief, 12.6
interest on judgments, 12.7.6
jury trials, 12.2
liability insurance, 12.1.3.11
negligent noncompliance, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2
notice violations
address discrepancy notice, 9.2.6.3, 8.17.3.3
adverse action, 8.5.5, 8.6.1.5, 8.6.2.2, 8.11.3.3, 8.11.4.2
affiliate information sharing, 8.12.4
disputed debt notice, 8.17.4.3
frivolous disputes, 8.10.3.3
employment report use, 8.11.2.2, 8.11.3.3, 8.11.4.2
mortgage credit score, 8.4.3.3
negative financial information, 8.9
prescreening notices, 8.8.2.4, 8.8.3.3
public record information, 8.11.5.3
reinsertion of information, 8.10.2.4
reinvestigation results, 8.10.1.4
risk-based pricing, 8.7.5
summary of identity theft rights, 8.3.2
summary of consumer rights, 8.2.2
parties, 11.2
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
prescreening violations, 8.8.2.4, 8.8.3.3
preservation of documents and data, 12.1.3.6
private remedies, 10.2.1, 11.1
public record information, 10.2.3.5
punitive damages, 12.5.4
reasonable procedures as defense, 10.2.3.4
reasonable procedures violations, 10.2.3
bright line requirements, 10.2.3.2
damages, 4.4.5.3
determining reasonableness, 4.4.5.1
failure to maintain, 10.2.3.3
public record information, 10.2.3.5
proof issues, 4.4.5.2
remedies, 7.5.1, 5.2.5.1
reinvestigations
failure to give results notice, 8.10.1.4
improper handling, 4.5.3, 4.5.7, 6.10.1.3, 6.10.2, 12.5.2.2.2
removal to federal court, 11.4.5
sample documents, Appx. J
standing, 11.2.1.3
class actions, 11.2.3.3.6
state enforcement actions, 13.7.1
statute of limitations, 12.3.1.3.1
discovery rule, 12.3.1.3.1.4
reinvestigation provisions, 6.10.7, 12.3.1.3.1.3
statutory damages, 12.5.3.3
third party claims, 12.3.3
utilization, 1.3.2
waiver of rights, 12.3.1.10
willful noncompliance, 10.2.1.1, 12.1.3.5, 12.5.3.3, 12.5.4.1.1
FEDERAL AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
banking regulators, see BANKING REGULATORS
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
consumer reports, permissible uses, 7.2.10
counterterrorism purposes, consumer reports, access, 7.2.10.5
employment reports, disclosure exemption, 3.5.4.3.2, 4.4.7.4, 7.2.10.5, 8.11.1.2.3
FBI, see FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (FBI)
FCRA, application, 2.5.7
FCRA enforcement, Ch. 13
see also FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT
consumer reports, subpoena powers, 7.2.10.3
contact information, inclusion in disclosure, 3.5.4.1
regulations and interpretations, 1.3.3
state enforcement agencies, coordination, 13.7.4
FDIC, see FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
FRB, see FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
FTC, see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
furnishing of information, 5.7.3, 6.2.1, 8.13.1, 14.4.5
student loans, 14.4.5
IRS, see INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
NCUA, see NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION (NCUA)
privacy protections, 2.5.7, 18.2
FEDERAL BANKING REGULATORS
see BANKING REGULATORS
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (FBI)
see also FEDERAL AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
consumer reports, obtaining, 7.2.1, 7.2.10.4
special legislation, 1.4.8, 1.4.10.1
FCRA, application, 2.5.7
USA PATRIOT Act, application, 1.4.8
FEDERAL CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT
see CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
FEDERAL COURTS
FCRA claims
jurisdiction, 11.4.1
removal from state court, 11.4.5
selection of court, 11.4.4
state claims
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, 12.3.1.8
supplemental jurisdiction, 11.4.2
FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
see also BANKING REGULATORS
consumer reports, permissible purposes, 2.3.6.10, 7.2.10.6
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.3, 13.2.6
FCRA regulatory authority, 1.3.3.1
GLBA enforcement authority, 18.4.1.2
text of regulations, Appx. G.3.4
FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT
allocation among agencies, 13.2
administrative enforcement, 13.2.6
CFPB authority, 13.2
depository institutions and credit unions, 13.2.2, 13.2.3
exclusions from CFPB authority, 13.2.5
FTC authority, 13.2.6
generally, 13.2.1
nondepository covered persons, 13.2.4
supervisory authority, 13.2.8
consumer complaints, 13.3.5
contact information, inclusion in disclosure, 3.5.4.1
criminal enforcement, 13.6
examples of enforcement actions, 13.4
generally, 13.1
powers of agencies, 13.3
CFPB, 13.3.2
furnishers, civil penalties against, 13.3.4
FTC, 13.3.3, 13.3.4
generally, 13.3.1
regulations and interpretations, 1.3.3, 13.2.7
state agencies, coordination, 13.7.4
subpoena powers, 7.2.10.3
FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC)
automated underwriting system, 16.2.2.5, 16.5.3
underwriting guidelines, 14.7.2.1, 16.7.1
FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA)
underwriting guidelines, 14.7.2.1
FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE)
automated underwriting system, 16.2.2.5
underwriting guidelines, 14.7.2.1, 16.7.1
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
see PREEMPTION OF STATE LAW
FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
see also BANKING REGULATORS
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.6
FCRA regulations
authority, 1.3.3.1.1
model forms, Appx. C
negative information model notice, 6.9
summary of current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2
GLBA enforcement powers, 18.4.1.2
text of regulations, Appx. G.3.3
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
accuracy studies, 4.1.3.3
consent decrees, Appx. L
consumer complaints to, 13.3.5
consumer reports, subpoenas, 7.2.1, 7.2.10.3
CROA, enforcement responsibilities, 17.2.11
ECOA model forms, Appx. C.9
FCRA
enforcement authority, 13.2.5, 13.2.6
enforcement orders, examples, Appx. L
enforcement powers, 13.3.3, 13.3.4
guidelines, Appx. B.3.3
informal opinion letters, 1.3.3.2.2, Appx. E
interpretations, 1.3.3.2, 13.2.7
model forms, Appx. C
Official Staff Commentary rescinded, 1.3.3.2.1
regulatory authority, 1.3.3.1, 1.4.11, 1.4.9.2, 13.2.7, Appx. B.3
reports and studies, 1.3.3.2.4
Staff Summary, 1.3.3.2.1, Appx. D
Summary of Rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
FCRA regulations, Appx. B.3
authority, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2.5, 13.2.7
FACTA amendments, 1.3.3.1.1
failure of courts to give deference, 1.3.3.1.3
identity theft, 9.2.6.2, Appx. B.3.1
model forms, Appx. C
motor vehicle dealers, 13.2.5, Appx. B.3.2
parallel citations, Appx. B.3.2
summary of current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2
text, Appx. B.3.1
GLBA, regulatory and enforcement authority, 18.4.1.2
Privacy Rule replaced by Regulation P, 18.4.1.2
Safeguard Rules, 18.4.1.10, Appx. G.2.2
identity theft
consumer assistance, 9.1.3
interagency guidelines, Appx. B.3.3
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2, Appx. B.3.1
model forms, Appx. C
affiliate marketing opt-out notice, Appx. C.11
ECOA adverse action, Appx. C.9
FTC Identity Theft Affidavit, Appx. C.5
Notice of Responsibilities of Furnishers, Appx. C.6
Notice of User Responsibilities, Appx. C.7
prescreen opt-out notice, Appx. C.8
request for annual file disclosure, Appx. C.2
risk-based pricing notices, Appx. C.10
Summary of Consumer Rights, Appx. C.3
Summary of Identity Theft Rights, Appx. C.4
motor vehicle dealers, authority over, Appx. B.3.2
opinion letters, 1.3.3.2.2, Appx. E
furnisher accuracy, 6.4.2.6
Safeguard Rules, 18.4.1.10, Appx. G.2.2
Telemarketing Rule, see TELEMARKETING RULE (FTC)
unfair or deceptive practices, standards, 18.4.2.3
FEES
consumer reports, 3.3.9, 3.3.10.2, 10.7.7
free reports, see FREE CONSUMER REPORTS
credit repair organizations, 17.2.2.2.2, 17.3.4.2
advance payments, 17.2.6, 17.3.5
credit scores, 3.3.4.5, 16.4.1.3
adverse action notice, 16.4.4
mortgage transactions, 16.4.3.1
risk-based pricing notice, 16.4.4
disputed reports, notification of past users, 4.9.3
file disclosures, 3.3.10
free annual reports, 3.3.2, 10.7.7
free reports, other circumstances, 3.3.5–3.3.9
maximum charge, 3.3.10.2
state restrictions, 3.3.9, 10.7.7
new information, addition to file, 4.8.4
reinvestigations, 4.5.2.1
security freezes, 9.4.4.3
statements of dispute, 4.8.1.1
FICO SCORES
see also CREDIT SCORES
credit risk scores, 16.2.2.2
obtaining, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.1.5
scorecards, 16.5.2.2
scoring factors, 16.5.2.1
scoring model variations, 16.4.5.3
FILES
see CONSUMER FILES
FINANCE COMPANIES
see CREDITORS; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
FINANCIAL ADVISORS
credit repair organization status, 17.2.2.4
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
see also INFORMATION ON CONSUMERS
common law privacy protections, 18.3, 18.5
data safeguard, 18.4.1.10
FTC rules, Appx. G.2.2
loan application verification, 8.6.1.4.2
nonpublic personal information, see NONPUBLIC PERSONAL INFORMATION
personally identifiable financial information, 18.4.1.5
“pretexting” to obtain, 18.4.2.1, 18.4.2.3
statutory privacy protections, 18.4
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, 18.4.2.1
Driver’s Privacy Protection Act, 18.4.2.4
Financial Information Privacy Act, 18.4.2.2
FTC Act, 18.4.2.3
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, 18.4.1
state law, 18.4.2.5
FINANCIAL INFORMATION PRIVACY ACT
overview, 18.4.2.2
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
account number sharing, 18.4.1.9
affiliate information sharing, 8.6.2, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.6.2
CROA, application, 17.2.2.3.4
customer relationships, 18.4.1.4
dealer paper purchases, disclosure obligations, 8.6.1.4.1
defined, 18.4.1.3
depository institutions, see DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS
FCRA enforcement authority over, 13.2.2, 13.2.3, 13.2.4.5
GLBA, 18.4.1
application, 2.3.4.2.2, 18.4.1.3
exempt disclosures, 18.4.1.6
opt-out rights, 18.4.1.8
privacy notice, 18.4.1.7
identity theft, warning signs, 9.2.6
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2
information security, 18.4.1.10
loan information verification, 8.6.1.4.2
negative information, reporting notice, 6.9, 8.9
nonpublic personal information, disclosure restrictions, 2.3.4.2.2, 18.4.1.5
exempt disclosures, 18.4.1.6
privacy protections
annual notice, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.8.2
common law, 18.3, 18.5
data safeguard, 18.4.1.10, Appx. G.2.2
governmental intrusion, 18.2
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, 18.4.1
statutory protections, 18.4
tort claims, 18.3
regulatory authorities, see BANKING REGULATORS
services provided by, see FINANCIAL PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
FINANCIAL PRODUCTS OR SERVICES
account information, “pretexting,” 13.6, 18.4.2.1, 18.4.2.3
account number sharing, 18.4.1.9
blemished credit record, implications, 14.7.7
consumer report, permissible use, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2.2.2
Dodd-Frank Act, information access rights, 3.3.11
fraud lists, 14.7.7
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.5
immigrants, 14.8
“larger participants” in market, 13.2.4.5, Appx. B.2.3
provision, FCRA, application, 2.3.6.8
FORECLOSURES
prior, impact on mortgage applications, 14.7.2.2
relief services
credit repair laws, application, 17.3.2
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.2
FORMS
ECOA adverse action forms, Appx. C.9
FCRA model forms, Appx. C
FORUM
FCRA claims
removal, 11.4.5
selection, 11.4.4
FOSTER YOUTH
identity theft, 9.4.5
FRAUD
see also FALSE PRETENSES
alerts, see FRAUD ALERTS
credit repair organizations, 17.1.2, 17.2.7.5
pleading, 17.2.8.9
criminal liability, 13.6
file segregation as, 14.5.5
free consumer report, 3.3.5
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
notice of rights, 8.3
prevention, database services, 2.7.12
specialized fraud lists, 3.2.4, 14.7.7
FRAUD ALERTS
see also FRAUD; IDENTITY THEFT
CRA annual reports, 9.2.1.3
effect, 9.2.2.5
extended fraud alerts, 9.2.2.3
effect, 9.2.2.3.3
identity theft report, 9.2.2.3.2
FCRA provisions, overview, 9.2.2.1.1
free consumer report, entitlement, 3.3.5, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3.3
initial fraud alerts, 9.2.2.2
“one-call” alerts, 9.2.2.2
placing on file, 4.8.2, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3, 14.6.6.2
direct request from consumer, 9.2.2.2
proof of identity, necessity, 9.2.2.1.2
initial fraud alerts, 9.2.2.2
referrals between nationwide agencies, 9.2.2.5
rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER IDENTITY THEFT RIGHTS
FREDDIE MAC
see FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC)
FREE CONSUMER REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTS
adverse action, 3.3.1.3.1, 3.3.6
employment reports, 3.3.1.3.2
advertisements for, required disclosures, 3.3.3.2
affiliated debt collector communications, 3.3.7
annual free reports, 3.3.2, 3.3.5, 3.4.2.1, 10.7.7
centralized source, 3.3.2.3, 3.4.2.5
nationwide agencies, 3.3.2.1
processing of requests, 3.3.2.3, 3.4.2.5
specialty agencies, 3.3.2.1, 3.3.2.4
state law right, 3.3.9
timing, volume, identification, 3.3.2.2
credit monitoring, 2.3.1, 3.3.3.1
definition, 3.3.3.2.2
fraud circumstances, 3.3.5
“free” reports that are not free, 3.3.3.1
identity theft, 3.3.5, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3.3
provision, time, 3.3.2.2, 3.3.10.3
requesting, 3.3.2.3, 3.4.2, Appx. C.2
“big three” nationwide agencies, 3.4.2.1, 3.4.2.2
smaller reporting agencies, 3.4.2.3
specialty agencies, 3.3.2.4, 3.4.2.3
state law rights, 3.3.9, 10.7.7
unemployed or public assistance recipients, 3.3.8
FREEZES
see SECURITY FREEZES
FRIVOLOUS DISPUTES
see also DISPUTED INFORMATION
agency obligations, 4.5.2.7
furnisher obligations, 6.5.2.5
notice of frivolous dispute, 4.5.2.7.4, 6.5.2.5, 8.14.1
repeat requests as, 4.5.2.7.3
FTC
see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
see also CREDITORS
accuracy standards, 4.2.1.4, 6.4
affiliate information sharing, 6.4.5
duty to correct and update, 6.5.1
enforcement, 6.1.2, 6.4.1, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.1.3
general duty, 6.4.2
guidelines and regulations, 6.4.3
liability, 6.4.1, 6.4.4, 6.11
Metro 2 Format, 6.3.3.2, 6.4.2.5
policies and procedures, 6.4.3.2, 6.4.3.4
state law, 10.7
address for error complaints, 6.4.4
adverse information, see ADVERSE INFORMATION
affiliate sharing of information, 6.2.2.1, 6.4.5
bankruptcy reporting, 4.3.2.4, 4.4.6.10.2.3
“big three” nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.3
child support debts, 5.8.2
closed accounts, reporting, 6.8
consumer reporting agency status, 2.5.5
contacting regarding errors, 6.4.4
cosigner obligations, 5.6.2, 5.6.3
credit limits, failure to report, 16.8.2.2
date of delinquency, furnishing, 5.2.2.4, 6.7
debt collectors as, 6.13
see also DEBT COLLECTORS
defined, 2.1.2, 6.2.1, 6.4.3.3
delinquencies, reporting limitations, 5.2.3.4, 6.7
direct selling of information, 6.2.2.2
direct dispute process, 6.5.2
advantages, 6.5.2.7
application, 6.5.2.2
duties, 6.5.2.6
exceptions, 6.5.2.4
FCRA remedies, application, 6.10.1.1
frivolous disputes, 6.5.2.5
generally, 6.5.2.1
notice of dispute, 6.5.2.3
disclosure, 3.5.4.2
discrimination, 5.7.2, 14.4.8
discovery, 12.1.3.3
disputed information
billing errors, 5.3.4, 10.3
correcting and updating, 6.5.2.6, 6.10.5
data conformity reviews, 6.10.4.2.3
direct notification, 6.5.2, 6.10.1.1, 14.6.2.3
formal dispute notification, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.2.2, 6.10.3
notation of dispute, 4.8.2, 6.6
reinvestigations, 4.5.4.2, 4.6.3, 6.5.2, 6.10
reporting restrictions, 5.3.2.2
student loans, 14.4.5
withdrawal of information, 14.6.4.1
duty to correct and update, 6.5.1, 6.5.2.6, 6.10.5
duty to report accurately, 6.4.2
consumer enforcement, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.1.3
ECOA restrictions, 5.7.2, 10.3, 14.4.8
electronic provision of information, 6.3.1
Metro 2 Format, see METRO 2 FORMAT
reinvestigation results, 6.10.6.6
failure to report information, 4.3.2.2
credit limits, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.2
favorable information, 16.8.2.3
intentional withholding, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.3
FCRA
application, 2.1.2, 2.5.5, 6.2.1
claims against, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.2.1, 6.10.7, 10.2.1.2
federal enforcement, 13.2, 13.3.4
notice of obligations, 6.2.1, 8.16.1, Appx. C.6
private enforcement, 6.1.2, 6.4.1, 6.10.1.1, 10.2.1.2, 10.2.1.3
state enforcement, 6.4.1, 13.7.3
violations, civil penalties, 13.3.4, 13.7.3
federal agencies, 5.7.3, 8.13.1
financial institutions, see FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
FTC enforcement powers, 13.3.4
sample enforcement order, Appx. L.9
generally, 1.3.1, 6.2.1
identity theft obligations, 6.12
blocked information, 9.2.4.2
duty of care, 9.5.2
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2
inaccurate information, 4.3.2, 4.4.6.4
address to contact, 6.4.4
billing errors, 5.3.4, 10.3
correcting, 4.6.3, 6.5, 6.10.5
disputing, 6.5.2, 6.10
liability, 6.4.1, 6.4.4, 6.5.1, 6.10.1.1
provision, 4.2.1.3, 4.3.2.1, 4.4.6.4
integrity standards, 6.4.3
legislative history, 1.4.6, 6.1.1
liability
accuracy standards, 6.4.1, 6.5.1
consumer enforcement, 6.1.2, 6.4.1, 6.10.1.1
ECOA, 10.3
FCBA, 10.3
FCRA, 10.2.1.3
FDCPA, 10.3
limited qualified immunity, 10.4
obsolete information, 5.2.2.4
other federal statutes, 10.3
reinvestigation, 6.10.1, 6.10.2
RESPA, 10.3
tort claims, 6.11, 10.4
manual reporting, 6.3.2.4
medical information, 5.4.3
nationwide bureaus, to, 3.2.3.3
non-reporting agencies, to, 10.4.5
notice obligations
disputed information, 4.8.2, 6.6
negative information by financial institutions, 6.9, 8.9
voluntarily closed accounts, 6.8
notice of FCRA obligations, 6.2.1, 8.16.1
Summary of Responsibilities, FTC model form, Appx. C.6
notice, to, other notices, 8.16.2
copy of dispute request, 4.5.2.4.4
notice of dispute, 4.8.2, 6.5.2.3, 6.6, 6.10.3
reinvestigation results, 4.6.3
objective standard, 6.3.3.2
obsolete information, reporting, 5.2.2.4
overview, 6.1.1
personal interviews, 5.5
qualified immunity, 6.11, 10.4, 18.3.2
record retention, 12.1.5
reinsertion of information, certification, 4.7.2.3
reinvestigations
copying request to, 4.5.2.4.4
conducting, 4.5.4, 6.5.2.6, 6.10.4
CRA reliance on, 4.5.3.4.5, 4.5.4.1
deletion or correction after, 4.6.3, 6.10.5
liability, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.1.3, 6.10.2, 10.2.1.3
notification of dispute, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.2.2, 6.10.3
reporting of results, 4.6.3, 6.10.6
underlying legal dispute, 4.5.3.4.6
relationship to CRA, 12.1.3.3.3
reliance by reporting agency on information supplied, 4.2.1.3, 4.4.6.4
reinvestigations, 4.5.3.4.5, 4.5.4.1
state enforcement powers, 13.7.3
state law restrictions, 5.8
federal preemption, 5.8.1, 6.2.2.3, 10.7.3.2, 10.7.8.4
tort liability, 6.11, 10.4.5
UDAP violations, 10.6.2
Universal Data Form, use, 6.3.2.5, 6.5.4
updating information, 4.6.3, 6.5
withholding of information, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.3
GOSSIP
consumer report users, 14.2.2
legislative response, 1.4.3
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
see also FEDERAL AGENCIES; LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; STATE AGENCIES
adverse action notice
government benefits, 8.5.4.5
security clearance exemption, 3.5.4.3.2, 8.11.1.2.3
child support, see CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
consumer reports
child support purposes, 1.4.12.2, 7.2.9, 7.4.2, 14.3.6.9
counterterrorism purposes, 7.2.10.5
disclosure notice, 14.4.5
impermissible use, 7.7.1
license approval, 2.3.6.6, 7.2.6
obtaining, 7.2.10.2, 7.2.10.4, 14.2.4
national security exemption, 3.5.4.3.2, 8.11.1.2.3
permissible use, 7.2.3.4, 7.2.6, 7.2.9, 7.2.10, 14.7.9
public assistance eligibility, 2.3.6.6, 7.2.6, 14.7.9
sponsored charge cards, 7.2.3.6
tax collection, 7.4.3
defined, 7.2.10.2
disclosure exemptions
counterterrorism, 7.2.10.5
security investigations, 3.5.4.3.2, 8.11.1.2.3
FBI, see FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (FBI)
FCRA application
federal agencies, 2.5.7
generally, 2.3.6.6, 2.5.2
state and local agencies, 2.5.8
FCRA claims against, 11.2.2.2
FCRA enforcement
CFPB authority, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2
consumer reports, subpoena, 7.2.1
criminal enforcement, 13.6
FTC enforcement, 13.2.6
sample enforcement orders, Appx. L
state enforcement, 13.7
furnishing of information, 6.2.1
federal agencies, 5.7.3, 8.13.1, 14.4.5
GLBA enforcement, 18.4.1.2
identifying information, obtaining, 7.2.10.2
law enforcement, see LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
loan guarantee programs
reporting of defaults, 14.4.5
student loans, see STUDENT LOANS
national security purposes, 3.5.4.3.2, 7.2.10.5, 8.11.1.2.3
privacy protections, 2.5.7, 18.2
social service agencies, see ADOPTION AGENCIES; WELFARE AGENCIES
GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
see also WELFARE AGENCIES
eligibility
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.5
permissible use, 2.3.6.6, 7.2.6, 14.7.9
impermissible use, 7.1.9
overpayments, permissible use, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2.2.2
GOVERNMENT LICENSES
see LICENSES
GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT (GLBA)
account number sharing restrictions, 18.4.1.9
annual notice, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.8.2
application, 18.4.1.3, 18.4.1.4
banking agency regulations, Appx. G.3
consumer reporting agencies, application, 2.3.4.2.2
credit headers, disclosure restrictions, 2.3.4.2.2
data safeguard requirements, 18.4.1.10
FTC Safeguard Rules, Appx. G.2.2
enforcement, 18.4.1.2
no private right of action, 18.4.1.12
exempt disclosures, 18.4.1.6
affiliates, 18.4.1.6.2
categories, 18.4.1.6.3
redisclosure and reuse restrictions, 18.4.1.6.4
FCRA, impact on, 18.4.1.11
notice requirements, 18.4.1.7
opt-out rights, 18.4.1.8
exemptions, 18.4.1.6.3
exercise, 18.4.1.8.3
generally, 18.4.1.8.1
notice, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.8.2
sample notices, Appx. G.4
overview, 18.4.1.1
preemption of state law, 18.4.1.13
privacy protections, 18.1
FTC Safeguard Rules, Appx. G.2.2
Regulation P, 18.4.1.2, Appx. G.2.1
regulatory authority, 18.4.1.2, Appx. G
scope
consumers, 18.4.1.4
customers, 18.4.1.4
exemptions, 18.4.1.6
financial institutions, 18.4.1.3
information, 18.4.1.5
text, selected provisions, Appx. G.1
violation as UDAP violation, 18.4.1.12
weaknesses, 18.4.1.14, 18.6
GRAND JURY
governmental agency status, 7.2.10.2
subpoenas, consumer report, permissible purpose, 7.2.1
GUARANTORS
see COSIGNERS
HEADER INFORMATION
see CREDIT HEADER INFORMATION
HEALTH CARE INFORMATION
see MEDICAL INFORMATION
HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
creditor status, 2.3.6.3.1
Red Flag Guidelines, application, 2.3.6.3.1, 9.2.6.2.2
HIGHER EDUCATION ACT
student loan defaults, application, 5.2.3.10, 14.6.5
HOME EQUITY LOANS
see HOME MORTGAGES
HOME FINDERS
credit repair laws, application, 17.3.2
HOME IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTORS
credit repair laws, application, 17.3.4
HOME MORTGAGES
applying for, 14.7.2
arbitration clauses prohibited, 12.4.2.3
bankruptcy, effect on eligibility, 14.6.8
blemished report, implications, 14.7.2
consumer explanations, consideration, 14.6.9
credit reports, see RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE CREDIT REPORTS
credit scores, disclosure, 3.3.1.4, 16.4.3
application notice, 8.4.3.1.3
mortgage scoring notice, 8.4.3
disputed charges, qualified written request, 14.4.4
disputed information, reporting restrictions, 5.3
open-end accounts, 5.3.4
RESPA restrictions, 5.3.5
FCRA violations, enforcement authority, 13.2.4.2
open-end lines of credit, 5.3.4
pre-approval, 14.7.2.3
RESPA, application, 5.3.5, 14.4.4
risk assessment, 2.3.6.7, 7.2.7
credit scores, disclosure, 16.4.3
underwriting factors, 14.7.2.2
underwriting guidelines, 14.7.2.1
servicers, see SERVICERS
HOME SAVERS
credit repair laws, application, 17.3.2
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.2
HOUSEHOLD PURPOSE TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
consumer report, permissible purpose, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.3.1.3
business transactions, 7.2.8.2.2.1
defined, 2.3.6.3.1
HUD-MORTGAGES
see FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA)
IDENTIFICATION
see also IDENTIFYING INFORMATION; VERIFICATION
alerts, necessary to issue, 9.2.2.1.2
concealment, 17.2.7.3
consumer reports
consumer, 3.4.3, 3.6.2
person accompanying consumer, 3.6.2
users, 7.5.2
FCRA regulations, 3.4.3.2
identity theft victims, access to information, 9.2.3.1
immigrants, 14.8
impermissible requests, 3.4.3.3
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.6
social security number requests, 3.4.3.4
theft of, see IDENTITY THEFT
IDENTIFYING INFORMATION
see also CREDIT HEADER INFORMATION; IDENTIFICATION
altering to confuse reporting agency, 14.5.5, 17.2.7.3
checks, adverse characterizations, 3.5.4.4
consumer files
“big three” nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.2.2
examining, 3.7.1
“header information,” 2.3.4.2, 3.2.3.2.2, 3.7.1
consumer list, status as consumer report, 2.3.4.2.1, 7.2.10.2
governmental agencies, obtaining, 7.2.10.2
identity theft protections
disposal of information, 9.2.5.3
number truncation, 9.2.5.1, 9.2.5.2
medical information furnishers, 5.4.3
private investigators, obtaining, 7.4.5
reporting, consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1
social security numbers, see SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
IDENTITY THEFT
access to information after, 9.2.3, 10.2.1.6
alerts
active military service, see MILITARY DUTY ALERTS
fraud alerts, see FRAUD ALERTS
background, 9.1.1
blocking of fraudulent information, 9.2.4
CRA responsibilities, 9.2.4.1
consumer request, 14.6.6.1
discovery relating to, 12.1.3.2.10
effect, 9.2.4.1.2
enforcement, 9.2.4.1.5
furnisher responsibilities, 9.2.4.2
refusal to block notice, 9.2.4.1.3, 8.10.4
reseller responsibilities, 9.2.4.1.4
children, 9.4.5
consumer rights notice, 8.3, 9.2.2.1.1
see also SUMMARY OF CONSUMER IDENTITY THEFT RIGHTS
model form, Appx. C.4
CRA annual reports, 9.2.1.2
credit record, effect, 14.6.6
cleaning up after, 14.6.6.1
heading off new problems, 14.6.6.2
creditor responsibilities, 6.12
criminal offence, 9.3, 9.4.1
data security breach, 9.6
debt collectors, obligations, 9.2.3.2
definition, 9.2.1.2
FACTA
key provisions, 1.4.9.2, 9.2.1.1
legislative history, 1.4.9.1
FCRA provisions, 9.2
access to information, 9.2.3, 10.2.1.6
alerts, 9.2.2
blocking of information, 9.2.4
claims under, 9.5.1
constitutional challenges, 9.2.5.1.4
disposal of information, 9.2.5.3
overview, 9.2.1.1
number truncation, 9.2.5
foster youth, 9.4.5
free consumer report, 3.3.5, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3.3
FTC, assistance to consumers, 9.1.3
enforcement orders, Appx. L.10
ID Theft Affidavit, Appx. C.5
furnisher responsibilities, 6.12
Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act, 9.3
identity theft report, 9.2.2.3.2, 14.6.6.1
impact on victims, 9.1.2
interagency guidelines, Appx. B.3.3
mismerged files aggravate problem, 4.3.3.7, 4.3.5
notices to consumer, 8.3, 8.14.1, 9.2.2.1.1, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3.3
notifying reporting agencies
alerts, 9.2.2
FTC ID Theft Affidavit, Appx. C.5
referrals between nationwide agencies, 9.2.2.5
overview, 4.3.5, 9.1
preventing, 9.2.5, 9.2.6
address discrepancies, 9.2.6.3
consumer’s steps, 14.6.6.2
credit card number truncation, 9.2.5.1
disposal of consumer information, 9.2.5.3
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.7
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2
security freeze, 9.4.4, 14.6.6.2
social security number truncation, 9.2.5.2
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.7
protection notices
address discrepancy, 8.17.3, 9.2.6.3
alerts, 9.2.2
generally, 8.14.1
rectifying by filing suit, 9.5
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6
resources for victims, 9.1.3
sample complaint, Appx. J.2.6
security freezes, 9.4.4, 14.6.6.2, Appx. H
state law, 9.4, 10.6.3
civil statutes, 9.4.2
claims under, 9.5.1, 9.6
criminal statutes, 9.4.1
data security breaches, 9.6
federal preemption, 10.7.3.5
model laws, 9.4.3
security freeze laws, 9.4.4, 14.6.6.2
summaries, Appx. H
steps to correct, 14.6.6
tort claims, 18.3
breach of duty of care, 9.5.2
federal preemption, 10.7.3.5
tort of appropriation, 18.3.5
transactional information, access to, 9.2.3.1
truncation of numbers to prevent, 9.2.5
credit and debit cards, 9.2.5.1
failure to, suits based on, 9.2.5.1.5, 9.2.5.1.6
retroactive immunity, 9.2.5.1.2
social security numbers, 9.2.5.2
warning signs, 9.2.6
address discrepancies, 9.2.6.3
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2
IDENTITY THEFT AND ASSUMPTION DETERRENCE ACT
overview, 9.3
IMMIGRATION MATTERS
consumer reports, use, 14.2.4
credit issues for immigrants, 14.8
IMMUNITY
see LIABILITY; QUALIFIED IMMUNITY
IMPERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
see also PERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
alimony, 7.4.2, 14.2.4
anything not permissible, 7.4.1
bad debt lists, 14.2.3
business credit, 7.2.3.1.3
child custody, 14.2.4
child support, 7.4.2, 14.2.4
consumer’s objection, obtaining despite, 7.1.2.1, 7.1.3
criminal liability, 13.6
curiosity, 14.2.2
dating services, 7.4.10
discovering, 7.1.9
divorce proceedings, 7.4.2, 7.4.4, 14.2.4
generally, 7.4.1, 14.2.1
immigration matters, 14.2.4
insurance claims, 7.2.5, 7.4.7
investigators, 7.4.5
jury selection, 7.2.4.2, 7.4.4
liability, 7.5.1.1, 7.6, 7.7
litigation, 7.4.4, 14.2.4
marketing research, 7.4.8
medical information, 7.4.9, 14.2.6
non-CRA responsibilities, 7.5.6
obtaining for, 2.3.5.3
other uses, 7.4.11
overview, 7.1, 14.2
paternity proceedings, 7.4.2
prescreening of younger consumers, 7.3.3.2
preventative procedures, 7.5
prosecutions, 7.4.4, 14.2.4
publication in community, 14.2.2
relatives, 7.4.6.3, 14.2.5
sample complaint, Appx. J.2.2
social network sites, 7.4.10
spouses, 7.4.6.3, 14.2.5
tax collection, 7.4.3
testers, restrictions, 12.1.2
third parties, 7.4.6.1, 14.2.5
use, effect on status, 7.1.8
use for, 2.3.5.1, 2.3.6.2, 7.1.4
vicarious liability, 7.7.5
INACCURATE INFORMATION
see also ACCURACY; CREDIT DISPUTES; FALSE INFORMATION
address to contact, 6.4.4
agency refusal to supply report as, 4.3.7
avoiding through reasonable procedures, see REASONABLE PROCEDURES
bankruptcy reporting, 4.3.2.4, 4.4.6.10
consumer identification, 4.4.6.6
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
consumer reports
agency liability, 4.4
congressional intent to combat, 4.1.2
examining for, 3.7.2.4, 14.6.1
investigative reports, 15.5.2
prevalence, 4.1.3
correcting, 4.6, 14.6.2
automated reinvestigation system, 4.6.4, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
contacting creditor directly, 6.5.2, 14.6.2.3
furnishers, 6.5, 14.6.2.2
importance, 14.6.4.1
importance of disputing, 14.6.2.1
mismerged files, 4.3.3.8
reporting agency, 4.5.2.5, 4.6.2, 6.5.2.6, 14.6.2.2
soft-deletes, 4.6.2, 4.7.1.2, 14.6.4.3
Universal Data Form, 6.5.4
credit repair organizations, 17.2.7.2
credit scores, effect, 16.8
data retrieval errors, 4.4.6.8
defamation claims, 10.5.2
disputing
directly with furnisher, 6.5.2, 14.6.2.3
effect, 16.6.2.2
through reporting agency, 6.10, 14.6.2.1, 14.6.2.2
explaining
by agency, 4.2.2
by consumer, 14.6.9
FCRA claims
inadequate reinvestigations, 4.5.3.2
tort claims, 10.4.6.4
file retrieval errors, 4.3.3.10, 4.4.6.6
furnishers, 4.3.2, 6.5
address to correct, 6.4.4
liability, 6.4.2, 6.4.4, 6.5
notice to CRA, 6.5.2.6
notice to furnisher, 6.4.2.2, 6.5.2.3
prohibition, 6.4.2
provision, 4.3.2.1, 4.4.6.4
reinvestigations, 6.5.2.6, 6.10
identification errors, 4.3.3, 4.3.3.10, 4.4.6.6
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
incomplete or missing information, 4.3.2.2, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.3
adding to file, 14.6.9
adverse action based on, 8.5.4.1.2
consumer offers of new information, 4.8.4
credit limits, 4.3.2.3, 16.8.2.2
discharged debts, 4.3.2.4
existing accounts, 4.4.6.9.3
new accounts, 4.4.6.9.2
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.9
investigative reports, 15.5.2
legislative history, 1.4.3, 4.1.2
liability
furnishers, 6.4.4
limited qualified immunity, 10.4
reinvestigations, 4.5.3.2
reporting agencies, 4.4
resellers, 4.4.4
management policies encouraging, 4.4.6.1
mismerged files, 4.3.3, 4.4.6.6
obsolete information, 4.4.6.9, 5.2.2.2
overview, 4.1
passing along, 4.2.1.3, 4.4.6.4
prevalence, 4.1.3
public record information, 4.3.5, 4.3.3.4
reasonable procedures to avoid, see REASONABLE PROCEDURES
reinsertion after deletion, see REINSERTION OF INFORMATION
reinvestigations
through CRA, see REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
through furnisher directly, see DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
resellers, 4.4.4
sample complaint, Appx. J.2.4
state law preemption, 10.7
statement of dispute, 4.8.1, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
studies and reports, 4.1.3
consumer groups, 4.1.3.2
FTC studies, 4.1.3.3
internal CRA analyses, 4.1.3.6
other government studies, 4.1.3.4
prevalence of, 4.1.3.1
subscriber inquiries resulting in, 4.3.3.5
technically accurate information as, 4.2.4, 4.4.6.9.3
third parties, information on as, 4.2.5
tort claims, 10.4, 10.5
transcription errors, 4.4.6.8
types of inaccurate information, 4.3
unrelated information as, 4.2.5
unverifiable information as, 4.2.6
INDEMNIFICATION
FCRA claims, 12.3.3
INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
consumer reports, obtaining, 2.5.5, 7.1.6
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.4.1, 2.5.5
INDICTMENTS
see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
INDIVIDUALS
see CONSUMERS; PERSONS
INFORMATION BROKERS
see RESELLERS
INFORMATION DATABASES
see DATA BROKERS
INFORMATION FURNISHERS
see FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
INFORMATION ON CONSUMERS
see also CONSUMER FILES; CONSUMER LISTS; CONSUMER REPORTS
adverse, see ADVERSE INFORMATION
assemble, definition, 2.5.3.2
business need, 2.3.6.8
business purposes, 2.3.6.2
collection purpose, 2.3.5.4
communication by other than agency, 2.3.2, 3.3.1.3.3
confidentiality, 18.5
consumer reporting agencies, see CONSUMER FILES
consumer reports, see CONSUMER REPORTS
credit header information, see CREDIT HEADER INFORMATION
credit purposes, 2.3.6.3
direct selling of information, 6.2.2.2
disposal regulations, 9.2.5.3
disputed information, see DISPUTED INFORMATION
employment purposes, 2.3.6.4.1
evaluate, definition, 2.5.3.2
expected use, 2.3.5.3
false, see FALSE INFORMATION; INACCURATE INFORMATION
false pretenses, obtaining by, 7.2.2, 7.7.3, 7.7.4, 13.6
favorable information, 5.2.2.1, 5.2.2.2
unreported, 4.3.2.3, 14.6.9, 16.8.2.3
FBI access, 1.4.8, 7.2.10.4
FCRA, scope, Ch. 2
Financial Information Privacy Act, 18.4.2.2
financial products or services, obtained regarding, 3.3.11
first-hand experience, 2.4.2, 2.5.5, 6.2.2.2
fraudulent, blocking, 9.2.4
furnishing, see FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
GLBA, application, 2.3.4.2.2, 18.4.1
identifying information, see IDENTIFYING INFORMATION
identity theft related, see IDENTITY THEFT
inaccurate, see INACCURATE INFORMATION
joint users, sharing, 2.4.6, 2.5.6
legislative history, 1.4.3
medical information, see MEDICAL INFORMATION
nationwide bureaus, 3.2.3.3
non consumer reports, improper use, 2.1.1, 7.5.6
nonpublic personal information, see NONPUBLIC PERSONAL INFORMATION
personally identifiable financial information, 18.4.1.5
“pretexting,” 13.6, 18.4.2.1, 18.4.2.3
previously reported, 3.5.1.5
privacy protections
see also PRIVACY
common law protections, 18.3, 18.5
governmental intrusion, 18.2
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
overview, 18.1
statutory protections, 18.4, 18.6
tort claims, 18.3
public record information, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
purpose, 2.3.5, 2.3.6
release for impermissible purpose, 7.1.8
reporting
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CONSUMER REPORTS
regularly engages in, 2.5.3.1
third parties, to, 2.5.5
sources
see also FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
data brokers, 2.7.5
disclosure, 3.5.4.2, 15.4.2.3
inaccurate sources, 4.4.6.4
nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.3
specialized agencies, 3.2.4
spousal information, 5.6.1, 7.4.6
suppliers, tort liability, 10.4.5
unverifiable information, 4.2.6
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
credit reporting violations, 12.6
class actions, 11.2.3.3.5
INJURIES
see DAMAGES; DAMAGES, ACTUAL
INQUIRY ACTIVITY
consumer file contains information on, 3.2.3.2.5
record retention, 7.5.5
reporting on
consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.4
consumer requests, 7.5.5, 5.2.3.9
prescreened lists, 5.2.3.9
trigger lists, 2.3.4.2.4
INSPECTION BUREAUS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
disclosure obligations, 15.4.4
FCRA, application, 2.7.1
investigative reports, preparation, 15.1
insurance reports, 15.3.1
INSURANCE
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
benefits, see INSURANCE BENEFITS
business insurance, see BUSINESS INSURANCE
claims, see INSURANCE CLAIM EXCHANGES; INSURANCE CLAIM LISTS; INSURANCE CLAIMS
companies, see INSURANCE COMPANIES
coverage, see INSURANCE COVERAGE
denial, see ADVERSE ACTION
liability insurance, see LIABILITY INSURANCE
life insurance, see LIFE INSURANCE
marketing lists, see PRESCREENED REPORTS
purposes, see INSURANCE PURPOSES
reports, see INSURANCE REPORTS
underwriting, see INSURANCE UNDERWRITING
INSURANCE BENEFITS
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.5.2
issuance, status as business transaction, 2.3.6.5.2
INSURANCE CLAIM EXCHANGES
see also INSURANCE CLAIMS
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.5.2
nationwide agencies, 2.6.2
INSURANCE CLAIM LISTS
see also CONSUMER LISTS; INSURANCE CLAIMS
compilers, FCRA, application, 2.7.9
INSURANCE CLAIMS
exchanges, see INSURANCE CLAIM EXCHANGES
lists, see INSURANCE CLAIM LISTS
reports, 2.3.6.5.2, 7.2.5, 7.4.7, 14.7.5
INSURANCE COMPANIES
see also FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.5, 2.5.5
information requests, see INSURANCE REPORTS
notice obligations, 7.2.5, 8.5.4.4
INSURANCE COVERAGE
FCRA liability
discovery, 12.1.3.11
litigation issues, 12.3.3
INSURANCE PURPOSES
blemished credit record
impact on relatives, 14.2.5
implications, 14.7.5
credit scores, use, 16.3, 16.11
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.5
impermissible purposes, 7.4.7
investigative reports, 15.3.1
medical information, 7.2.5, 14.7.5
permissible purposes, 7.2.5, 7.2.7
credit insurance, 7.2.3.5
prescreening, 7.3.3
reports for, see INSURANCE REPORTS
underwriting purposes, see INSURANCE UNDERWRITING
INSURANCE REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTS
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.4
blemished reports, implications, 14.7.5
claims reports, 2.3.6.5.2, 7.2.5, 7.4.7, 14.7.5
consumer report, status, 2.3.6.5, 2.7.9, 7.4.7
investigative, see INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
medical information, inclusion, 5.4.2
furnisher identification, 5.4.3
permissible purposes, 7.2.5
preparation by inspection bureaus, 15.3.1
underwriting reports, 2.3.6.5.1, 7.2.5, 14.7.5
INSURANCE UNDERWRITING
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.4
blemished credit record, implications, 14.7.5
consumer report, permissible use, 7.2.3.5, 7.2.5, 7.2.7, 14.7.5
credit risks, 7.2.7
credit scores, 16.3, 16.11
described, 7.2.5
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.5.1
medical information, 14.7.5
obsolete information, using, 5.2.4
INTEGRITY
definition, 6.4.3.3
furnisher guidelines, 6.4.3
INTEREST RATES
adverse rates, notice requirements
accepted counteroffers, 8.5.4.3.5
price quotes, 8.5.4.3.6
risk-based pricing, 8.5.4.3.4
blemished credit record, impact
car loans, 14.7.1
home mortgages, 14.7.2
risk-based pricing, 16.7.2
notice requirements, 8.5.3.4, 8.7
INTER-FACT
see RESELLERS
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
see also FEDERAL AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
consumer reports
administrative summons, 7.2.1, 7.4.3
impermissible use, 7.4.3
permissible user, 7.2.3.4.1, 7.2.3.4.3
INTERNET
see also ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION; WEB RESOURCES
data mining companies, 2.7.13
INTERVIEWS
see PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
INVASION OF PRIVACY
see also PRIVACY; TORT CLAIMS
check cashing lists as, 14.7.7
common law tort, 10.5.3, 18.3
applicability to consumer reporting, 1.6.3.2
appropriation, 18.3.5
overview, 10.5.3, 18.3.1
public disclosure of private facts, 18.3.3
unreasonable intrusion, 18.3.4
FCRA qualified immunity, 6.11, 10.4, 18.3.2
malice or willful intent exception, 10.4.6
federal agencies, 2.5.7
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
INVESTIGATING AGENCIES
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; DETECTIVE AGENCIES; INSPECTION BUREAUS
INVESTIGATIONS
consumers, see INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
disputed information
CRA investigations, see (CRA)
direct furnisher investigations, see DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
employee misconduct, 2.4.4.1, 7.2.4.4, 15.2.4.2
INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CONSUMER REPORTS
additional obligations, 15.1.2
adverse action based on, 15.4.1.6
contents, 15.2.3
copy to consumer, 15.4.2.2
definition, 15.2
exclusions, 15.2.4
described, 15.1.1
disclosure requirements, 15.4
additional information, 15.4.2, 15.5.2
address of reporting agency, 15.4.1.6
complete disclosure, 15.4.2
form of disclosure, 15.4.2.4
nature of investigation, 15.4.2
nature of report, 15.4.4
reasonable procedures defense, 15.4.3
request for report, 15.4.1
user certification, 15.4.1.5
waiver of rights, 15.4.5
distinguished from consumer report, 3.2.1
employment agencies, 2.4.4.2.2
employment purposes, 2.3.6.4.2, 15.3.2
employee consent, 15.5.1
employee misconduct exemption, 2.4.4.1, 7.2.4.4, 8.11.1.2.1, 15.2.4.2, 15.5.1
false threats, 15.4.1.2
FCRA definition, 15.2
inaccurate information, keeping out, 15.5.2
identifying investigator, 15.4.4
inspection bureaus, see INSPECTION BUREAUS
insurance purposes, 15.3.1
notice
adverse action, 15.4.1.7
user request, 15.4.1
utilization of notices, 15.5
permissible purposes, 15.3.4
personal interviews
confirmation of information, 15.6.2.1
requirement, 15.2.3
status as, 5.5
procedures, 15.6
public record searches, status, 15.3.1
reinvestigation, 15.5.2
re-use, 15.6.2.3
sources of information
confidentiality, 15.4.2.3, 15.4.4
notice of potential discovery of identity, 15.4.4
state laws, 15.7
stoppage of investigation, 15.5.1
subject matter, 15.2.2
tenant screening purposes, 15.3.3
updating, 15.5.2
user certification, 15.4.1.2, 15.4.1.5
verification
adverse information based on public records, 15.6.2.2
personal interviews, 15.6.2.1
reverification of information, 15.6.2.3
INVESTIGATORS
see DETECTIVE AGENCIES
INVESTMENTS
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.6.1
consumer reports, permissible use, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.3.1.3, 7.2.8.2.2.2
losses, FCRA claims, 12.5.2.2.5
IRRELEVANT DISPUTES
see also DISPUTED INFORMATION
agency obligations, 4.5.2.7
notice of irrelevant dispute, 8.14.1
IRRELEVANT INFORMATION
see also INFORMATION ON CONSUMERS
legislative response, 1.4.3
JOINT ACCOUNTS
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS; SPOUSES
bankruptcy of one, reporting, 6.3.3.13.2
consumer reports, 5.6, 7.4.6.4
ECOA reporting requirements, 5.6.1
JOINT LENDERS
consumer reporting agency status, 2.4.6, 2.5.6
third party information, sharing, 2.4.6
JUDGMENT CREDITORS
see also CREDITORS
consumer reports, permissible use, 7.2.3.4
non-credit judgments, 7.2.3.4.3
JUDGMENT DEBTORS
lists for locating, 14.2.3
JUDGMENTS
see also PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
claims preclusion, 12.3.1.8
collection, permissible use, 7.2.3.4
discharged through bankruptcy, reporting, 5.2.3.8
reporting limitations, 5.2.3.5
res judicata doctrine, 12.3.1.8
JURISDICTION
CROA claims, 17.2.8.8
counterclaims, 12.3.2
FCRA claims
court selection, 11.4.1
personal jurisdiction, 11.2.2, 11.4.3
state claims
removal to federal court, 11.4.5
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, 12.3.1.8
supplemental jurisdiction, 11.4.2
JURORS
see also JURY TRIALS
reports on, 7.2.4.2, 7.4.4
JURY TRIALS
see also JURORS
CROA claims, 17.2.8.11
motions in limine, 12.1.7.6
punitive damages, determination, 12.2, 12.5.4.2.1
right to, 12.2
LAND CONTRACTS
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.6.4
permissible use, 7.2.8.2.2.2
LANDLORD REPORTING COMPANIES
see TENANT SCREENING COMPANIES
LANDLORDS
see also FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION; USERS OF INFORMATION
consumer reports, permissible uses, 7.2.3.4.1, 7.2.8.2.2.2
creditor status, 15.3.3
FCRA application, 2.3.6.8
tenant screening reports
notice of adverse use, 8.6.1.2
prior landlords, investigative status, 15.3.3
use, 2.3.6.3.3, 14.7.3
LANGUAGE
dispute settlements, 14.6.4.3
LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
consumer reports
court order requirement, 7.2.1
impermissible use, 7.4.5
permissible use, 7.2.6, 7.2.10.4
FBI, see FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (FBI)
identity theft reports, 9.2.2.3.1
lists used by, see LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETINS
police departments, see POLICE DEPARTMENTS
sheriff’s departments, see SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENTS
LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETINS
see also LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
consumer report status, 2.3.5.3
LAWSUITS
see ACTIONS; COLLECTION SUITS; FCRA CLAIMS; LITIGATION
LAWYERS
see ATTORNEYS; FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
LEASES
automobile, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
credit transaction status, 8.6.1.2
denial, notice obligations, 8.5.4.6.3, 8.6.1.2
permissible uses, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2.2.2
personal property leases, see PERSONAL PROPERTY LEASES
residential leases, see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
see also ACTIONS; LITIGATION
bad debts published pursuant to, 14.2.3
LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF FCRA
see also FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
conference committee bill, 1.4.4
confidentiality, 7.1.1
Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996, 1.4.6, 6.1.1
Credit and Debit Card Truncation Clarification Act, 1.4.10.2
Credit CARD Act amendments, 1.4.10.3
Dodd-Frank Act amendments, 1.4.11
early amendments, 1.4.5
early history, 1.4.2
FACTA amendments, 1.4.9.1
key provisions, 1.4.9.2
insurance purposes, 2.3.6.5.1
intent, 2.3.6.2, 4.1.2
introduction, 1.4.1
1997 and 1999 amendments, 1.4.7
national security amendments, 1.4.10.1
passage of FCRA, 1.4.4
qualified immunity, 10.4.1.2
recent amendments, 1.4.10, 1.4.11
Red Flag Program Clarification Act, 1.4.12.1
regulatory history, 1.3.3.1.1
Senate Bill 823, 1.4.3
USA PATRIOT Act, 1.4.8
LENDERS
see CREDITORS; JOINT LENDERS
LEXIS-NEXIS
primary public records vendor, 4.3.5.1, 4.4.6.5
file contents, 3.2.4
LIABILITY
“any person,” 11.2.3.1
consumer reporting agencies
criminal liability, 13.6
employees, 7.6
generally, 11.2.2.1
impermissible reports, 7.6
inaccurate reports, 4.4
inadequate procedures, 4.4.6.2, 4.4.5.1
inadequate reinvestigations, 4.5.3.2
insurance coverage, 12.1.3.11
limited qualified immunity, 10.4
officers or employees, 7.6
credit repair fraud, 17.2.7.5, 17.2.8.3
defenses, see DEFENSES
FCRA violations, 10.2
attorney fees and costs, 12.7.1
criminal penalties, 13.6
furnishers of information, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.2, 10.2.1.2, 10.2.1.3
insurance coverage, 12.1.3.11
reporting agencies, 4.5.3.2
users, 10.2.1.4, 10.2.1.5
vicarious liability, 7.7.5
furnishers of information
accuracy, 6.4.4, 6.5.1, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.2
generally, 10.2.1.2
limited qualified immunity, 10.4
obsolete information, 5.2.2.4
reinvestigation breaches, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.2, 10.2.1.3
identity theft, 9.3, 14.6.6
inaccurate information
furnishers, 6.4.4, 6.5.1, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.2
limited qualified immunity, 10.4
no strict liability, 4.4.5.1.1
reporting agencies, 4.4
resellers, 4.4.4
insurance coverage, 12.1.3.11
legislative history, 1.4.3
limitation periods, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
qualified immunity, see QUALIFIED IMMUNITY
resellers, 4.4.4
users
impermissible purposes, 7.7
investigative report violations, 10.2.1.5
notices, failure to provide, 10.2.1.4
LIABILITY INSURANCE
FCRA claims, 12.3.3
consumer reporting agencies, 12.1.3.11
LIBEL
see DEFAMATION
LICENSES
see also STATE LICENSING BOARDS
adverse actions, notice obligations, 8.5.4.5
consumer report, permissible use, 7.2.4.2, 7.2.6
eligibility, FCRA application, 2.3.6.6, 7.2.4.2
employment purpose, inclusion, 7.2.4.2
LIENS
see also PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
reporting limitations, 5.2.3.6
statutory liens, credit status, 7.2.3.4.3
tax liens, see TAX LIENS
LIFE INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE PURPOSES; INSURANCE UNDERWRITING
obsolete information, reporting exemption, 5.2.4
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS; TIME LIMITS
LISTS
see CONSUMER LISTS
LITIGATION
see also ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
arbitration alternative, see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
consumer reports
evidentiary issues, 12.1.3.9
impermissible use, 7.2.8.2.2.2, 7.4.4, 12.3.1.7, 14.2.4
judgment debts, permissible use, 7.2.3.4
subpoena, 12.1.3.10
counterclaims, 12.3.2
criminal, see PROSECUTIONS
damages, see DAMAGES
defenses, see DEFENSES
discovery, see DISCOVERY
evidence, see EVIDENCE
FCRA, see FCRA CLAIMS
indemnity and insurance issues, 12.3.3
jurisdiction, see JURISDICTION
jury trials, see JURY TRIALS
parties, see PARTIES
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
preservation of documents and data, 12.1.3.6
LITIGATION AIDS
see PRACTICE AIDS
LOAN BROKERS
adverse action, disclosure requirements, 8.6.1.4.2
credit services organization status, 17.3.2
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.2
LOAN COMPANIES
see CREDITORS; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
LOAN EXCHANGES
FCRA, application, 2.5.5
LOAN GUARANTY AGENCIES
student loan reporting, 14.6.5
LOAN MODIFICATION
credit scores, effect, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.7
negotiating, 14.6.7.3
services offering
credit repair laws, application, 17.3.2
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.2
LOAN SERVICERS
see SERVICERS
LOANS
see also CREDIT; DEBTS
car loans, see AUTOMOBILE LOANS
home equity, see HOME MORTGAGES
interest rates, see INTEREST RATES
special purpose assistance, see SPECIAL CREDIT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
student loans, see STUDENT LOANS
taking on to improve credit record, 14.5.4, 14.6.7.2
workout agreements, see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
FCRA, application, 2.5.8
LOCATION
see ADDRESSES
LODESTAR FORMULA
attorney fee awards, application, 12.7.2.2
MAIL DISCLOSURES
consent, 3.6.1
MAILING LISTS
see PRESCREENED REPORTS
MALICE
see also WILLFUL INTENT
defamation claims, 10.5.2
definition, 10.4.6.1
invasion of privacy claims, 18.3.2
negligence claims, 10.5.4
proof of malice, 10.4.6.3
tort liability, 10.4.6
MARKETING LISTS
see PRESCREENED REPORTS; TARGETED MARKETING LISTS
MARKETING RESEARCH
account number information sharing, 18.4.1.9
affiliate information sharing, 8.12.2
consumer reports
impermissible use, 7.4.8
permissible use, see PRESCREENED REPORTS
status as, 2.7.13
data mining companies, 2.7.13
target lists, see TARGETED MARKETING LISTS
MEDICAL INFORMATION
affiliate sharing, 5.4.4
clearing house, see MEDICAL INFORMATION BUREAU (MIB)
consent requirement, 5.4.2, 14.2.6
consumer report status, 2.3.4.1, 2.3.6.5.1
creditor use, restrictions, 5.4.5
defined, 5.4.1
FACTA amendment, 1.4.9.2, 5.4.1
FCRA restrictions, 5.4
financial medical information, 5.4.5.3
furnishers of
see also FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
identifying information, restrictions on reporting, 5.4.3
impermissible uses, 7.4.9
insurance implications, 14.7.5
permissible uses, 5.4.5.3, 5.4.5.4, 7.4.9, 14.2.6
insurance, 7.2.5, 14.7.5
re-disclosure, 5.4.2
reporting agencies, see MEDICAL INFORMATION AGENCIES
special purpose credit assistance, use, 5.4.5.4
MEDICAL INFORMATION AGENCIES
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; MEDICAL INFORMATION
FCRA application, 2.6.2.1
file contents, 3.2.4
insurance underwriting, 2.3.6.5.1
MIB, see MEDICAL INFORMATION BUREAU (MIB)
nationwide agencies, 2.6.2
obtaining reports from, 3.4.2.3
MEDICAL INFORMATION BUREAU (MIB)
see also MEDICAL INFORMATION AGENCIES
contact information, 3.4.2.3
file contents, 3.2.4
specialized information collection, 2.6.2.2, 3.2.4
MEDICARE
see GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
MERCHANTS
see also CREDITORS
check cashing lists, adverse use, 8.5.4.6.1, 8.5.4.6.2
credit card authorizations, 2.4.5
credit repair laws, application
CROA, 17.2.2.7
state law, 17.3.4
database services, 2.7.12
GLBA, application, 18.4.1.3
third party credit requests, 2.4.6
METRO 2 FORMAT
accuracy standards, 6.3.3.2, 6.4.2.5
associated consumers segment, 6.3.3.4
bankruptcy and, 4.3.2.4.7, 6.3.3.13
base segment, 6.3.3.3
closed accounts, 6.8
common errors, 6.3.3.8
date of first delinquency, 5.2.3.2, 6.7
debt collectors and, 6.3.3.9
detailed description, 6.3.3
dishonored checks and, 6.3.3.12
disputes, noting, 6.6
electronic data reporting, 6.3.1
industry standard, 6.3.2.2, 6.4.2.5
late payments, 6.3.3.7
mechanics of, 6.3.2.4
objective standard, 6.3.3.2
obtaining manual, 6.3.2.3
other specialized segments, 6.3.3.6
overview, 6.3.3.1
student loans and, 6.3.3.10
transfers of accounts segment, 6.3.3.5
utility bills and, 6.3.3.11
MILITARY DUTY ALERTS
see also IDENTITY THEFT
effect, 9.2.2.4, 9.2.2.5
FCRA provisions, overview, 9.2.2.1.1
proof of identity, necessity, 9.2.2.1.2
use by consumers, 4.8.2
MILITARY PERSONNEL
identity theft prevention, see MILITARY DUTY ALERTS
special protections, 5.7.1
arbitration restrictions, 12.4.2.3
MISLEADING INFORMATION
see INACCURATE INFORMATION
MISREPRESENTATION
see also FALSE PRETENSES
consumer report use, 7.7.1, 7.7.3
credit repair organizations
creditworthiness, 17.2.7.2
pleading, 17.2.8.9
services, 17.2.7.4
MISTAKES
see ERRORS
MOBILE APPLICATIONS
consumer report status, 2.5.3.2, 2.7.1, 2.7.13
criminal history gathering, 2.5.3.2, 2.7.1
MOBILE HOME LEASES
see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
MORTGAGE BROKERS
see LOAN BROKERS
MORTGAGE SCORING NOTICE
see also CREDIT SCORES
contents, 8.4.3.1, 16.4.3.2
credit score information, 8.4.3.1.2
home loans, 8.4.3.1.3
overview, 8.4.3.1.1
enforcement of notice right, 8.4.3.3, 16.4.3.3
entitlement, 3.3.1.4, 8.4.3.1.1, 16.4.3.1
time and manner, 8.4.3.2
MORTGAGE SERVICERS
see SERVICERS
MORTGAGES
see HOME MORTGAGES
MOTOR VEHICLE DEALERS
see AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
MOTOR VEHICLE DEPARTMENTS (STATE)
Driver’s Privacy Protection Act, 18.4.2.4
FCRA, application, 2.3.4.1, 2.5.8, 2.7.9
MOTOR VEHICLE REPORTS
consumer report status, 2.5.8
MULTIPLE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
NAMES
theft of identity, see IDENTITY THEFT
NATIONAL BANKS
see also BANKS
federal regulator, see OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
state authority over, 13.7.2
NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR LEGAL SERVICES
see
NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION (NCUA)
see also BANKING REGULATORS
consumer reports, permissible purposes, 2.3.6.10, 7.2.10.6
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.3, 13.2.6
FCRA regulatory authority, 1.3.3.1
GLBA, enforcement authority, 18.4.1.2
text of regulations, Appx. G.3.6
NATIONAL DATA RETRIEVAL, INC. (NDR)
see DATA BROKERS
NATIONAL SECURITY
special provisions relating to, 1.4.8, 1.4.10.1
adverse notice exemption, 8.11.1.2.3
adverse public record reporting exemption, 4.4.7.4, 8.11.1.2.3
disclosure exemption, 3.5.4.3.2, 7.2.10.4, 7.2.10.5
permissible purposes, 7.2.10.4, 7.2.10.5
NATIONWIDE REPORTING AGENCIES
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
affiliates of, reinvestigations, 4.5.2.6
assistance to consumers, 3.6.3, 3.6.4
“big three” agencies, 1.2.1, 1.2.2
consumer file contents, 3.2.3.2
circumvention rule, 2.6.1.3
consumer files, 3.2.3
blocking of theft-related debts, 9.2.4.1
contents, 3.2.3.2
fraud alerts, 9.2.2
military duty alerts, 9.2.2.4
obtaining disclosure, 3.4
right to disclosure, 3.3
sources of information, 3.2.3.3
variations, 3.4.1
contact information, 3.4.2.2, 4.5.2.4.2
credit risk scores, 16.2.2.2
disclosure requirements, 16.4.1, 16.4.3
FICO variations, 16.4.5.3
in-house educational scores, 16.4.5.2
obtaining, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.1.5
VantageScore, 16.4.5.2
variation between, 3.4.1, 16.4.5.1
defined, 2.6.1.1
e-OSCAR processing system, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.1.2
Equifax, see EQUIFAX
Experian, see EXPERIAN (TRW)
FCRA enforcement authority over, 13.2.4.5
fraud alerts
annual reports on, 9.2.1.3
extended fraud alerts, implementation, 9.2.2.3.3
initial fraud alerts, implementation, 9.2.2.2
free reports
advertisements accompanying, 3.3.2.3
annual free report, 3.3.2, 3.4.2.1, 10.7.7
centralized source, 3.3.2.3
fraud alert, 3.3.5
“free” reports that are not free, 3.3.3.1
identity theft, 3.3.5
requesting, 3.3.2.3, 3.4.2.1
state law right, 3.3.9
identity theft, obligations
alerts, 9.2.2
annual reports, 9.2.1.3
blocking of information, 9.2.4.1
referral of complaints, 9.2.2.5
overview of industry, 1.2.2
paid reports, obtaining from, 3.4.2.2
prescreening opt-out notification system, 7.3.3.4
reinvestigations
automated reinvestigation system, 4.5.3.4.4, 4.6.4, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
challenging, 4.5.3.4.4
deposing as to procedures, 4.5.6.5
dispute requests, 4.5.2.4.5
electronic dispute processing, 4.5.6, 6.10.1.2
results, reporting to, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
resellers, status as, 2.6.3.3
responsibilities, 2.6.1.2
sample reports, Appx. I.1
sources of information, 3.2.3.3
specialty agencies, 2.6.2, 2.7.3
see also SPECIALTY AGENCIES
check writing, see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
contact information, 3.4.2.3
defined, 2.6.2.1
employment reports, 2.3.6.4.1, 2.6.2.1, 2.6.2.2
files, 3.2.4
FTC enforcement order, Appx. L.6
medical information, see MEDICAL INFORMATION AGENCIES
obtaining reports from, 3.3.2.4, 3.4.2.3
tenant screening, see TENANT SCREENING AGENCIES
types, 2.6.2.2
toll-free number
disclosure, 3.4.2.2, 3.4.2.3
requirement to have, 3.6.4
TransUnion, see TRANSUNION
NECESSARIES
state law doctrine, 5.6.1, 7.4.6.2
NEGATIVE INFORMATION
see ADVERSE INFORMATION
NEGLIGENCE
elements of, 10.5.4
FCRA qualified immunity, 6.11, 10.4
malice or willful intent exception, 10.4.6
FCRA violations
liability, 10.2.1.1
reasonable procedures, 10.2.3
standard for negligence, 10.2.2
identity theft, creditors, 9.5.2
obsolete information reporting, 5.2.5.1
reasonable procedures, 10.2.3
bright line requirements, 10.2.3.2
failure to follow, 5.2.5.1, 10.2.3.3
tort claims, 10.5.4
see also TORT CLAIMS
NOMINAL DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, NOMINAL
NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
CROA exemption, 17.2.2.3.2
NONPUBLIC PERSONAL INFORMATION
see also PERSONAL INFORMATION; PRIVACY
data brokers, “pretexting” to obtain, 18.4.2.3
data safeguard, 18.4.1.10
defined, 18.4.1.1
GLBA disclosure restrictions, 2.3.4.2.2, 18.4.1.5
exempt disclosures, 18.4.1.6
personally identifiable financial information, 18.4.1.5
NON-SUFFICIENT FUNDS
see DISHONORED CHECKS
NOTICE
see also DISCLOSURE
adverse action
ECOA notice, Appx. C.9
FCRA notice, see ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
adverse information, reporting
financial institutions, 6.9, 8.9
model form, proper use, 6.9
public record information, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
state law, 5.6.3
affiliate information sharing
adverse action, 3.3.1.3.4, 8.6.2
exclusion notice, 8.12.2
financial information, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.8.2
opt-out rights, 8.12.3.3, Appx. C.11
child support debts
government agencies, 7.2.9, 8.13.2
reporting, 1.4.12.2, 5.8.2
consumer files
deletion of disputed information, 4.5.5.2
deletion of favorable information, 5.2.2.1
inaccuracy, statement of dispute, 4.8.1
reinsertion of deleted information, 4.7.2.4
consumer report requests
child support enforcement agencies, 1.4.12.2, 7.2.9
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.2
consumer reporting agencies, obligations
corrections following reinvestigation, 4.6.2
employment reports, 4.4.7.2
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2
fraud alerts, 9.2.2.3.3
frivolous disputes, 4.5.2.7.4, 8.14.1
identity theft block refusal, 8.10.4, 9.2.4.1.3
inaccurate information received, 6.4.2.2
past user notification, consumer rights, 4.9.2
prescreening opt-out, 7.3.3.4
public record information, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
reinsertion of information, 4.7.2.4, 8.10.2
reinvestigation request, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.3
reinvestigation results, 4.6.1, 6.10.6.4, 8.10.1
consumer reporting agencies, to, 8.15
fraud alerts, 9.2.2
inaccurate information, 8.15
reinvestigation request, 4.5.2.4
consumers, to
adverse action notice, 8.5
adverse information use, 8.6
affiliate sharing notice, 8.12
child support use notice, 8.13.2
credit score notice, 8.4.2, 16.4.4
employment use notice, 8.11
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2
FCRA rights notice, 8.2
fraud prevention, 8.14.1
free credit report, 3.3.3.2.1, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3.3
frivolous dispute, 4.5.2.7.4, 6.5.2.5, 8.14.1
government agency debtors, 8.13.1
ID theft information, blockage refusal, 8.10.4, 9.2.4.1.3
ID theft rights notice, 8.3, 9.2.2.1.1
importance, 8.1.2
investigative report notice, 15.4.1
model forms, Appx. C
mortgage scoring notice, 8.4.3
negative information notice, 8.9
other FCRA notices, 8.14.1
overview, 8.1.1
past user notification, rights, 4.9.2
prescreening opt-out notice, 8.8.3
prescreening use notice, 8.8.2
public record information for employment purposes, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
reinsertion notice, 4.7.2.4, 8.10.2
reinvestigation results notice, 4.6.1, 8.10.1
risk-based pricing notice, 8.7
state law requirements, 8.14.2
Summary of Consumer Identity Theft Rights, 8.3
Summary of Consumer Rights, 8.2
cosigners
adverse action, 8.5.4.3.7, 8.6.1.4.3
adverse information, state law, 5.6.3
credit score
adverse action, 8.5.4.2, 16.4.4
general notice, 8.4.2
mortgage scoring notice, 8.4.3
overview, 8.4.1
risk-based pricing, 8.7.3, 16.4.4
dealer paper purchases, 8.6.1.4.1
debt collectors, validation notice, 14.4.6
dispute notices, 8.1.1
CDV or “611” notice, 6.10.3.2
direct dispute process, 6.5.2.3
formal dispute process, 4.5.2.4, 6.10.2.2, 8.15, 14.6.2.1
reinvestigation requests, to furnisher, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.3
reinvestigation results, 4.6.1.1
settlement, 14.6.4.3
statement in file, 4.8.1
ECOA
comparison with FCRA notice, 8.5.6
model form, Appx. C.9
record retention, 12.1.5
employment agency files, rights, 2.4.4.2.5
employee misconduct investigations, 8.11.1.2.1, 15.2.4.2
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.2, 8.11
adverse action, 8.11.3, 8.11.4
exceptions, 8.11.1.2
intention to request, 8.11.2
overview, 8.11.1
public record information, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
FCRA notices
importance, 8.1.2
overview, 8.1.1
FCRA rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
federal agency debt reporting notice, 5.7.3, 8.13.1
content, 8.13.1.2
time and manner, 8.13.1.3
financial institutions, by
affiliate information sharing, 8.12.1.2
negative information reporting, 6.9, 8.9
opt-out notice, 18.4.1.8.2
privacy notice, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.7
fraud alert notice, 9.2.2.3.3
frivolous dispute, 4.5.2.7.4, 6.5.2.5, 8.14.1
furnishers of information, obligations
disputed information, 4.8.2, 6.5.2.6, 6.6
negative information by financial institutions, 6.9, 8.9
voluntarily closed accounts, 6.8
furnishers of information, to, 8.16
blocked fraudulent information, 9.2.4.2.1
direct dispute process, 6.5.2.3, 14.6.2.3
FCRA obligations, 6.2.1, 8.16.1, Appx. C.6
formal reinvestigations, 4.5.4.2, 4.6.3, 6.10.2.2, 6.10.3, 14.6.2.2
inaccurate information reporting, 6.4.2.2, 14.6.2.3
other notices, 8.16.2
GLBA requirements
opt-out notice, 18.4.1.8.2
privacy notice, 18.4.1.7
government agencies
child support purposes, 1.4.12.2, 7.2.9, 8.13.2
federal debt reporting, 8.13.1
government benefits, adverse action, 8.5.4.5
inaccurate information, 6.5.2.3, 8.15
identity theft
block refusal notice, 8.10.4, 9.2.4.1.3
blocking of information, 9.2.4.2.1
fraud alerts, 9.2.2
request to block, 9.2.4.1.1
summary of rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER IDENTITY THEFT RIGHTS
insurance reports, adverse action, 8.5.4.4
investigative consumer reports, 15.4.1
contents, 15.4.1.3
form, 15.4.1.3
right to disclosure, 15.4.1.3
sources, potential discovery of identity, 15.5.2
time, 15.4.1.2
user requests, 15.4.1
mortgage scoring notice, see MORTGAGE SCORING NOTICE
prescreened reports, adverse action, 8.5.4.3.8
prescreening opt-out notice, 8.8.1, 8.8.3
content, 8.8.3.1
enforcement of rights, 8.8.3.3
model notice, Appx. C.8
time and manner, 8.8.3.2
prescreening use notice, 7.3.3.4, 8.8.1, 8.8.2
contents, 8.8.2.2
enforcement of rights, 8.8.2.4
purpose, 8.8.2.1
time and manner, 8.8.2.3
public record information for employment purposes, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
claims re, 8.11.5.3
content and nature, 8.11.5.1
time and manner, 8.11.5.2
reasonable procedures defense, 15.4.3
reinsertion, 4.7.2.4, 8.10.2
reinvestigations
denials, 8.14.1
investigative sources, 15.5.2
nationwide reporting agencies, 6.10.6.4
past users, 4.9
requests, 4.5.2.4, 4.5.4.2, 6.10.3
results, 6.10.6, 8.10.1
risk-based pricing, 8.5.4.3.4, 8.7, 16.7.2
model notice, Appx. C.11
state law requirements, 8.14.2
status notices, 8.1.1
student loan defaults, 14.4.5
summary of FCRA rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
summary of identity theft rights, see SUMMARY OF CONSUMER IDENTITY THEFT RIGHTS
truckers
adverse action notice, 8.11.1.2.2
employment use notice, 8.11.1.2.2
users of reports, obligations
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
employment reports, 8.11
investigative reports, 15.4.1.2
risk-based pricing, 8.5.4.3.4
users of reports, to, 8.17
address discrepancy, 8.17.3, 9.2.6.3
disputed information, 4.8.1, 4.8.2, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
FCRA responsibilities, 7.1.5, 8.17.2
overview, 8.17.1
past users, 4.9, 8.17.4
NSF CHECKS
see DISHONORED CHECKS
OBSOLETE INFORMATION
see also CONSUMER FILES; INFORMATION ON CONSUMERS
dating, 5.2.3, 5.2.5.3
deletion, 5.2.2.2, 5.2.5.3
existence, reporting, 5.2.2.3
favorable information, 5.2.2.1
deletion from file, 5.2.2.2
effect on credit scores, 16.8.2.7
furnisher liability, 5.2.2.4
inaccurate information as, 5.2.2.2
investigative consumer reports, 15.6.1, 15.6.2.3
reasonable procedures, 5.2.5
reliance on, 5.2.2.3
reporting exemptions, 5.2.4, 5.2.5.4
reporting restrictions, 5.2
adverse items, 5.2.3
constitutional challenges, 5.2.1.2
existence of information, 5.2.2.3
general principles, 5.2.2
judgments, 5.2.3.5
overview, 5.2.1
summary of restrictions, 5.2.1.1
structure of FCRA, 5.2.3.1
threats to report, 5.2.3.4.7
retention, 5.2.1.1, 5.2.3, 5.2.4, 5.2.5.4
standards, legislative history, 1.4.2
state law preemption, 5.2.6
student loans, 14.6.5
verification, 5.2.4
OFFENSES
see CRIMINAL OFFENSES
OFFERS OF CREDIT
see CREDIT OFFERS
OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY (OCC)
see also BANKING REGULATORS
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.3, 13.2.6
FCRA regulatory authority, 1.3.3.1
citations, Appx. B.4
GLBA enforcement authority, 18.4.1.2
text of regulations, Appx. G.3.2
preemption regulation, 13.7.2
OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL (OFAC) LIST
consumer file information, 3.5.1.4
consumer report status, 2.3.5.1
OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
FCRA application, 2.5.7
OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION (OTS)
former FCRA authority, 13.2.6
GLBA regulations, Appx. G.3.5
OFFICIAL STAFF COMMENTARY (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
replaced by Staff Summary, 1.3.3.2.1
ON-LINE DATING SERVICES
see DATING SERVICES
OPEN-END CREDIT
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS
account review, 7.2.3.3
credit cards, see CREDIT CARDS
disputed information, reporting restrictions, 5.3.4
OPINION LETTERS (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
furnisher accuracy, 6.4.2.6
generally, 1.3.3.2
sectional index, Appx. E
OPT-OUT RIGHTS
affiliate sharing of information, 2.4.3.2, 8.12
duration, 8.12.2, 8.12.3.5
enforcement, 8.12.4
exceptions, 8.12.3.6
exclusion notice, 8.12.2
financial information, 8.12.1.2, 18.4.1.8.2
marketing information, 8.12.3
notice of rights, 8.12.3.3, Appx. C.11
overview, 8.12.1.1
reasonable opportunity and method, 8.12.3.4
nonpublic personal information disclosure, 18.4.1.8
exemptions, 18.4.1.6.3
sample notices, Appx. G.4
prescreened lists, 7.3.3.4
notice, 8.8.3, Appx. C.8
ORAL COMMUNICATIONS
adverse action notice, 8.5.3.2
consumer file disclosure, 3.6.2
CRA assistance to consumers, 3.6.3
PARTIES
credit reporting claims
class actions, 11.2.3
defendants, 11.2.2
insurance coverage, 12.1.3.11, 12.3.3
plaintiffs, 11.2.1
PARTNERSHIPS
see also BUSINESSES
credit applications, see BUSINESS CREDIT
FCRA, application, 2.3.3.3
reports on, see COMMERCIAL REPORTS
PATERNITY PROCEEDINGS
see also CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
consumer reports, use, 7.4.2
PATRIOT ACT
see USA PATRIOT ACT
PAYDAY LENDERS
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.4
PAYMENT PLANS
see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
PENDENT JURISDICTION
see SUPPLEMENTAL JURISDICTION
PEOPLE SEARCH SERVICES
consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1
PERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
see also IMPERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
account reviews, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.3.3, 7.2.8.3
agents, 7.1.6
background to standard, 7.1.1
business transaction initiated by consumer, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2
certification, see CERTIFICATION
check cashing lists, 2.3.6.3.2
child support, 2.3.6.9
consumer lists, 7.3
consumer’s permission, 7.1.3, 7.2.2
counterintelligence, 7.2.10.4
counterterrorism, 7.2.10.4, 7.2.10.5
court order, 7.2.1
credit transactions, 2.3.6.3, 7.2.3
debt collection purposes, 2.3.6.3, 7.2.3.4
driving records, 18.4.2.4
employment agencies, 2.4.4.2
employment purposes, 2.3.6.4, 7.2.4.2
expected use, 2.3.5.3
FBI purposes, 7.2.10.4
FDIC, 7.2.10.6
generally, 2.3.5.1, 2.3.6.1, 7.1
government agencies, 2.3.6.9, 7.2.9, 7.2.10
debt collection, 7.2.3.4
sponsored charge cards, 7.2.3.6
government licenses, 2.3.6.6, 7.2.6
information collected for, 2.3.5
insurance purposes, 2.3.6.5, 7.2.5
credit insurers, 7.2.3.5
intended use, 7.1.2.2, 7.1.4.1, 7.7.1
investors, 7.2.3.5
judgment debts, 7.2.3.4
legitimate business need, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8
medical information, 5.4.5.3, 5.4.5.4, 14.2.6
NCUA, 7.2.10.6
necessity, 7.1.2, 7.1.4
original purpose, 2.3.5.4
personal credit, 2.3.6.3
prescreening lists, 7.3.1, 7.4.8
privacy protections, 7.1.1
prospective clients, 7.4.4
public assistance eligibility, 2.3.6.6, 7.2.6, 14.7.9
release for, 7.1.2, 7.2
consumer’s objection, 7.1.3
discretion of CRA, 7.1.2.1
“reason to believe” standard, 7.1.2.2
risk assessment, 2.3.6.7, 7.2.7
servicers, 7.2.3.5
skip tracing, 2.3.6.3, 7.2.3.4
spouses, 7.4.6.2, 14.6.9
tenant screening reports, 2.3.6.3.3
terrorism protection, 7.2.10.4
third parties, 7.4.6
use only for, 7.1.2, 7.1.4
verification, 7.5.3
reasonable procedures, 7.5.1.2
waiver of rights, 7.2.2
PERSONAL CREDIT
see also CREDIT
consumer report, permissible purpose, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.3.1.3
defined, 2.3.6.3.1
PERSONAL INFORMATION
consumer report status, 2.3.4.1
credit header information, see CREDIT HEADER INFORMATION
medical information, see MEDICAL INFORMATION
nonpublic personal information, see NONPUBLIC PERSONAL INFORMATION
privacy concerns, see PRIVACY
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
consumer reports, information from, restrictions, 5.5
investigative consumer reports
confirmation, 15.6.2.1
contents, 15.2.3
reinvestigation, 15.5.2
requirement, 15.2.3
PERSONAL JURISDICTION
see also JURISDICTION
FCRA actions, 11.2.2
PERSONAL PROPERTY LEASES
see also AUTOMOBILE LEASES; LEASES
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.6.3
consumer report, permissible purpose, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2.2.2
PERSONAL PURPOSE TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
consumer report, permissible purpose, 2.3.6.3.1, 7.2.3.1.3
business transactions, 7.2.8.2.2.1
insurance report, 7.2.5
defined, 2.3.6.3.1
PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES
see POWER OF ATTORNEY
PERSONNEL
see EMPLOYEES
PERSONS
see also CONSUMERS; CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
“any person,” liability, 11.2.2.1
definition, 2.5.2, 15.4.1.1
PLEADINGS
see also FCRA CLAIMS
credit repair violations, 17.2.8.9, 17.3.6
defenses, 12.3.1
drafting the complaint, 11.5
malice or willful intent, 10.4.6.3
sample pleadings
sample complaints, Appx. J.2
POINT SCORES
see CREDIT SCORES
POLICE DEPARTMENTS
see also LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
FCRA, application, 2.7.9
POWER OF ATTORNEY
see also ATTORNEYS
consumer files, disclosure requests, 3.4.4
PRACTICE AIDS
case selection, 11.3
court selection, 11.4
credit records, 12
credit score considerations, 16.10
consumer complaints, filing, 13.3.5
consumer report, examining, 3.7
court orders covering reporting issues, 14.6.4.5
damage awards, quick reference, 12.8
discovery, see DISCOVERY
evidentiary issues, 12.1.7
FCRA, utilization, 1.3.2
FCRA claims, see FCRA CLAIMS
follow-up after dispute resolution, 14.6.4.6, 14.6.4.7
generally, 12.1.1, 14.1
guides to credit reporting, Appx. M
impermissible uses, 14.2
insurance coverage, 12.1.3.11
jury trials, 12.2
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
reasonable procedures, establishing, 4.4.5.1.5
record retention, 12.1.5
reinsertion cases, 4.7.3.2
reinvestigation requests, 4.5.2.4
reinvestigation suits, 6.10.1.3
sample documents, Appx. J
settlement, generally, see SETTLEMENT
settling non-FCRA litigation, 14.6.4
negotiating credit reporting issues, 14.6.4.2
subpoenas, 12.1.3.10
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
PREEMPTION OF STATE LAW
affiliate information sharing, 2.4.3.2.4, 10.7.5
breach of contract claims, 10.7.3.6
child support debt reporting, 5.8.2
consumer reporting agencies, 10.7.3.3, 10.7.7, 10.7.8.2
cosigner reporting, 5.6.3
credit or debit cards, 10.7.8.6
credit repair laws, 17.2.10, 17.3.8
credit scores
disclosure, 3.3.4.6, 10.7.6, 16.4.3.3
insurance scores, 16.11
debt collection, 10.7.8.5
defense, as, 12.3.1.11
disclosures, 10.7.6
credit report fees, 3.3.9, 3.3.10.2, 10.7.7
express preemption
affiliate information sharing, 10.7.5
conduct, 10.7.8
disclosures, 10.7.6
identity theft, 10.7.7
overview, 10.7.2
scope, 10.7.4
subject matter, 10.7.3
tort claims, 10.7.4
FAA, 12.4.2.3
FACTA amendments, 1.4.9.1
field preemption, 10.7.1
furnishers of information, 5.8.1, 6.2.2.3, 10.7.3.2, 10.7.8.4
accuracy and integrity, 6.4.3.1
direct dispute rights, 6.5.2.1
medical information, 5.4.3
qualified immunity, relationship, 10.7.4.1
generally, 5.8.1, 10.7
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, 18.4.1.13
identity theft, 9.2.4.1.5, 9.2.6.3, 10.7.3.5
inconsistent state laws, 10.7.1.3
insurance laws not preempted, 12.4.2.3
national banks and thrifts, 13.7.2
OCC regulation, 13.7.2
pre-FACTA case law, 10.7.2.3
qualified immunity, relationship, 10.4.1.3, 10.7.4
reinvestigation refusal, notice, 4.5.2.7.4
risk-based pricing notice, 8.7.5
scope, 10.7.4
enumerated provisions, 10.7.3, 10.7.8
similarity to FCRA, effect, 10.7.4.5
state law claims, 10.7, 12.3.1.11
state obsolescence laws, 5.2.6
statutory claims, 10.7.4.2, 10.7.4.3
tort claims, 10.7.4
invasion of privacy, 18.3.2
trigger approach, 10.7.4.4
users of information, 10.7.3.4, 10.7.8.3
PRESCREENED REPORTS
see also CONSUMER LISTS
account number information, 18.4.1.9
active duty military, exclusion, 9.2.2.4
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.3.8
consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.3, 7.3.3.2
described, 2.3.4.2.3, 5.2.3.9, 7.3.3.2, 8.8.1
disclosure requirements, 5.2.3.9, 8.8
exclusion requests, 7.3.3.4
FCRA application, 2.3.4.2.3, 7.3.3
“firm offer” of credit or insurance, 7.3.3.3
fraud alert consumers, exclusion, 9.2.2.3.3
notification system for consumers, 7.3.3.4, 8.8
overview, 8.8.1
removal from list, 8.8.3
use of prescreened list, 8.8.2
“opt out” rights, 7.3.3.4
notice, 8.8.3, Appx. C.8
overview
process, 7.3.3.2.1
requirements, 8.8.1, 7.3.3.1.1
permissible purposes, 7.3.1, 7.3.3.1
“firm offer” required, 7.3.3.3
limited information, 7.3.3.2.2
record of inquiries, time period, 5.2.3.9
state law preemption, 10.7
target marketing
form of, 7.3.2.2
legislative response, 1.4.6
users
differentiation from report users, 7.1.9
notice requirements, 8.8.2
younger consumers, 7.3.3.1.2
PRIVACY
see also CONFIDENTIALITY
Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, 18.4.2.1
common law protections, 18.3, 18.5
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, 18.4.2.1
data brokers, concerns, 2.7.5
data safeguard, 18.4.1.10
Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 18.4.2.1
FCRA purpose, 1.4.1, 7.1.1
financial abuse of older adults, reporting, 18.4.1.6.3
financial information, 18.4.1
exempt disclosures, 18.4.1.6
opting out, 18.4.1.8
GLBA notice, see PRIVACY NOTICE
GLBA protections, see GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT (GLBA)
governmental intrusion, 18.2
legislative response, 1.4.3, 1.4.6
overview, 18.1
statutory protections
computers and the Internet, 18.4.2.1
FCRA, 7.1.1, 18.1
Financial Information Privacy Act, 18.4.2.2
FTC Act, 18.4.2.3
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, 18.1, 18.4.1
interests impeding, 18.6
state law, 18.4.2.5
Telecommunications Act, 18.4.2.1
tort claims, see INVASION OF PRIVACY
PRIVACY ACT
federal agencies, protections, 2.5.7, 18.2
PRIVACY NOTICE
see also GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT (GLBA)
contents, 18.4.1.7.3
definition, 18.4.1.7.1
entitlement, time, 18.4.1.7.2
model notice, 18.4.1.7.5
PRIVACY RULE (FTC)
see also GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT (GLBA)
Regulation P replaces, 18.4.1.2
PRIVATE INVESTIGATORS
see DETECTIVE AGENCIES
PRIVATE REMEDIES
CROA violations, 17.2.8
FCRA violations, see FCRA CLAIMS
state claims, see STATE CLAIMS; TORT CLAIMS
PRIVILEGE
see CONDITIONAL PRIVILEGE
PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF; EVIDENCE
PROPERTY MANAGERS
consumer reporting agency status, 15.3.3
consumer reports, obtaining, 7.1.6
PROPERTY SALES
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.6.4
permissible use, 7.2.8.2.2.2
PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
see DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
PROSECUTIONS
see also CRIMINAL OFFENSES
consumer reports, use, 7.4.4, 7.4.5, 14.2.4
FCRA violations, 13.6
identity theft, 9.3, 9.4.1
PROTECTIVE BULLETINS
see LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETINS
PROTECTIVE ORDERS
discovery requests, 12.1.3.8
PUBLIC AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
see also GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
consumer file disclosure, free reports, 3.3.8, 3.3.9
PUBLIC ENFORCEMENT
federal enforcement, see FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT
state enforcement, see STATE ENFORCEMENT
PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
assemblers of information, 2.5.3.2
clearing up blemished report, 14.6.3
consumer report status, 2.3.4.1, 2.3.4.2.1
consumer reporting agencies
“big three” nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.2.4
collection, 4.3.5.1, 4.3.3.4
discovery relating to, 12.1.3.2.12
employment purposes, 4.4.7, 8.11.5
FCRA violations, liability, 10.2.3.5
notice requirements, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.5, 10.2.3.5
specialty agencies, 2.7.1, 12.1.3.2.12
strict procedures, 4.4.7.3, 10.2.3.5
criminal records, see CRIMINAL RECORDS
employment reports, 4.4.7
notice, 4.4.7.2, 8.11.5
security clearances, 4.4.7.4, 8.11.1.2.3
strict procedures, 4.4.7.3
FCRA claims, 10.2.3.5
inaccurate reports, 4.3.5, 4.4.6.5
employment reports, 4.4.7.3
mixed information, 4.3.3.4, 4.4.6.6
reporting limitations
criminal records, 5.2.3.7
judgments, 5.2.3.5
suits, 5.2.3.4.1, 5.2.3.5
tax liens, 5.2.3.6
searches by inspection bureaus, 15.3.1
up-to-date, 4.4.7.3
PUBLIC UTILITY CREDIT
see also UTILITY SERVICES
blemished credit record, effect, 14.7.4
credit scores, 16.12
FCBA, application, 14.4.3
Metro 2 Format reporting, 6.3.3.11
PUBLIC WELFARE RECIPIENTS
see PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
PUBLICATION
bad debt lists, 14.2.3
credit record, 14.2.2
damages prerequisite, 12.5.2.3.2
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
QUALIFIED IMMUNITY
application, 10.4.2, 10.4.4
background, 10.4.1
disclosure prerequisite, 10.4.3
exception for malice or willful intent, 10.4.6
federal preemption, reconciling, 10.4.1.3, 10.7.4
generally, 10.4.1.1
information to nonreporting agency, 10.4.5
legislative history, 10.4.1.2
tort liability, 6.11, 10.4, 10.7.4, 18.3.2
QUALIFIED PRIVILEGE
defense to tort action, 10.5.2, 10.5.4
RACKETEERING INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT (RICO)
credit repair organizations, application, 17.1.2, 17.3
credit reporting abuses, application, 10.3
REAL ESTATE AGENTS
consumer reports, obtaining, 7.1.6
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.5
REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (RESPA)
claims under, 10.3
qualified written request, 14.4.4
reporting restrictions, 5.3.5, 6.5.3
REAL PROPERTY LEASES
see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
REAL PROPERTY SALES
see LAND CONTRACTS
REASONABLE PROCEDURES
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; CONSUMER REPORTS
accuracy assurance
furnishers of information, 6.4.3.2, 6.4.3.4
reporting agencies, 4.4.5
availability and minimal burden of corrective measures, 4.4.5.1.5
balancing test, 4.4.5.1.2, 4.5.3.4.3
bankruptcy reporting, 4.4.6.10
failure to follow, 4.4.6.10.2.2
bright line requirements, 10.2.3.2
burden of proof, 12.3.1.2
consumer identification, 4.4.6.6, 4.4.6.7
consumer reporting agencies
accuracy, 4.4.5
blanket certifications, 7.5.2.2
permissible purposes, 7.5.1
reinsertion of information, 4.7.2.2
requirement to maintain, 10.2.3.3
specific problems, 4.4.6
data communication, 4.4.6.8
defense, as, 10.2.3.4, 12.3.1.2
discovery, 12.1.3.1
electronic communication of reports, 7.5.4
employee access to files, 7.6
employees must follow established procedures, 4.4.5.1.4
employment reports, public record information, 4.4.7.3
national security exemption, 4.4.7.4
factors bearing on, 4.4.5.1.3
FCRA claims, 10.2.3
damages, 4.4.5.3
determining reasonableness, 4.4.5.1
no strict liability, 4.4.5.1.1
proof issues, 4.4.5.2
FCRA purpose, 1.3.1, 10.2.3.1
furnishers of information, 6.4.3.2, 6.4.3.4
identity theft prevention, 4.4.6.7
address discrepancies, 9.2.6.3
after alerts, 9.2.2.5
change of address, 9.2.6.4
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2.3
illogical files, 4.4.6.3
impermissible purposes, avoiding, 7.5
inaccurate sources, 4.4.6.4
incomplete information, 4.4.6.9
internal inconsistencies, 4.4.6.3
investigative reports
disclosure obligations, 15.4.3
preparation, 15.6.1
management policies discouraging, 4.4.6.1
mismerged information, 4.4.6.6
missing accounts
consumer offers of new information, 4.8.4
existing accounts, 4.4.6.9.3
new accounts, 4.4.6.9.2
obsolete information, 4.4.6.9, 5.2.5
legal standard, 5.2.5.2
proof issues, 4.4.5.2
public record information, 4.4.6.5, 10.2.3.5
employment reports, strict procedures, 4.4.7.3
national security exemption, 4.4.7.4
reinsertion of information, 4.7.2.2
reinvestigations, 4.4.6.2, 4.5.2.5, 4.5.3, 6.10.4
reliance on furnishers, 4.4.6.4
resellers, 4.4.4
retention of request records, 7.5.5
sources of information, 4.4.6.4
specific procedures, 4.4.6
standards, 4.4.5.1.2, 5.2.5.2
systematic violations, 11.2.3
transcription, 4.4.6.8
updating procedures, 4.4.6.9.4, 4.4.6.9.5
user identification and certification
blanket certifications, 7.5.2.2
continuing reports, 7.5.2.3
employment purposes, 7.2.4.3.1
follow-up reports, 7.5.2.3
investigative consumer reports, 15.4.1.5
nature of certification, 7.5.2.1
verification procedures, 7.5.3
violations, 7.5.1.1
RECORDS
consumer reporting agencies, obligations, 7.5.5, 9.2.5.3, 12.1.5
consumer reports, requests for, 7.5.5
credit record, see CREDIT RECORD
criminal records, see CRIMINAL RECORDS; PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
disposal requirements, 9.2.5.3
public, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
retention, 12.1.5
litigation purposes, 12.1.3.6
RED FLAG GUIDELINES
Clarification Act, 1.4.12.1, 9.2.6.2.2
definition of creditor, 1.4.12.1, 2.3.6.3.1, 9.2.6.2.2
FTC regulations, Appx. B.3.1
generally, 9.2.6.2.1
requirements, 9.2.6.2.3
scope, 1.4.12.1, 2.3.6.3.1, 9.2.6.2.2
REGULATIONS (ECOA)
credit score definition, 16.2.3.2
REGULATIONS (FCRA)
banking regulators, 1.3.3.1.1
current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2, Appx. B.4
CFPB authority, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2.7
current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2, Appx. B.2.1
circumvention rule, 2.6.1.3
courts failure to give deference, 1.3.3.1.3
FTC authority, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.11, 13.2.7
current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2, Appx. B.3
furnisher accuracy and integrity guidelines, 6.4.3.1, 6.4.3.2
generally, 1.3.3.1
identification requirements, 3.4.3.2
identity theft prevention
address discrepancies, 9.2.6.3
change of address regulations, 9.2.6.4
disposal of consumer information, 9.2.5.3
red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2, Appx. B.3.1
legislative history, 1.3.3.1.1, 1.4.7, 1.4.9.2
risk-based pricing notice, 8.7.1
Securities and Exchange Commission, 1.3.3.1.1
current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2, Appx. B.5
summary of current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2
text, Appx. B
REGULATIONS (GLBA)
authority to make, 18.4.1.2
CFPB Regulation P, 18.4.1.2, Appx. G.2.1
FDIC regulations, Appx. G.3.4
FRB regulations, Appx. G.3.3
FTC Privacy Rule, 18.4.1.2
NCUA regulations, Appx. G.3.6
OCC regulations, Appx. G.3.2
OTS regulations, Appx. G.3.5
REINSERTION OF INFORMATION
agency obligations, 4.7.2.2
breach of settlement, 14.6.4.3
failure to handle properly, FCRA claims, 4.7.3
strategies for litigating, 4.7.3.2
FCRA provisions, 4.7.2
furnisher certification, 4.7.2.3
legislative history, 1.4.6, 4.7.1.1, 4.7.2.1
notice to consumer, 4.7.2.4, 8.10.2
claims re, 4.7.3
enforcement of rights, 8.10.2.4
nature and content, 8.10.2.2
time and manner, 8.10.2.3
overview, 4.7.1, 4.7.2.1
soft-deleted information, 4.6.2, 4.7.1.2
what constitutes reinsertion, 4.7.3.1
REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
see also REVERIFICATION
agency obligations, 4.5.1, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.3, 6.10.1.2
affiliated agencies, 4.5.2.6
corrections, 4.6.2, 6.10.5
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
liability, 4.5.3.2
notice to furnisher, 4.5.4.2
reliance on furnisher, 4.5.3.4.5
response time, 4.5.5
standards, 4.5.3.4
automated processing system, 4.5.3.4.4, 4.5.6, 4.6.4, 6.10.1.2
codes, 4.5.6.2
disputes processed outside system, 4.5.6.3
e-OSCAR, 4.5.6.1, 6.10.1.2
notice to furnisher, 4.5.4.2, 4.5.6.1
processing of disputes, 4.5.6.4
use by furnishers, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
consumer requests, 4.5.2
contents, 4.5.2.4.1, 4.5.2.4.7, 4.5.2.4.9
“direct” from consumer, 4.5.2.5
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
form, 4.5.2.3, 4.5.2.4.2
frivolous requests, 4.5.2.7
practical tips, 4.5.2.4
repeat requests, 4.5.2.7.3
specificity required, 4.5.2.2, 4.5.2.3, 4.5.2.4.6
third party requests, 4.5.2.5, 4.5.2.7.2
correction or deletion after, 4.6.2, 6.10.5
copy of corrected report, 4.6.1.2
following-up, 4.6.4
data conformity reviews, 6.10.4.2.3
deadline for response, 4.5.5
deletion alternative, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.3.1, 4.5.5.2
direct request process, see DIRECT REINVESTIGATIONS (FURNISHERS)
entitlement, 4.5.1, 4.5.2.1
incomplete information, 4.5.3.3
expedited dispute resolution, 4.5.5.2, 14.6.2.2
failure to handle properly, FCRA claims
actual damages calculations, 12.5.2.2.2
consumer reporting agency, 4.5.3
furnisher of information, 6.10.2
inaccurate information, necessity, 4.5.3.2
practice tip, 6.10.1.3
sample complaint, Appx. J.2.1
statute of limitations, 4.5.7
fees, 4.5.2.1
formal dispute process, 4.5, 6.10
deficiencies, 6.10.1.2
overview, 4.5.1, 6.10.1
frivolous disputes, 4.5.2.7
furnisher obligations
conducting, 6.10.4
consumer enforcement, 6.10.1.1
involvement, 4.5.4, 6.10.3, 6.10.4
liability, 6.10.1.3, 6.10.2
reasonable investigations, 6.10.4
reporting results, 6.10.6
unverifiable information, 6.10.5
incomplete information, 4.5.3.3
investigative reports, 15.5.2, 15.6.2.3
nature of, 4.5.3
notation of dispute, 4.8.1, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
notice of dispute, 4.5.2
credit repair organizations, 17.1.1
notification
consumer, 4.6.1, 6.10.6.4
electronic, 6.10.1.2, 6.10.6.6
furnishers, 4.5.4.2, 4.6.3, 6.10.3
past users, 4.9, 8.17.4.1
results, 4.6.1, 6.10.6
overview of process, 4.5.1.2
preconditions, unreasonable, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.2.3
private enforcement, 6.10.1.1, 6.10.2.1
statute of limitations, 6.10.7
reasonable investigation standard, 4.5.3.4, 6.10.4
procedure used, 4.6.1.3
reasonable procedures, 4.4.6.2, 4.5.2.4.8, 6.10.4
reliance on furnisher, 4.5.3.4.5
resellers, 2.6.3.3, 4.5.2.6
results notice, 4.6.1
copy of corrected report, 4.6.1.2
description of procedure used, 4.6.1.3
electronic, 6.10.6.6
enforcement of rights, 8.10.1.4
furnishers, 4.6.3
nationwide agencies, 6.10.6.4, 6.10.6.6
nature and content, 8.10.1.2
reporting agency, 6.10.6.2
requirements, 4.6.1.1
time and manner, 8.10.1.3
state law preemption, 10.7
statement of dispute, filing after, 4.8.1, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
third party requests, 4.5.2.5
time limits, 6.10.6.5
underlying legal dispute, 4.5.3.4.6
unreasonable preconditions, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.2.3
RELATIVES
see also SPOUSES
blemished credit records, implications, 14.2.5
consumer reports, restrictions on use, 7.2.4.2, 7.4.6.3
REMEDIES
see PRIVATE REMEDIES
REMOVAL
see JURISDICTION
RENT COLLECTION
consumer report, permissible purpose, 7.2.3.4.1
RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
see PERSONAL PROPERTY LEASES
RENTAL AGENCIES
consumer report, permissible use, 7.1.6
RENTAL AGREEMENTS
see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
RENTAL APPLICATIONS
consumer report, permissible use, 2.3.6.3.3, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2.2.2
denial, adverse action notice, 8.5.4.6.3, 8.6.1.2
RENTAL CLEARANCE AGENCIES
see TENANT SCREENING COMPANIES
RENTAL SCREENING REPORTS
see TENANT SCREENING REPORTS
RENTERS
see TENANTS
REPAYMENT AGREEMENTS
negotiating, 14.6.7.3
effect on credit records, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.6
reporting limitations, effect, 5.2.3.4
REPORTERS
consumer reports, impermissible use, 7.4.11
REPORTS
business, see COMMERCIAL REPORTS
consumers, see CONSUMER REPORTS; INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
credit, see CONSUMER REPORTS
employment purposes, see EMPLOYMENT REPORTS
identity theft reports, 9.2.2.3.2
inquiry activity, see INQUIRY ACTIVITY
insurance purposes, see INSURANCE REPORTS
investigative reports, see INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS
prescreened, see PRESCREENED REPORTS
residential mortgage, see RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE CREDIT REPORTS
tenant screening, see TENANT SCREENING REPORTS
REPRESENTATIVES
consumer reports, obtaining, 3.4.4, 7.1.6
RES JUDICATA
doctrine of, 12.3.1.8
RESEARCH
see MARKETING RESEARCH
RESEARCH AIDS
see RESOURCE AIDS
RESELLERS
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
certifications, 2.6.3.3
consumer reporting agency status, 2.6.3.2
data brokers, status, 2.7.5
defined, 2.6.3.2
driving record information, restrictions, 18.4.2.4
duties, 2.6.3.3
FCRA, application, 2.6.3
FTC enforcement order, Appx. L.7
identity theft, blocking of information, 9.2.4.1.4
inaccurate information, liability, 4.4.4
nationwide reporting agency provisions, exclusion, 2.6.1.1
overview, 2.3.6.1
permissible purpose requirement, 7.1.2.1
reasonable procedures, 4.4.4
reinvestigation requirements, 4.5.2.6
“trimerge” reports, 12.1.2
verification, 7.5.3
RESIDENTIAL LEASES
see also LANDLORDS; TENANTS
blemished credit record, implications, 14.7.3
credit transaction status, 8.6.1.2
denial, notice requirements, 8.5.4.6.3, 8.6.1.2
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.3.3, 2.3.6.8
permissible use, 7.2.8.2.2.2
reports re, see TENANT SCREENING REPORTS
RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE CREDIT REPORTS
see also HOME MORTGAGES
credit score disclosure, 3.3.1.4, 8.4.3, 16.4.3
disputed information
open-end accounts, 5.3.4
RESPA restrictions, 5.3.5
use by lenders, 14.7.2.2
RESOURCE AIDS
case law, see
consumer complaints, filing, 13.3.5
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
RETAILERS
see CREDITORS; MERCHANTS
RETURNED CHECKS
see DISHONORED CHECKS
REVERIFICATION
see also REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA); VERIFICATION
investigative reports, subsequent reports, 15.6.2.3
REWARD PROGRAM DATA
consumer report status, 2.7.13
RICO
see RACKETEERING INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT (RICO)
RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT
privacy from governmental intrusion, 18.2
RIGHT TO PRIVACY
see PRIVACY
RISK-BASED PRICING
credit scores and, 8.7.3.2, 16.7.2
notice requirements, 8.5.4.3.4, 8.7
credit score, inclusion, 3.3.1.3.5, 8.4.2, 8.7.3.2, 16.4.4
enforcement of rights, 8.7.5
exceptions, 8.7.2.4
form, 8.7.4.2
model form, Appx. C.10
nature and content, 8.7.3
scope, 8.7.2
time, 8.7.4.1
RISK SCORES
see CREDIT SCORES
RISK TO CONSUMERS
conduct posing, FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.6
ROOKER-FELDMAN DOCTRINE
federal review of state court decisions, 12.3.1.8
RULE 68 OFFERS
attorney fee considerations, 12.7.5
RURAL HOUSING SERVICE (RHS)
underwriting guidelines, 14.7.2.1
SAFEGUARD RULES (FTC)
financial institutions, data, 18.4.1.10, Appx. G.2.2
SALES
consumer files, 7.1.7
identity-theft-blocked debts, 9.2.4.2.2
property sales, 8.5.4.6.4
resellers of information, see RESELLERS
SCAN
see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
SCHOLARSHIP LOCATION SERVICES
credit services organization status, 17.3.2
SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.6
SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION
FCRA enforcement, 13.2.6
SECURED CREDIT CARDS
see also CREDIT CARDS
described, 14.7.6
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC)
FCRA, regulatory and enforcement authority, 1.3.3.1, 13.2.5
summary of current regulations, 1.3.3.1.2
text of regulations, Appx. B.5
GLBA, regulatory and enforcement authority, 18.4.1.2
identity theft, red flag guidelines, 9.2.6.2.1
SECURITIES TRANSACTIONS
see INVESTMENTS
SECURITY AGREEMENTS
see DEALER PAPER
SECURITY CLEARANCES
disclosure exemption, 3.5.4.3.2
adverse notice exemption, 8.11.1.2.3
adverse public record reporting, 4.4.7.4, 8.11.1.2.3
employment purpose status, 2.3.6.4, 7.2.4.2
SECURITY FREEZES
identity theft protection, 9.4.4, 14.6.6.2
constitutional challenges, 9.4.4.5
exemptions, 9.4.4.4
fees, 9.4.4.3
generally, 9.4.4.1
scope, 9.4.4.2
state law summaries, Appx. H
thaws, 9.4.4.4
SECURITY PROCEDURES
consumer reporting agencies, 4.4.6.8
data security breaches, 9.6
financial institutions, 18.4.1.10
GLBA requirements, 18.4.1.10
FTC Safeguard Rules, 18.4.1.10
SELF-EMPLOYMENT
see INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS; SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPS
SELLERS
see MERCHANTS
SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
see also MILITARY PERSONNEL
military personnel protections, 5.7.1
SERVICERS
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.2
permissible uses, 7.2.3.5
SETTLEMENT
see also LITIGATION
attorney fee awards, 12.7.4
breach of settlement agreement, 10.7.3.6, 14.6.4.3
class representative, offers of, 11.2.3.3.8
consumer reports, use, 7.4.4
credit disputes
cleaning up file after, 14.6.4.6
court approval, 14.6.4.4
credit rating, protecting, 14.6.4.1, 16.6.2.5
monitoring file after, 14.6.4.7
negotiating reporting issues, 14.6.4.2
selecting correct language, 14.6.4.3, Appx. K
credit record, protecting, 1.3.2, 14.6.4, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.6
sample settlement language, Appx. K
debt settlement companies, 14.5.2
delinquent accounts, repayment plans, 14.6.7.3, 16.8.6
insurance liability coverage, 12.1.3.11
Rule 68 offers, 12.7.5
SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENTS
see also LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
FCRA, application, 2.7.9
SKIP TRACING
consumer reports, permissible purpose, 2.3.6.3, 7.2.3.4.1, 7.4.5
SOCIAL NETWORK SITES
see also DATING SERVICES
consumer reports, impermissible purposes, 7.4.10
SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
see also IDENTIFYING INFORMATION
requests for identification purposes, 3.4.3.4
truncation to prevent identity theft, 3.5.5.3, 9.2.5.2
SOCIAL SERVICE AGENCIES
see ADOPTION AGENCIES; CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; WELFARE AGENCIES
SOLDIERS AND SAILOR’S CIVIL RELIEF ACT
see SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPS
see also BUSINESSES
consumer reports, permissible purposes, 7.2.3.1.3
credit applications, see BUSINESS CREDIT
FCRA, application, 2.3.3.3
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
see also FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
data brokers, 2.7.5
disclosure, 3.5.4.2, 15.4.2.3
inaccurate sources, 4.4.6.4
nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.3
public record information, see PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
specialized agencies, 3.2.4
SPECIAL CREDIT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
medical information, use, 5.4.5.4
SPECIALTY AGENCIES
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
check writing, see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
consumer files, 3.2.4
consumer reports, obtaining from, 3.4.2.3
contact information, 3.4.2.3
data brokers, see DATA BROKERS
defined, 2.6.2.1
free annual reports, 3.3.2
obtaining, 3.3.2.4
requirement, 3.3.2.1
timing, volume, identification, 3.3.2.2
FTC enforcement order, Appx. L.6
medical information, see MEDICAL INFORMATION AGENCIES
public record information, 2.7.1
discovery, 12.1.3.2.12
tenant screening, see TENANT SCREENING AGENCIES
types, 2.6.2.2, 2.7.3
SPOUSES
consumer reports
bankruptcy notations, 4.4.6.10.3, 6.3.3.13.2
ECOA requirements, 5.6.1, 7.4.6.2, 14.2.5. 14.6.9
FCRA requirements, 5.6.1, 7.4.6, 14.2.5
permissible purposes, 7.2.3.4.1, 7.4.6.2
separate files, 5.6.1
credit cards, “piggybacking,” 16.6.2.7
credit record, application to consumer, 5.6.1, 7.4.6, 14.2.5, 14.6.9
divorce proceedings, see DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
doctrine of necessaries, 5.6.1, 7.4.6.2
FCRA claims, standing, 11.2.1.3
utility services, 14.7.4
STAFF SUMMARY (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
replaces Official Staff Commentary, 1.3.3.2.1
text, Appx. D
STANDARDS
accuracy
consumer reports, 4.4.5.1
furnishers, see under FURNISHERS OF INFORMATION
legislative history, 1.4.2, 1.4.3, 1.4.6, 1.4.9.2
disclosed information, 3.5.1.1, 3.5.2
home mortgage underwriting, 14.7.2.2
legislative history, 1.4.2
malice, 10.4.6.1
negligence, 10.2.2
pleadings, 12.3.1.1
reasonable procedures, 4.4.5.1.2, 5.2.5.2
reinsertion of deleted information, 4.7.2.2
reinvestigations, 4.4.6.2, 4.5.2.4.8, 4.5.3.4.1, 6.10.4
reinvestigations
CRAs, 4.5.3.1, 4.5.3.4
furnishers, 6.10.4
willful intent, 10.4.6.1
STANDING
credit repair organizations, suits against, 17.2.8.2.1
FCRA claims, 11.2.1.3
certification, 11.2.1.3.9
class actions, 11.2.3.3.6
defense, 12.3.1.3
inaccuracies, 11.2.1.3.3
notices, 11.2.1.3.6, 11.2.1.3.8, 11.2.1.3.10
obsolete information, 11.2.1.3.11
permissible purpose, 11.2.1.3.2
reinvestigation, 11.2.1.3.5
Spokeo v. Robins, 11.2.1.3
stand-alone disclosures, 11.2.1.3.7
theft of personal data, 11.2.1.3.13
toll-free number, 11.2.1.3.12
truncation requirements, 11.2.1.3.4
STATE AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
child support purposes, permissible users, 7.2.9
see also CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
FCRA
application, 2.5.8
enforcement agencies, see STATE ENFORCEMENT
FCRA claims against, 11.2.2.2
privacy protections, 18.2
STATE CLAIMS
damages
generally, 11.1
nominal damages, 12.5.2.4
statutory damages, 12.5.3.3
federal preemption, see PREEMPTION OF STATE LAWS
generally, 10.6.1
identity theft, 9.5.1, 9.6, 10.6.3
injunctive relief, 12.6
jury trials, 12.2
private remedies, 11.1
removal to federal court, 11.4.5
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, 12.3.1.8
statute of limitations, 12.3.1.3.2
supplemental jurisdiction, 11.4.2
unfair and deceptive practices, 10.6.2
STATE COURTS
FCRA claims
jurisdiction, 11.4.1
removal to federal court, 11.4.5
selection of court, 11.4.4
STATE CREDIT REPAIR STATUTES
see STATE CREDIT SERVICES (REPAIR) STATUTES
STATE CREDIT REPORTING STATUTES
see also STATE LAW
claims under, see STATE CLAIMS
furnishing of information, 5.8
generally, 10.6.1
identity theft, 4.4.6.7
investigative reports
disclosure, 15.4.1.3
insurance purposes, 15.3.1
landlord and tenant purposes, 15.3.3
preemption, see PREEMPTION OF STATE LAW
summary, Appx. H
STATE CREDIT SERVICES (REPAIR) STATUTES
see also CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS; STATE LAW
federal preemption, 17.2.10, 17.3.8
enforcement
private causes of action, 17.3.6
state enforcement, 17.3.7
overview, 17.1.2, 17.3.1
retailers, application, 17.3.4
scope
coverage, 17.3.2
exemptions, 17.3.3
surprising reach, 17.1.3
substantive prohibitions, 17.3.5
summaries, Appx. H
STATE ENFORCEMENT
CFPB Rules, 13.7.2
child support, see CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
credit repair statutes, 17.3.7
CROA, 17.2.11, 17.3.7
FCRA, 13.2.1, 13.7
coordination with federal agencies, 13.7.4
generally, 13.7.1
information furnishers, 13.7.3
investigatory powers, 13.7.5
limitations, 13.7.3, 13.7.4
national banks and thrifts, 13.7.2
generally, 13.1
GLBA, 18.4.1.2
STATE LAW
claims under, see STATE CLAIMS
consumer file disclosure, fees, 3.3.9, 3.3.10.2, 10.7.7
consumer reporting restrictions, 5.8
child support debts, 5.8.2
cosigners, 5.6.3
generally, 5.8.1
summaries, Appx. H
credit repair statutes, see STATE CREDIT SERVICES (REPAIR) STATUTES
credit reporting statutes, see STATE CREDIT REPORTING STATUTES
deceptive practices statutes, 10.6.2
disclosure requirements, 8.14.2
federal preemption, see PREEMPTION OF STATE LAW
furnishers of information, 6.2.2.3
identity theft
criminal statutes, 9.4.1
model laws, 9.4.3
protections, 4.4.6.7
security freezes, 9.4.4, 14.6.6.2
suits under, 9.5.1
summaries, Appx. H
insurance laws can prohibit arbitration, 12.4.2.3
insurance scores, 16.11
investigative reports, 15.7
necessaries doctrine, 7.4.6.2, 7.6.1
privacy protections, 18.4.2.5
governmental intrusion, 18.2
summaries, Appx. H
telemarketing, 17.1.2
utility services, 14.7.4
STATE LICENSING BOARDS
see also LICENSES
consumer report
adverse action notice, 8.5.4.5
permissible use, 7.2.4.2
STATEMENT OF DISPUTE
see also DISPUTED INFORMATION; EXPLANATIONS
consumer rights, 4.8.1, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
enforcement of rights, 8.17.4.3
investigative consumer reports, 15.5.2
nature and content, 8.17.4.1
overview, 4.8.1.1
time and manner, 4.8.1.2, 8.17.4.2
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
CROA violations, 17.2.8.10
FCRA violations, 12.3.1.3.1
discovery rule, 12.3.1.3.1.4
equitable tolling, 12.3.1.3.1.5
inaccurate information, 4.4.5.1.1, 12.3.1.3.1.3
new or continuing violations, 12.3.1.3.1.3
reinvestigation provisions, 4.5.7, 6.10.7, 12.3.1.3.1.3
state claims, 12.3.1.3.2
suits and judgments, effect on reporting limitations, 5.2.3.5
tolling, 12.3.1.3.1.5
tort claims, 12.3.1.3.2
STATUTES
CCPA, see CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
CROA, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
ECOA, see EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
FACTA, see FAIR AND ACCURATE CREDIT TRANSACTIONS ACT (FACTA)
FCBA, see FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
FCRA, see FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
FDCPA, see FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
GLBA, see GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT (GLBA)
Higher Education Act, see HIGHER EDUCATION ACT
military personnel, see SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
Privacy Act, see PRIVACY ACT
RESPA, see REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (RESPA)
state, see STATE CREDIT REPORTING STATUTES; STATE LAW
telemarketing, see TELEMARKETING AND CONSUMER FRAUD ABUSE PREVENTION ACT
UDAP, see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAP)
STATUTORY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
STOLEN INFORMATION
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
status of entity stolen from, 2.5.5
STUDENT LOANS
blemished credit record, implications, 14.7.8
defaults
clearing up, 14.6.5, 14.7.8
reporting, 5.2.3.10, 14.4.5, 14.6.5
defenses, raising, 14.4.5, 14.6.5
deferments, effect on credit scores, 16.8.2.4
FCRA enforcement authority, 13.2.4.3
Higher Education Act, application, 5.2.3.10, 14.6.5
Metro 2 Format reporting, 6.3.3.10
reporting limitations, 5.2.3.10
STUDIES AND SURVEYS
consumer report accuracy, 4.1.3
SUBPOENAS
consumer reports, obtaining by, 7.2.1, 7.2.10.3, 12.1.3.10
SUBPRIME CREDIT
credit cards, 14.7.6
mortgage loans, 14.7.2.1
SUITS
see ACTIONS; COLLECTION SUITS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS; PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
SUMMARY OF CONSUMER IDENTITY THEFT RIGHTS
contents, 8.3.1
enforcement of notice rights, 8.3.2
entitlement, 8.3.2, 9.2.2.1.1, 9.2.2.5
model form, 8.3.1, Appx. C.4
SUMMARY OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
contents, 8.2.1
disclosure inclusion, 3.5.4.1, 8.2.2
employment reports, 7.2.4.3.3, 8.11.3.1
enforcement of notice rights, 8.2.2
model form, 8.2.1, Appx. C.3
state law, preemption by FCRA, 10.7
time and manner of notice, 8.2.2
SUMMARY OF RESPONSIBILITIES OF FURNISHERS
model form, Appx. C.6
requirement to provide, 6.2.1, 8.16.1
SUMMARY OF USER RESPONSIBILITIES
model form, Appx. C.7
requirement to provide, 7.1.5, 8.17.2
SUPERBUREAUS
see RESELLERS
SUPPLEMENTAL JURISDICTION
see also JURISDICTION
FCRA actions, 11.4.2
SURETIES
see COSIGNERS
TARGETED MARKETING LISTS
see also PRESCREENED REPORTS
FCRA, application, 2.3.4.2.3, 7.3.2.2
legislative history, 1.4.6
permissible use, 7.1.9, 7.3.2.2, 7.3.3
TAX COLLECTION
see also INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
consumer reports, use, 7.2.3.4.1, 7.2.3.4.3, 7.4.3
TAX LIENS
see also PUBLIC RECORD INFORMATION
consumer report, permissible purpose, 7.2.3.4.3, 7.4.3
reporting limitations, 5.2.3.6
TAX PREPARATION SERVICES
credit services organization status, 17.3.2
GLBA, application, 18.4.1.3
TELECHECK
see CHECK APPROVAL COMPANIES
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT
privacy protections, 18.4.2.1
TELEMARKETING
credit card offers, 14.7.6
federal statute, see TELEMARKETING AND CONSUMER FRAUD ABUSE PREVENTION ACT
FTC rule, see TELEMARKETING RULE (FTC)
National Do Not Call Registry, 17.1.2, 17.4.1, 17.4.2
state law, 17.1.2
Telephone Consumer Protection Act, application, 17.4.2
TELEMARKETING AND CONSUMER FRAUD ABUSE PREVENTION ACT
FTC rule, see TELEMARKETING RULE (FTC)
overview, 17.4.1
TELEMARKETING RULE (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC); TELEMARKETING
credit repair agencies
application, 17.1.2, 17.4.1
enforcement against, 17.2.11
overview, 17.4.1
violations, 17.4.1
TELEPHONE
assistance by reporting agencies, 3.6.3, 3.6.4
companies, see TELEPHONE COMPANIES
directories, see TELEPHONE DIRECTORIES
disclosures via, 3.6.2
disputing information via, 4.5.2.4.2
services, see TELEPHONE COMPANIES
TELEPHONE COMPANIES
see also UTILITY SERVICE
disputed charges, 14.4.3
FCRA application, 2.7.10
records, “pretexting” protections, 18.4.2.1
TELEPHONE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT
credit repair clinics, application, 17.1.2, 17.4.2
overview, 17.4.2
TELEPHONE DIRECTORIES
consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.1, 2.3.5.3
TELETYPE HOOKUPS
see ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION
TENANT SCREENING COMPANIES
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
contact information, 3.4.2.3
FCRA, application, 2.3.6.3.3, 2.6.2
identification, 14.7.3
nationwide agencies, 2.6.2
reports by, see TENANT SCREENING REPORTS
TENANT SCREENING REPORTS
adverse use, notice, 8.5.4.6.3, 8.6.1.2
blemished report, implications, 14.7.3, 14.7.7
consumer report status, 2.3.4.1, 2.3.6.3.3
financially troubled consumer, 14.7.9
inaccuracy, 14.7.3
investigative consumer report, status, 15.3.3
obtaining by consumer, 3.4.2.3
permissible use, 2.3.6.3.3, 2.3.6.8, 7.2.8.2.2.2
agents, 7.1.6
rental payment subsidies, 7.2.6, 14.7.9
use by landlords, 14.7.3
TENANTS
see also LANDLORDS; RESIDENTIAL LEASES
denial of lease, notice, 8.5.4.6.3, 8.6.1.2
rent collection, 7.2.3.4.1
reports regarding, see TENANT SCREENING REPORTS
TERRORISM
counterterrorism, consumer report access, 7.2.10.5
FBI access, 7.2.10.4
TESTERS
FCRA violations, use, 12.1.2
THEFT
see FRAUD; IDENTITY THEFT; STOLEN INFORMATION
THIRD PARTIES
creditors, obtaining information from non-reporting agencies, 2.3.2, 3.3.15, 8.6
FCRA claims, 12.3
information on in consumer’s file, 3.5.1.6, 4.2.5, 4.3.3.1
reinvestigation requests, 4.5.2.5
relatives, see RELATIVES
reporting to, consumer report status, 2.5.5
reports on, impermissible purpose, 7.4.6.1, 14.2.5
requests for credit for consumer, 2.4.6
spouses, see SPOUSES
THREATS
false threats
debt collectors, 5.2.3.4.7, 14.3
investigative consumer report, 15.4.1.2
obsolete information, reporting, 5.2.3.4.7
reporting debt to credit bureau, 14.3
TIME LIMITS
see also STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
active military duty alerts, 9.2.2.4
adverse action notice, 8.6.1.3
employment situations, 8.11.3.2
adverse information reporting, 5.2.1.1, 5.2.3, 6.7, 14.6.4.1
bankruptcies, 5.2.3.8, 14.6.8
criminal records, 5.2.3.7
delinquent accounts, 5.2.3.3, 5.2.3.4, 14.6.4.1
exemptions, 5.2.4
judgments, 5.2.3.5
obsolete information, 5.2.1.1, 5.2.2.1, 5.2.3
public record information, 5.2.3.5–5.2.3.7
repayment agreements, effect, 5.2.3.4
student loans, 5.2.3.10
suits, 5.2.3.5
tax liens, 5.2.3.6
consumer file disclosure, 3.3.10.3
fraud alerts
extended alerts, 9.2.2.3.1
initial alerts, 9.2.2.2
investigative consumer reports
disclosure, 15.4.2.4
notice of investigation, 15.4.1.2
reinvestigations, 6.10.6.5
risk-based pricing notice, 8.7.4.1
TOLL-FREE NUMBERS
CFPB, consumer complaints, 13.3.5
FTC, consumer complaints, 13.3.5
nationwide reporting agencies, requirement, 3.6.4
TORT CLAIMS
advantages, 10.5.1
appropriation, 18.3.5
attorney fees, 12.7.3
consumer reporting issues, 6.11, 10.4, 10.5
false information required, 10.4.6.4
malice or willful intent required, 10.4.6
defamation, 10.5.2
false light, 18.3.1
FCRA preemption, 10.7.4
FCRA qualified immunity, 6.11, 10.4, 10.7.4, 18.3.2
see also QUALIFIED IMMUNITY
exceptions, 10.4.6
identity theft, 9.5.1, 9.5.2
intrusion, 18.3.4
invasion of privacy, 10.5.3, 18.3
negligence, 10.5.4
public disclosure, 18.3.3
punitive damages, 12.5.4.1.1
qualified privilege defense, 10.5.2, 10.5.4
statute of limitations, 12.3.1.3.2
utilizing, 6.11
TRADE EXPERIENCE
exchanging, FCRA exemption, 2.4.2
TRANSCRIPTION ERRORS
see also INACCURATE INFORMATION
consumer files, 4.4.6.8
TRANSFERS
see SALES
TRANSUNION
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES; NATIONWIDE REPORTING AGENCIES
consumer disputes, processing, 4.5.6.4
consumer files, 3.2.3
contents, 3.2.3.2
sources of information, 3.2.3.3
contact information, 3.4.2.2, 4.5.2.4.2
credit scores
FICO variations, 16.4.5.3
in-house educational scores, 16.4.5.2
obtaining, 16.4.1.4, 16.4.1.5
VantageScore, 16.2.2.2, 16.4.5.2
discovery, 12.1.3.2.3
FCRA, application, 2.7.1
special provisions, 2.6.1
FTC enforcement orders, Appx. L.4
liability insurance, 12.1.3.11
overview, 1.2.2
sample credit report, Appx. I.1.3
toll-free number with accessible personnel, 3.6.3, 3.6.4
TRIALS
see ACTIONS; DISCOVERY; JURY TRIALS; LITIGATION; WITNESSES
TRIGGER LISTS
see also ACCOUNT ACTIVITY; PRESCREENED REPORTS
consumer report status, 2.3.4.2.4
TRUCKERS
database services, 2.6.4
employment reports. 8.11.1.2.2
FCRA, application, 2.6.4, 8.11.1.2.2
TRUTH IN LENDING ACT
arbitration restrictions, 12.4.2.3
credit card protections, 5.3.4, 14.4.2
TRW
see EXPERIAN (TRW)
UNCONSCIONABILITY
arbitration clauses, 12.4.3.4
UNEMPLOYED PERSONS
consumer file disclosure, free reports, 3.3.8
UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAP)
actions, forum, 11.4.5
credit repair organizations, 17.1.2, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
FCRA violations, 10.6.2
FTC Act, 18.4.2.3
injunctive relief, 12.6
nominal damages, 12.5.2.4
non-FCRA violations, 10.6.2
state law, 10.6.2
statute of limitations, 12.3.1.3.2
statutory damages, 12.5.3.3
waiver of rights, 15.4.5
UNIVERSAL DATA FORM
electronic processing system, 3.4.6.1, 6.10.1.2
sample form, Appx. I.2
use by furnishers, 6.3.2.5
correcting inaccuracies, 6.5.4
USA PATRIOT ACT
effect on privacy, 18.2
FBI access to credit information, 1.4.8, 1.4.10.1
USERS OF REPORTS
see also CONSUMER REPORTS
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
alerts
active military duty, 9.2.2.4
duties, 9.2.2.5
fraud alerts, 9.2.2.2, 9.2.2.3.3
arbitration of disputes with, 12.4.2.4
certification, 7.5.1, 7.5.2, 15.4.1.5
corrected information, notification, 4.6.4, 4.9
criminal liability, 13.6
definition, 2.1.2, 7.1.4.2
disclosure, 3.5.4.3, 3.7.3
FBI exemption, 3.5.4.3.2, 7.2.10.4
disposal of information, 9.2.5.3
disputed information, notification, 4.8.1, 4.8.2, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
past users, 4.9
employers, see EMPLOYERS
false pretenses, 7.7.3, 7.7.4, 13.6
FBI, 3.5.4.3.2, 7.2.1, 7.2.10.4
FCRA application, 2.1.2
FCRA requirements, notice to user, 7.1.5, 8.17.2
FTC model form, Appx. C.7
FCRA violations, 7.7, 10.2.1.4, 10.2.1.5
FTC enforcement orders, Appx. L.8
gossip, 14.2.2
identification, 7.5.1, 7.5.2
impermissible purposes, 7.7
mistaken use, 7.1.4.1, 7.7.1
inquiries leading to mixed files, 4.3.3.5
inquiries, records of, retention, 7.5.5
prescreened inquiries, 5.2.3.9
inquiries to “big three” nationwide agencies, 3.2.3.2.5
investigative reports
certification, 15.4.1.5
notice of request, 15.4.1.2
violations, 10.2.1.5
joint users, 2.4.6, 2.5.6
landlords, see LANDLORDS
liability, see under LIABILITY
medical information, 5.4
notice obligations
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION NOTICE
employment reports, 8.11
investigative reports, 15.4.1.2
risk-based pricing, 8.5.4.3.4
violations, 10.2.1.4
notice to, 8.17
address discrepancy, 8.17.3, 9.2.6.3
corrected information, 4.9, 8.17.4
disputed information, 4.8.1, 4.8.2, 8.17.4, 14.4.7
duties under FCRA, 7.1.5, 8.17.2, Appx. C.7
past users, updated reports, 4.6.4, 4.9
permissible purposes only, 7.1.4
see also PERMISSIBLE PURPOSES
misrepresentations, 7.7.1, 7.7.3
prescreening lists, differentiation, 7.1.8
providing report to consumer, 3.3.1
qualified immunity, 18.3.2
record retention, 12.1.5
disposal of records, 9.2.5.3
regulation, 1.3.1
restrictions, 7.1.2, 7.1.4
state law, federal preemption, 10.7.3.4, 10.7.8.3
Summary of Responsibilities, FTC model form, Appx. C.7
verification of, 7.5.1, 7.5.2
written permission, 7.2.2
UTILITY SERVICES
see also PUBLIC UTILITY CREDIT
blemished credit record, implications, 14.7.4
disputed charges, 14.4.3
VENUE
removal to federal court, 11.4.5
VERIFICATION
see also CERTIFICATION; IDENTIFICATION; REINVESTIGATIONS (CRA)
consumer files, information, 4.2.6
consumer identity, 3.4.3, 3.6.2, 9.2.2.1.2
consumer reports, users, 7.5.3, 5.2.5.4
delinquent debts, 14.4.6
disputed information, 14.6.4.1, 14.6.4.7
investigative consumer reports, information
personal interviews, 15.6.2.1
public record information, 15.6.2.2
re-use, 15.6.2.3
loan application information, 8.6.1.4.2
obsolete information, 5.2.4
obsolete information exemption, 5.2.5.4
public record information, 15.6.2.2
reasonable procedures, 7.5.3
resellers, 7.5.3
reverification, 15.6.2.3
VETERANS ADMINISTRATION (VA)
underwriting guidelines, 14.7.2.1
WAIVER
see also CONSENT
arbitration clauses, 12.4.3.3
consumer reports, written permission, effect,