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ABUSE OF PRODUCT
see MISUSE OF PRODUCT
ACCEPTANCE
see also REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
acts inconsistent with seller’s ownership, 8.2.4
determination, generally, 8.2.1
failure to reject after opportunity to inspect
contractual specifications of time, 8.2.2.3
reasonable time to inspect, 8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.2
seasonable notice of rejection, 8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.5
seller’s conduct extending time period, 8.2.2.4
nonconforming goods, damages
consequential damages, 10.5.3
direct damages, 10.4
incidental damages, 10.5.2
nonconforming goods, justification, 8.3.3
repair assumption, 8.3.3.2
unaware of defect, 8.3.3.3
reacceptance
failure to return goods as, 8.2.3
use of goods as, 8.4.6.1
signification of acceptance, 8.2.3
payment for goods, 8.2.3.4
repair of goods, 8.2.3.2
resale of goods, 8.2.3.5
use of goods, 8.2.3.3
ACCESSORIES
dealer installed, lemon law application, 14.2.4.4
ACCIDENTS
economic loss damages, 12.2.4
lemon law cancellations, after, liability, 14.2.8.10
manufactured home transport, 17.7
new cars prior to delivery, 14.6
rejection of goods after, 8.2.2.2
safety standards, see SAFETY STANDARDS
ACTIONS
see also BUYER’S REMEDIES
auto repair statutes, under, 19.9.3.2.4
breach of contract, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
breach of good faith, 11.3.4, 15.8.5
breach of warranty, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
collection actions, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
consumer protection, see CONSUMER PROTECTION CLAIMS
damages, see DAMAGES
defenses, see DEFENSES
evidence, see EVIDENCE
HOEPA, 17.8.2.5.3
lemon law claims, 14.2.10
limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
Magnuson-Moss Act, see MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
manufactured homes, 17.3.6, 17.3.7, 17.8
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
preservation of claims and defenses, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
RESPA, 17.8.2.5.4
TILA, 17.8.2.5.2
torts, see TORT CLAIMS
UCC, see UCC CLAIMS
UDAP, see UDAP CLAIMS
warranty claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
ACTUAL DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
ADMIRALTY LAW
federal preemption of state law, 1.7.4
ADMISSIONS
defective condition at delivery, 7.5.3
requests for admissions, see REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS
ADR
see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS; INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
ADVERTISEMENTS
admissibility of evidence, 3.7.6
consumer product, 2.2.1.2
deceptive advertising, 11.1.6
express warranties
affirmation of fact or promise, 3.2.2.5, 3.2.3, 3.5.1
description of goods, 3.3
manufacturer’s liability, 6.2.3
presumption, 3.5.3
written warranty status, 6.2.2
UDAP claims, 3.2.2.3
AESTHETICS
implied warranty of merchantability, application, 4.2.3.2.3
substantial impairment, 8.3.2.4
AFFILIATED LESSORS
see also LESSORS; RELATED CREDITORS
liability based on close-connectedness, 21.6.2.3
AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
see also EXPRESS WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
advertisements as, 3.2.2.5, 3.2.3, 3.5.1
basis of bargain, requirement, 3.5
breach of warranty, 7.3.5.1.1, 7.3.5.1.2
brochures, 3.2.2.5
characteristics, 3.2.2.2
condition, 3.2.2.2
condominiums, 18.5.1
conduct as, 3.2.2.6
creation, elements, 3.2.1
description of goods warranty, overlap, 3.3
form, 3.2.2.5
future actions of seller, 3.2.2.4.2
future performance of product, 3.2.2.4.3
gas mileage, 3.2.2.3
generally, 3.2.2.1
knowledgeable buyer, effect, 3.8.2
labels, 3.2.2.5
opinions as, 3.2.2.7
pictures as, 3.2.2.6
post-sale statements, 3.6
pre-sale inspection, effect, 3.8.2
prior repairs or maintenance, 3.2.2.3
product itself as, 3.2.2.6
promises, 3.2.2.4
puffing as, 3.2.2.7
quality, 3.2.2.2
relationship to goods, requirement, 3.2.4
reliance, necessity, 3.5.2
repair or replace, 3.2.2.4.2
sample or model warranty, distinguished, 3.4.1
scope, 3.2.1, 3.2.3
seller to buyer, requirement, 3.2.3
third party statements, 3.2.3
value, 3.2.2.8
written warranties as, 3.2.1
AGENCY
buyer as agent for consumer, 6.3.5
dealer as manufacturer’s agent, 6.2.5.2, 8.3.2.6
discovery requests, 13.5.2
service contract sellers, 2.3.2.2.2
AGREEMENTS
see CONTRACTS
AIR CONDITIONERS
see also CONSUMER PRODUCTS; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
personal property status, 2.2.1.5
AIRCRAFT
consumer product status, 2.2.1.3
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.4
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR)
see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS; INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
ANTI-THEFT (“ETCH”) PRODUCTS
see VEHICLE (“ETCH”) PROTECTION PRODUCTS
APPLIANCES
see CONSUMER PRODUCTS
ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
cancellation of contract, effect, 13.4.7.2
classwide arbitration, 13.4.8
designation of service provider, 13.4.5
disclosure requirements, 13.4.4
enforceability, 13.4.2, 13.4.6
FTC Rules, application, 2.8.1.4
generally, 13.4.1
implied warranties, 13.4.5
informal arbitration, see INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
Magnuson-Moss claims, 13.4.4–13.4.6
mandatory clauses, validity, 2.7.2.6, 2.8.1, 13.4.4, 13.4.6
manufactured home sales, 13.4.3
self-help remedies, application, 13.4.7.1
service contracts, 13.4.4.5, 20.5.3
written warranties, effect, 13.4.4–13.4.6
ARTICLE 2 (UCC)
see also UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC); WARRANTIES (UCC)
case law, application to consumers, 1.4.1
computer software, application, 1.5.4
goods, application, 1.5.1
used goods, 1.5.3
house sales, application, 1.5.6, 18.1
leases, application, 1.5.8
sale of goods warranties, 21.2.2
lenient standards for consumers, 1.8.2.2
manufactured homes, application, 17.2.1
mixed transactions, application, 1.5.5, 19.3
modular homes, application, 17.2.1, 18.1
overview, 1.2.2
revised version, now withdrawn, 1.3, 3.1
sales, application, 1.5.2
scope issues, 1.5
selected provisions and comments, Appx. E.3
service transactions, application, 1.5.5, 19.2.2, 19.2.3
utility service, application, 1.5.7
ARTICLE 2A (UCC)
see also CONSUMER LEASES; UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
assignee obligations, 21.6.1
case law, application to consumers, 1.4.1
disclaimers, 21.3.4
finance leases, different treatments, 21.3.2
lessor-lessee warranty obligations, 21.3
overview, 1.2.3, 21.2.1
revised version, now withdrawn, 1.3
scope, 21.2.1
selected provisions and comments, Appx. E.4
states enacting, 1.2.3, 21.2.1
unconscionability provisions, 21.2.6
warranty provisions, 21.2.1, 21.3
“AS IS” DISCLAIMERS
see also DISCLAIMERS
alternative language, 5.5
conspicuousness, 5.8.7–5.8.9, 15.4.4
consumer transactions, application, 5.11.2
express warranties, effect, 5.2, 15.3.1
failure to examine, effect on validity, 5.9, 5.11.2
fraud claims, effect, 11.4.1.2, 13.8.3.3, 15.8.4
implied warranties, effect, 5.5, 15.4.3, 15.4.4
language requirements, 5.8.9, 5.9
merchantability, 15.4.2
new home warranties, 18.3.7
overview, 1.9.2.1
post-sale receipt, 5.7
seller’s conduct invalidating, 5.11.3
tort claims, effect on, 5.15.1, 12.1
usage of trade, application, 5.11.2
used cars
avoiding, 15.3, 15.4.3, 15.4.4, 15.4.5, 15.8.4
disclosure, 15.4.4
form, 5.10.3
FTC requirements, 5.7, 5.8.8, 5.10.3, 15.4.5, 15.6
meaning of term, 5.11.2
validity, circumstances, 5.11
ASSIGNEES
see also INDIRECT SELLERS; NONBUYERS
FTC Holder Rule, 8.4.5.3, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.5, 8.5.6
leases, 21.6.1.2, 21.6.1.3
manufactured home sales, 17.8.2.6
leases, warranty liability, 21.6.1
liability for damages, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.5, 8.5.6
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.4
manufactured home claims against, 17.8.2.6
notice of breach to, 7.2.2.6, 8.5.5
security interests in canceled sales, 2.5.3.3, 8.4.5.3
service contracts, 20.10
warranty rights, 6.3.4
withholding payments from, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.6
leases, 21.6.1.1
notice, 8.5.5
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGICAL (AT) DEVICE WARRANTY LAWS
see also MEDICAL DEVICES
affirmative defenses, 16.7.2
federal preemption, 16.3
generally, 16.1
“lemon” device, defined, 16.4
lemon laundering, 16.7.3
liberal construction, 16.1
other causes of action, 16.7.4
remedies, 16.7.1
repair attempts, 16.4
scope, 16.2
standing, 16.6
warranty provisions, 16.5
ASSUMPTION OF RISK
see also CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE
defense to negligence action, 12.4.4
defense to warranty action, 7.7.2.3
pleading, 13.3.12
ATTEMPT TO REPAIR
see REPAIR ATTEMPTS
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
awards by judge not jury, 13.8.1
breach of contract claims, 10.7, 13.9
breach of warranty claims, 2.7.8.3, 13.9
Buckhannon decision, 2.7.8.6
consumer leases, unconscionability claims, 21.2.6
entitlement, 13.9
evidence of claims for, 13.8.3.9
initial client contact, explaining, 13.1.1
intertwined claims, 2.7.8.5, 14.2.10.10.1
lemon laws, 1.9.5, 13.9, 14.2.10.10
calculating, 14.2.10.10.4
costs and expenses, 14.2.10.10.5
generally, 14.2.10.10.1
informal dispute mechanisms, 14.2.9.3
refund component, 14.2.8.7.1
settled cases, 14.2.10.10.3
used car claims, 15.5.2.8
Magnuson-Moss claims, 1.9.5, 2.7.8, 10.7, 13.9
availability, 2.7.8.2
Buckhannon application, 2.7.8.6.2
calculation, 2.7.8.4
closely related claims, 2.7.8.5
costs and expenses, 2.7.2.1, 2.7.8.8
failure to plead claim, 2.7.8.3
federal court jurisdiction and, 2.7.2.1, 2.7.8.1
general standards, 2.7.8.1
prevailing defendant, 2.7.8.7
settlements, 2.7.8.6
manufactured home cases, 13.9, 17.8.7
new home cases, 18.7.8
condominiums, 18.5.1
question of law, 13.8.1.6
settlements, preserving, 2.7.8.6, 13.7.7
state-law claims, 2.7.8.5, 13.9
settlement, 2.7.8.6.5
UCC claims, 1.9.5, 2.7.8.5, 10.7, 13.9
UDAP claims, 1.9.5, 10.7, 11.1.1.2, 13.9
warranty litigation, 1.9.5, 2.7.8, 10.7, 13.9
AUCTIONEERS
see also AUCTIONS
defective product liability, 12.3.2
merchant status, 4.2.2.2
AUCTIONS
see also AUCTIONEERS
FTC Used Car Rule, application, 15.6.2.3
refused goods, sales for seller’s account, 8.4.4.5
AUTOMOBILE BREAKDOWN
see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN
AUTOMOBILE DEALERSHIPS
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES; DEALERS
bankruptcy, 15.9.4
bonding, 15.9.2
claims against, creditor liability, 15.9.1
compensation fund, 15.9.3
leases, warranty rules
lessor dealers, 21.3
non-lessor dealers, 21.5
lemon law liability, 14.2.3.7, 14.2.4.3
negligent repairs, manufacturer’s liability, 19.9.5.1
service manager, deposing, 14.9.4.2.3
service technicians, deposing, 14.9.4.2.4
used cars, see USED CAR DEALERS
AUTOMOBILE LEASES
see also CONSUMER LEASES
finance leases, see CONSUMER FINANCE LEASES
FTC Used Car Rule, application, 15.6.2.2
lemon laws, application, 21.2.4
new cars, 14.2.3.4
refund remedy, 14.2.8.7.4
used cars, 15.5.2.2
state law, 21.2.7
types, 21.1.2
AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS
see MANUFACTURERS
AUTOMOBILE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
see also AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
administrative enforcement, 19.9.3.2.5
certification requirements, 19.9.3.4
disclosure requirements, 19.9.3.2.2
licensing requirements, 19.9.3.3
other requirements, 19.9.3.2.3
overview, 19.9.3.1
private remedies, 19.9.3.2.4
scope, 19.9.3.2.1
AUTOMOBILE REPAIR SHOPS
see also AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
claims against, 19.9.3.2.4
customer rights, posting, 19.9.3.2.3
licensing, 19.9.3.3
mechanics, certification, 19.9.3.4
refusal to return car, 19.9.1
written warranties, 19.9.2
AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
see also AUTOMOBILE REPAIR SHOPS; SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
common law implied warranties, 19.4.3
credit card payments, stopping, 19.9.1.2
disclosure requirements, 19.9.2, 19.9.3.2.2, 19.9.4
estimates, authorizations, 19.9.3.2.2, 19.9.4
extended warranties, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
insurance, see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE
non-warranty repairs by authorized dealers, 19.9.5.1
parts and labor warranty, 19.9.2
replaced parts, return, 19.9.3.2.2, 19.9.3.2.3, 19.9.4
state law, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
statutory liens, 19.9.1.1
statutory prohibitions, 19.9.3.2.3
UDAP regulations, 19.9.4
AUTOMOBILE SALES
see also AUTOMOBILE DEALERSHIPS; NEW CARS
canceled sales
steps prior to return of auto, 8.4.3
use after, 8.4.6.3
definition, 14.2.3.4
demonstrators, new car status, 14.2.3.3
disclosure requirements, 14.2.5.4
gray market, 14.7
warranty of title, 4.5.1
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
new car warranties, overview, 14.1
used cars, see USED CAR SALES
AUTOMOBILES
see MOTOR VEHICLES
AVIATION LAW
federal preemption of state law, 1.7.4
BAD FAITH
see also GOOD FAITH
buyers’ remedies, 11.3.4, 15.8.5
cure, exercise of rights, 8.2.7.6
disclaimers, validity, 5.13
seller’s conduct invalidating, 5.11.3
insurance contracts, 20.3.1, 20.5.6
lien clearance impracticable, 2.5.3.2
limited remedy clauses, 9.10
merger clauses, 3.7.2.9.2
sellers, 11.3
service contracts, 20.3.1, 20.5.6
unconscionability distinguished, 11.3.5
warranty repairs, 7.7.4.1, 7.7.4.3
BAILMENT CONTRACTS
claims for breach, 19.6
BANKRUPTCY
see also INSOLVENCY
dealers, 15.9.4
defendants after settlement, 13.7.5
General Motors and Chrysler, 14.9.3
home improvement contractors, 19.8.7
service contractors, 20.7.2
BASIS OF THE BARGAIN
see also BENEFIT OF THE BARGAIN
awareness of statement, 3.5.4
bargain, definition, 3.5.1
disclaimers, 5.10.1
express warranties
affirmation of fact or promise, 3.5
description of goods, 3.3
layered contracting, 3.6.2
leases, 2.2.6.8
Magnuson-Moss coverage, necessity, 2.2.3.5
post-sale statements as, 3.6
modification of original bargain, 3.6.3.2.1, 3.6.3.2.2
presumption, 3.5.3
reliance not required, 3.5.2
sophistication of consumer, 3.5.4
statements made during bargaining, 3.5.3
BENEFICIARIES
third party, see THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES
BENEFIT OF THE BARGAIN
see also BASIS OF THE BARGAIN
breach of warranty damages, 10.4.1
new home cases, 18.7.3.2–18.7.3.4
BINDING ARBITRATION
see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
BLOOD PRODUCTS
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3
BLUE BOOKS
evidence of damages, 10.4.8
BOATS
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.4
BONDING
car dealers, 15.9.2
home improvement contractors, 19.8.7.2
manufactured home dealers, 17.4.2, 17.8.8
service contractors, 20.3.1, 20.7.2
BRAND NAMES
implied warranty of merchantability, 4.2.1
BREACH OF CONTRACT
see also CONTRACTS
attorney fees, 10.7, 13.9
bailment contracts, 19.6
common law warranty breach as, 19.4.2
contractual limitations on remedies, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
cure, refusal of rightful cure as, 8.2.7.8
damages
see also DAMAGES
deduction from outstanding balance, 8.5
punitive damages, 10.6
defenses, see CONTRACT DEFENSES
home improvement contracts, 19.8.2, 19.8.3
material breach, substantial impairment, similarity, 8.3.2.2
new home sales, 18.7.1.3
notice, specification of time period, 7.2.4
service contracts, 20.5.2
statute of limitations, 7.6.1, 7.6.9
warranty claim alternative, 5.15.4
warranty remedies displace, 1.9.1.1
BREACH OF WARRANTY
see also DEFECTIVE GOODS; NONCONFORMITY
actions, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
admissions by seller or manufacturer, 7.5.3
affirmations of fact, 7.3.5.1.1, 7.3.5.1.2
attorney fees, 2.7.8, 10.7, 13.9
bad faith as, 11.3.4
burden of proof, 1.9.3, 7.4.1
cancellation rights, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
cause of action, accrual, 7.6.1, 7.6.3
causes other than defect at delivery, negating, 7.5.2
circumstantial evidence, sufficiency, 7.4.2
claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
common law warranties, 19.4
consumer products, examples, 7.3.6.1
contract claim alternative, 5.15.4
contractual limitations on remedies, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
damages, see DAMAGES
deductions from outstanding balance, 8.5
defenses, see DEFENSES
determination, 7.3
disclaimers, see DISCLAIMERS
evidence, see EVIDENCE
express warranties
future performance warranties, 3.2.2.4, 7.3.5.2
present characteristic warranties, 3.2.2.2, 7.3.5.1
questions of fact, 13.8.1.2
fitness for particular purpose, proof, 4.3.4, 7.3.7
future performance warranties
breach of promise, 3.2.2.4
cause of action, accrual, 7.6.3.1
generally, 7.3.5.2
overview, 7.3.3
standards, interpretation, 7.3.5.2.3
habitability, 18.3.6.2
home improvement products, examples, 7.3.6.1
implied warranties, 2.3.1, 2.3.6.2
new homes, 18.3.6, 18.4.7
questions of fact, 13.8.1.3
inadequate instructions as, 3.2.4
indirect sellers, proving against, 6.2.7, 7.5.1.3
injury to person or property, recovery, 10.5.3.2
latent defects yet to malfunction, 7.3.8
leases
lessor’s warranty, 21.3.5
manufacturer’s warranty, 21.4
retailer’s warranty, 21.5
sources of law, 21.2
lemon laundering, 15.3.7
lemon laws, application, 14.2.4
liability, see LIABILITY
limited remedy clauses, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
litigating, 10
manufactured homes, 17.8
new homes, 18.7
Magnuson-Moss remedies, 2.1.1, 2.3.4, 2.7
manufactured homes
federal standards breach, 17.3.6
litigating, 17.8
merchantability warranty, 7.3.6
circumstantial evidence, use, 7.4.2
examples, 7.3.6.1
new car examples, 14.3.2
model or sample warranty, 7.3.5.1.3
new cars, 14.2.4, 14.3.2
General Motors and Chrysler, 14.9.3
new homes
common law warranties, 18.3.6
litigating, 18.7
notice of defects, 18.3.10, 18.4.7, 18.6.3.3
statutory warranties, 18.4.7
nonconformities not involving, 8.3.2.6
notice of breach, see NOTICE OF BREACH
perfect tender rule, application, 7.3.1
picture warranties, 7.3.5.1.3
pleading, 13.3.5
sample pleadings, Appx. J
present characteristic warranties
breach of statement, 3.2.2.2, 3.2.2.4.3
defective condition at delivery, 7.5
generally, 7.3.5.1
overview, 7.3.3
privity issues, 2.3.5, 2.3.6, 6.1
promise of future performance, 3.2.2.4
proof, see BURDEN OF PROOF; EVIDENCE
proper use and maintenance, 7.5.2
publicity efforts as litigation alternative, 13.2.7
questions of fact, 13.8.1
remedies, overview, 1.9.4
repair or replace remedy
contractual provisions, 9.1, 9.4.2
failure of essential purpose, 9.5.2
purpose, 9.5.2
right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
self-help remedies, see SELF-HELP REMEDIES (UCC)
service contract breach distinguished, 20.5.2
statement of present condition, 3.2.2.2, 3.2.2.4.3
statute of limitations, 7.6
strict liability, 7.3.1
substantial impairment, test, 8.3.2.1–8.3.2.3
title warranty, 4.5.1, 4.5.3
UDAP application, 11.1.1
UDAP violations, 11.1.3
workmanlike construction, 18.3.6.3
written warranties, 2.3.4
BREAKDOWN INSURANCE
see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE; SERVICE CONTRACTS
BROCHURES
affirmation of fact or promise, 3.2.2.5
description of goods warranty, 3.3
disclaimers appearing in, validity, 5.8.6
express warranties, manufacturer’s liability, 6.2.3
written warranty status, 2.2.3.1, 6.2.2
BUILDERS
see also CONSTRUCTION
negligence, 12.4.1.1, 12.4.1.3
new home warranties
common law warranties, 18.3.4.1, 18.3.4.3
disclaimers, 18.3.7
notification of breach, 18.3.10, 18.6.3.3
statutory warranties, 18.4.2, 18.4.3
BUILDING CODES
breach of statutory duty, 12.2.6
home improvement contracts, relevance, 19.8.3
new home warranties, application, 18.3.6.4
BUILDING MATERIALS
see also CONSTRUCTION; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
consumer product status, 1.2.6, 2.2.1.5
goods status, 1.5.7
BUILDINGS
see also HOUSE SALES
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
breach of warranty, 1.9.3, 7.4.1
common law warranties, 19.4.3
notice of breach, 7.2.1
buyer’s conduct as affirmative defense, 7.7.2.1
consequential damages, 10.5.4
cover, improperly obtained, 10.3.3.3, 10.3.4
cure after performance date, acceptability, 8.2.7.3.1
damage, causation-in-fact, 7.4.1
damages for breach
noncanceling buyer, 10.4.2, 10.4.3
canceling buyer, 10.3.4
defects, 14.2.4
responsibility for defect, 6.2.7, 7.5.1.3
definition, 7.4.1
expert evidence, admissibility, 13.8.4.4
express warranties
creation, 5.2
statements not part of bargain, 3.5.3, 3.5.4
federal court jurisdiction, 2.7.2.1
good faith, 11.3.5
goods, predominance in mixed transaction, 19.3.4.1
indirect seller’s breach of warranty, 6.2.7
lemon law arbitration appeals, 14.2.9.2
misuse or neglect, 2.5.7.4, 14.2.4.5
new home warranties, waiver, 18.3.7
offset for use by canceling buyer, 10.3.6.2, 14.2.8.8
leases, 21.3.6.5
original ownership, 2.5.7.5
parol evidence, exclusion, 3.7.1, 3.7.2.2
particular purpose warranty, 4.3.4, 7.3.7
proof of purchase, 2.5.7.5
proximate cause, 7.4.1, 19.4.3
rejection of goods, 8.1.2
repair attempts, reasonable number, 14.2.6.3.4
revocation of acceptance, 8.1.2, 8.3.2.1
leases, 21.3.6.4
timeliness, 8.3.4
sample or model warranty, 3.4.2
substantial change to goods, 8.3.5
substantial impairment of value, 8.3.2.2, 14.2.4.6.4
UCC self-help remedies, 8.1.2
unconscionability, 9.6.1, 11.2.6, 13.8.1
unreasonable use, 2.5.7.4, 14.2.4.5
warranty, existence and terms, 13.3.6
waste doctrine, 18.7.3.4
workmanship standards, 19.4.3
BURGLAR ALARM SYSTEMS
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
BUYERS
see also CONSUMERS; NONBUYERS
commercial buyers, see COMMERCIAL BUYERS
conduct as cause of damage, 7.7.2
assumption of risk, 7.7.2.3
characterization, 7.7.2.1
failure to abide by directions, 7.7.2.5
misuse of product, 7.7.2.4
negligence, 7.7.2.2
definition, 1.5.10
good faith obligation, application, 11.3.5, 15.8.5
houses, see HOUSE SALES
individual circumstances, relevance, 13.1.4
knowledge, effect, 3.8.2
lessees, status as, 2.2.6.5
new home warranties, availability, 18.3.3, 18.6.1
prospective buyer, door-to-door sales definition, 2.6.5.4
reasonable conduct, 13.8.7.2
remedies, see BUYER’S REMEDIES
special relationship, determination, 12.2.7
third party beneficiaries of manufacturer warranty, 6.2.5.1
UCC standards, flexibility, 1.8.2.3
used car guide, see USED CAR BUYERS GUIDE (FTC)
BUYERS GUIDE (USED CARS)
see USED CAR BUYERS GUIDE (FTC)
BUYER’S REMEDIES
see also UCC REMEDIES
AT devices, 16.7
bad faith by seller, 11.3.4, 15.8.5
cancellation, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
contractual limitations, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
economic damages, 10.5.3.1, 12.2
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
Magnuson-Moss remedies, 2.1.1
manufactured homes, 17.3.6, 17.3.7
new home warranties, 18.4.8, 18.7.3
overview, 1.9.4
personal injury claims, 5.12, 10.5.3.2
rejection, see REJECTION OF GOODS
repair or replace remedy
contractual provisions, 9.1, 9.4.2
failure of essential purpose, 9.5.2
lemon laws, 14.2.1, 14.2.6, 14.2.8
new home warranties, 18.7.3.1, 18.7.3.3, 18.7.3.4
purpose, 9.5.2
statute of limitations, 7.6.3.4
revocation of acceptance, see REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
safety inspection violations, 15.5.6
self-help remedies, see SELF-HELP REMEDIES (UCC)
torts, see TORT CLAIMS
UDAP, see UDAP CLAIMS
warranty claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
BYSTANDERS
see NONBUYERS
CABLE TELEVISION SYSTEMS
see also UTILITY SERVICES
warranty laws, application, 1.5.7
CAMPERS
see MOTOR HOMES; RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
CANCELLATION RIGHTS
see also RESCISSION; REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
arbitration clauses, effect, 13.4.7
cooling-off periods, see COOLING-OFF PERIODS
home improvement contracts, 19.8.1
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
overview, 1.2.8
questions of fact, 13.8.1.4
service contracts, 20.8
UCC, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
used car sales, 15.7
CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
after cancellation
holding goods for seller, 8.4.2, 10.3.1
practical problems, 8.4.1
returning goods to seller, 8.4.3
secured goods, 8.4.5
selling goods, 8.4.4, 10.3.5
use of goods, 8.4.6
arbitration clauses, effect, 13.4.7
cover rights, see COVER
cumulative remedies, 8.4.1
damages, 10.3
see also DAMAGES
comparison to warranty action, 10.4.1
comparison with keeping goods, 10.2
delay by buyer, effect, 8.3.3, 8.3.5
exercising, strategic decisions, 13.2.2
FTC Holder Rule, application, 8.4.5.3, 8.4.5.4
home improvement contracts, 19.8.1.1
incidental damages, see INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
leases, 21.3.6.5, 21.3.8
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.5.1
Magnuson-Moss Act, parallel provisions, 2.5.6
manufactured homes, 17.6
overview, 1.9.4, 8.1
questions of fact, 13.8.1.4
rejection, see REJECTION OF GOODS
remedies upon cancellation, 10.3.1
resales, see RESALES OF REFUSED GOODS
revocation, see REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
security interests
obstacles to resale, 8.4.5.1
termination, 8.4.5.2–8.4.5.4
seller’s right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
substitute goods purchase, see COVER
third party lenders, effect, 8.4.5.4
use of goods, effect, 8.4.1, 8.4.2, 8.4.6, 10.3.1, 10.3.6, 17.6.5
used car sales, 15.7.1
CAR DEALERSHIPS
see AUTOMOBILE DEALERSHIPS
CARE
see DUTY OF CARE
CARELESSNESS
see NEGLIGENCE
CARPETING
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
CARS
see MOTOR VEHICLES
CASE LAW
see also RESEARCH AIDS
Magnuson-Moss arbitration
disclosure of arbitration agreement, 13.4.4.2, 13.4.4.3
prohibiting or permitting binding arbitration, 13.4.6.3
revocation against indirect sellers, 8.3.8.2, 8.3.8.3
UCC, 1.4.1
unreported cases, 1.1.6
CATALOGUE SALES
see also MAIL ORDER SALES
Magnuson-Moss application, 2.6.5.3
warranty disclosures, pre-sale requirements, 2.6.5.3
CAUSATION
see PROXIMATE CAUSE
CAVEAT EMPTOR
doctrine, 18.3.1
CELLULAR TELEPHONES
see WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
CENTER FOR AUTOMOBILE SAFETY
information source, 14.5.3, 14.9.1
CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION
express warranty creation, 3.2.2.6
CERTIFIED USED CARS
dealer programs, 15.3.4
manufacturer’s warranty, 15.3.2.2
CHARGES
see FEES; PRICE
CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE
see also EVIDENCE
defective or unmerchantable condition
delivery, at, 7.5
eyewitness testimony of performance, 7.5.1
repair efforts as, 7.5.4
similar claims by others, 7.5.6
sufficiency, 7.4.2
supporting evidence, 7.5.2–7.5.9
incidental and consequential damages, 10.5.4
negligence claims, 12.4.2
proximate cause, 12.4.3
CLAIMS
see ACTIONS
CLASS ACTION FAIRNESS ACT (CAFA)
federal court jurisdiction under, 2.7.2.4.2, 13.3.11.2
removal to federal court under, 2.7.2.5
CLASS ACTIONS
certifying the class, 13.3.11.1
classwide arbitration, 13.4.8
jurisdictional issues, 2.7.2.4, 13.3.11.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.9
federal court jurisdiction, 2.7.2.4, 2.7.9.1, 13.3.11.2
informal dispute resolution precondition, 2.8.1, 2.7.9.2
named plaintiffs, requirements, 2.7.9.2
opportunity to cure, precondition, 2.7.4
predominance requirement, 2.7.9.3
privity requirements, 2.3.6.2
removal to federal court, 2.7.2.5
CLEAN AIR ACT
preemption of state law, 1.7.5.4
CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
unreported cases, 1.1.6
COLLATERAL CHARGES
lemon law refunds, 14.2.8.7
COLLECTION ACTIONS
warranty defenses, raising
after limitations period, 7.6.8
home improvement financing, 19.8.7.4
leases, 21.6
Magnuson-Moss warranties, 2.2.5.4
manufactured home financing, 17.8.2.6
COMFORT
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.2.4
COMMERCIAL BUYERS
different standards than consumer buyers, 1.8.2.2, 1.8.2.3, 1.8.3
Magnuson-Moss application, 2.2.2
new home warranties, availability, 18.3.3
notice of breach, reasonable time standard, 7.2.3.2, 7.2.3.3
COMMERCIAL LEASES
different treatment, 21.1.1, 21.1.2, 21.3.2
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.6
COMMON LAW
breach of contract, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
disclaimers, effect on claims and defenses, 5.15.3
federal preemption, 1.7
fraud, see FRAUD CLAIMS
good faith duty, 11.3.3
misrepresentation claims, 11.4
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE
perfect tender rule, see PERFECT TENDER RULE
statutory warranties, relationship, 1.6.3
unconscionability doctrine, 11.2.2
warranty law, see COMMON LAW WARRANTIES
COMMON LAW WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES
breach of warranty, damages, 19.4.4
express warranties
new homes, 18.6
service transactions, 19.4.2
federal preemption, 1.7
habitability, 18.3
implied warranties
new homes, 18.3
service transactions, 19.4.3
overview, 1.2.8, 19.4.1
scope issues, 1.5.5, 1.5.6, 1.5.12
statutory warranties, relationship, 1.6.3
workmanlike manner, 18.3, 19.4.3
COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE
see also NEGLIGENCE
contributory negligence distinguished, 12.4.4
defense to negligence claim, 12.4.4
COMPENSATION
see DAMAGES
COMPENSATION FUNDS
car dealers, 15.9.3
COMPLAINTS
see PLEADINGS
COMPONENT SUPPLIERS
see also PARTS
economic loss liability, 12.2.8
implied warranty liability, 2.2.5.2, 2.3.2.1
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.7.1, 14.2.4.1
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.1, 2.2.5.2
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3
warranty with manufacturer, 2.3.2.1
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
scope issues, 1.5.4
COMPUTERS
consumer product status, 2.2.1.2
CONCEALMENT
see also FRAUDULENT CONCEALMENT; MISREPRESENTATIONS; NONDISCLOSURE
affirmative concealment, 11.4.5
fraud by silence, 11.4.5, 15.8.4
statute of limitations, tolling, 7.6.6
UDAP violations, 11.1.5
CONDITIONS PRECEDENT
characterization, 7.7.3
deceptive conditions, 7.7.3
directions for use as, 7.7.2.5
noncompliance, effect, 7.7.3
parol evidence exception, 3.7.8
restrictions, 7.7.3
CONDOMINIUMS
new home warranties
see also NEW HOME WARRANTIES
express warranties, 18.6
implied warranties, application, 18.3.5.2
state-by-state analysis, Appx. H
statutory warranties, 18.5
CONDUCT
see PRE-SALE CONDUCT; POST-SALE CONDUCT
CONFIDENTIALITY CLAUSES
settlement agreements, 13.7.4.4
CONFLICT OF WARRANTIES
see also MULTIPLE WARRANTIES
circumstances, 3.9
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
assumption of risk defense, applicability, 7.7.2.3
attorney fees, 10.7
auto repair negligence, 19.5.4
canceled sales, 10.3.1, 10.5.1
cover
failure to, effect, 10.3.3.1
higher costs, 10.3.3.1, 10.3.3.2
credit rating damage, 10.5.3.1.4
cure
compensation not prerequisite to right, 8.2.7.7.3
refusal of rightful cure, effect, 8.2.7.8
defenses, generally, 7.7.2.1
defined, 10.5.1, 17.8.5.3
disclaimers and exclusions
disclosure requirements, 2.6.4.9, 2.7.7.2
full warranties, 2.5.5
limited remedy clauses, interdependency, 9.5.3
personal injury claims, unconscionability, 5.12
unconscionability, generally, 9.6
documenting, 10.5.3.1.1
economic loss, see ECONOMIC LOSS
financing costs as, 8.4.5.4, 10.5.3.1.3
generally, 10.5.1, 10.5.3
inclusions, 10.5.1
inconvenience, aggravation, loss of time, 10.5.3.4
leases, 21.3.6.5
lemon law claims, 14.2.8.7.3, 14.2.10.6.2
limited remedy clauses
failure of essential purpose, 9.5.3
unconscionability, 9.6.2
validity, 9.5.4, 9.6.2
lost wages or profit, 10.5.3.1.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.7.1
manufactured home cases, 17.8.5.3
mental anguish, 10.5.3.3
new home cases, 18.7.4
non-canceling buyer, 10.5.1
personal injury, see PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES
pleading, 13.3.8
proof, 10.5.4
property, see PROPERTY DAMAGE
recovery, generally, 10.5.1
repossession damages, 10.5.3.1.5
resales after cancellation, proceeds, restrictions, 8.4.4.4
substitute transportation and housing, 10.5.3.1.2
unconscionable contracts, 11.2.7.4
CONSISTENT WARRANTIES
see CUMULATIVE WARRANTIES
CONSPICUOUSNESS
see also DISCLOSURE
Buyers Guide, used cars, 5.8.7, 15.6.3.1, 15.6.5
definition, 2.5.5, 5.8.2
determination, reasonable person standard, 5.8.9
disclaimers, requirement, 5.8, 5.11.3
new homes, 18.3.7
question of fact, 13.8.1.5
used cars, 15.4.4
FTC Used Car Rule, 5.8.8, 15.4.5
lemon law rights, notice, 14.2.5.4
limited remedy clauses, 9.7
merger clauses, 3.7.2.9.2
plain language laws, 5.8.10, 9.7.3
CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
DMV, refusal to issue clear title to buyer, 8.4.5.2.3
lemon laws, 14.2.2
allowance for use formulas, 14.2.8.8
dispute resolution mechanisms, 14.2.9.6
CONSTRUCTION
see also BUILDERS
manufactured home standards, see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
negligence, 12.4.1.1, 12.4.1.3
new homes
see also NEW HOME WARRANTIES
quality, 18.3.1–18.3.5, 18.3.6.4
UDAP claims, 11.1.5
warranty laws, application, 1.5.6
CONSUMER CONTRACTS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS; CONTRACTS
arbitration, see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
Buyers Guide, used cars, incorporation, 5.8.7
defenses, see DEFENSES
inspection clauses, effect, 4.4.3, 8.2.2.3
layered contracting, 3.6.2
oral modification, 3.6.3
post-sale modification, 3.6
repair provisions, effect, 8.2.7.7.2
time to inspect provisions, validity, 8.2.2.3
unconscionability, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
warranties, see WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
CONSUMER FINANCE LEASES
see also CONSUMER LEASES
Article 2A treatment, 21.2.2, 21.3.2
definition, 21.3.2
different treatment, 21.1.2, 21.3.2
qualifying criteria, 21.3.2
rejection of goods, 21.3.6.2
revocation of acceptance, 21.3.6.3
status as, 21.1.2, 21.3.2
warranty defenses, raising, 21.6
warranty obligations
lessor, 21.3.3
manufacturer, 21.4
overview, 21.1.3
retailer, 21.5
CONSUMER LEASES
Article 2, application, 21.2.2
Article 2A, application, 21.2.1, 21.3.2
assignments, 21.6.1
automobile leases, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
breach of warranty
damages, 21.3.5
limitations, 7.6.4, 21.3.3
raising as defense, 21.6
Consumer Leasing Act, 21.2.5
lessor liability, 21.6.2.2
consumer protection laws, application, 21.2.7
dealer-originated leases, 21.1.2, 21.3.2, 21.5
default, 21.3.6.3, 21.3.7, 21.6.2.2
remedies cumulative, 21.3.8
definition, 21.2.1, 21.3.2
direct leases, 21.1.2, 21.3.2
disclaimers, 21.3.4
federal law, 21.2.5
finance leases, see CONSUMER FINANCE LEASES
FTC Holder Notice, application, 21.6.1.3
FTC Used Car Rule, application, 15.6.2.2
good faith obligation, 11.3.1
lemon laws
application, 14.2.3.4, 21.2.4
expiry of lease, effect, 14.2.8.3
refund remedy, 14.2.8.7.4
Magnuson-Moss remedies, application, 1.5.8, 2.2.6, 21.2.3
manufacturer’s warranty, 21.4
inaccurate disclosure, 21.2.5, 21.6.2.2
incorporation into lease, 21.6.2.3
negotiable instrument status, 21.6.1.2
purchase, inclusion in term, 10.3.3.2
qualifying criteria, 21.3.2
rejection of goods, 21.3.6
revocation of acceptance, 21.3.6
RTO transactions, see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
set-offs, 21.3.6.5
state law, 21.2.7
structure, 2.2.6.2, 21.1.2
tort claims, 21.2.7
types, 21.1.2
UDAP claims, 21.2.7
unconscionability claims, 21.2.6
warranties
common law implied warranties, 19.2.3
disclosure, 21.2.5, 21.6.2.2
overview, 2.2.6, 21.1.3
particular purpose warranty, 4.3.2.2
written warranties, 2.2.6.8
warranty defenses, raising, 21.6
warranty law
application, 1.5.8, 21.1.1
sources, 21.2
warranty obligations
assignees, 21.6.1
dealers, 21.5
lessors, 21.3
manufacturers, 21.4, 21.6.2.3
retailers, 21.5
withholding payments, 21.3.7, 21.6
CONSUMER LEASING ACT (CLA)
warranty disclosures, 21.2.5
lessor liability, 21.6.2.2
CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, relationship, 2.2.1.4
preemption issues, 1.7.6
CONSUMER PRODUCTS
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
cars, see MOTOR VEHICLES; NEW CARS; USED CAR SALES
defective, see DEFECTIVE GOODS
definition, 1.5.1, 1.5.12, 2.2.1.1, 21.2.3
government investigations, 7.5.7
leased items, 2.2.6.3
liability, see STRICT LIABILITY
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 1.5.1, 1.5.3, 2.2.1
misuse, see MISUSE OF PRODUCT
negligent design, 12.4.1.3
normal use, 2.2.1.2
reasonable and necessary maintenance, 2.5.7.4
safety, see CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT; PRODUCTS SAFETY
sales, see CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS; SALE OF GOODS
scope issues, 1.5.1, 1.5.3, 1.5.12, 2.2.1
status as, 2.2.1
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3
UCC Article 2, application, 1.5.1
unmerchantable, examples, 7.3.6.1
unreasonably dangerous, 12.3.5
use after cancellation of sale, 8.4.6.4
used products, see USED GOODS
warranties, see WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
CONSUMER PROTECTION CLAIMS
disclaimers, validity, 5.15.2
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.5
manufactured homes, 17.8.2.3, 17.8.2.5
new cars, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
UDAP, see UDAP CLAIMS
CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS (STATE)
federal preemption, 1.7, 12.3.3
leases, application, 21.2.7
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
manufactured homes, NMHCSSA, preemption, 17.3.5
products liability, 12.3.1
products safety, 12.3.3
UCC, relationship, 1.6.2
UDAP statutes, see UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
warranty disclaimers, effect on claims under, 5.15.2
CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER CONTRACTS
“as is” disclaimers, validity, 5.11.2
disclaimers
implied warranties, validity, 5.11.2
knowledge requirement, 5.9
economic damages, 12.2.3
good faith obligation, 11.3, 15.8.5
goods transactions, see SALE OF GOODS
leases, see CONSUMER LEASES
mixed transactions, see MIXED TRANSACTIONS
plain language laws, 5.8.10, 9.7.3
predominant purpose, 19.3
privity requirements, 1.9.2.2, 6.1
self-help remedies, see SELF-HELP REMEDIES (UCC)
service transactions, see SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
UCC policy of liberal construction, 1.8.2
unconscionability standards, 11.2.5.2.1
usage of trade, applicability, 5.11.2
CONSUMER WARRANTY LAWS
see WARRANTY LAW
CONSUMERS
see also BUYERS
complaints, government investigation, 7.5.7
cumulation of rights and remedies, 1.6
definition, 1.5.12, 2.2.2, 2.3.5, 2.5.2, 14.2.3.6, 15.5.2.2, 20.10, 21.2.3
depositions, 13.5.4
different standards than commercial buyers, 1.8.2.2, 1.8.2.3, 1.8.3
full warranties, reasonable duties, 2.5.7
lessees, status as, 2.2.6.4
Magnuson-Moss application, 2.2.2
merchant status, 4.2.2.2
notice of breach, reasonable time standard, 7.2.3.2
personal injury claims, 5.12, 9.4.4, 10.5.3.2
remedies, see BUYER’S REMEDIES; SELF-HELP REMEDIES (UCC)
subsequent owners, inclusion, 2.5.2
warranty disclaimers, actual knowledge requirement, 5.9
warranty preconditions, step-by-step procedures, 2.6.4.6
CONTAINERS
see also PACKAGING
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.3
CONTENTION QUESTIONS
depositions, 13.5.4
CONTRACT DEFENSES
application to warranty conditions, 7.7.3
shortened limitation period, 7.6.9
CONTRACT LAW
see also CONTRACTS
arbitration agreements, application,
breach of contract, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
defenses, see CONTRACT DEFENSES
parol evidence rule, see PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
perfect tender rule, see PERFECT TENDER RULE
privity of contract, see PRIVITY OF CONTRACT
CONTRACTORS
see BUILDERS; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
CONTRACTS
ambiguous, interpretation, 7.3.5.3, 7.7.4.3
parol evidence, 3.7.7
breach, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
common law, see CONTRACT LAW
conditions precedent, 3.7.8
consumer, see CONSUMER CONTRACTS
defenses, see CONTRACT DEFENSES
defined, 5.14, 8.5.6
disclaimer clauses, see DISCLAIMERS
electronic documents, 5.8.11
form contracts, see STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
freedom of contract, see FREEDOM OF CONTRACT
fundamental assumptions, 3.7.8
good faith obligation, 11.3.2, 15.8.5
inducements to contract, 3.7.8
inspection clauses, effect, 4.4.3, 8.2.2.3
limited remedy clauses, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
modification by post-sale statements, 3.6.2
notice of breach of warranty, specification, 7.2.4, 18.6.3.3
plain language laws, 5.8.10, 9.7.3
repair provisions, effect, 8.2.7.7.2, 18.6.3.3
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
Statute of Frauds, written requirement, 3.6.3.2.3
terms, defined, 3.7.3.1
time for performance, determination, 8.2.7.2.2
time to inspect provisions, effect, 8.2.2.3
UCC definition, 8.5.6
unconscionability, 9.6.1, 11.2
CONTRADICTORY WARRANTIES
see INCONSISTENT WARRANTIES
CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE
see also ASSUMPTION OF RISK; NEGLIGENCE
assumption of risk, categorization, 7.7.2.3
breach of warranty claims, application, 7.7.2.1
buyer’s conduct as, 7.7.2.1, 7.7.2.3
comparative negligence distinguished, 12.4.4
failure to abide by directions as, 7.7.2.5
negligence defense, 12.4.4
pleading, 13.3.12
strict liability defense, 12.3.8
CONVERSION
auto repairs, unlawful retention of car, 19.9.1.1
COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
see also COOLING-OFF PERIODS
home improvement sales, 19.8.1.3
used car sales, application, 15.7.2
COOLING-OFF PERIODS
credit repair organizations, 19.8.1.5
FTC Rule, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
home improvement contracts
FTC rule, 19.8.1.3
state law, 19.8.1.4, 19.8.1.5
TILA rescission, 19.8.1.2
used cars, 15.7.2
CORPORATE LIABILITY
insolvent home improvement contractors, 19.8.7.3
CORPORATIONS
consumer status, 2.2.2
CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE
see also EVIDENCE
defective condition at delivery, 7.5.2–7.5.8
COST
see EXPENSES; PRICE; REPAIR COSTS
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
COURSE OF DEALING
see also USAGE OF TRADE
defined, 3.7.4.2
parol evidence, 3.7.4
COURSE OF PERFORMANCE
defined, 3.7.4.3
parol evidence, 3.7.4
COVER
see also CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC); SUBSTITUTE GOODS
cost of substitute goods, recovery, 10.3.3
delay, effect, 10.3.3.4
enhanced value, recovery, 10.3.3.2
failure to, effect, 10.3.3.1, 10.3.4
good faith requirement, 10.3.3.3
improper, burden of proof, 10.3.3.3, 10.3.4
inclusions, 10.3.3.2
notice of intention, 10.3.3.1
offset for expenses saved, 10.3.3.5
qualifying goods, 10.3.3.2
reasonableness requirement, 10.3.3.3
substitute transportation, 10.5.3.1.2
UCC authorization, 10.3.3.1
CREDIT CARD PAYMENTS
auto repairs, stopping, 19.9.1.2
CREDIT RATING
damage to
protecting in settlement negotiations, 13.7.4.3
recovery as consequential damages, 10.5.3.1.4
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATION STATUTES (STATE)
home improvement contracts, application, 19.8.1.5
used car sales, application, 15.7.2
CREDIT STATUTES
credit repair, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATION STATUTES (STATE)
HOEPA, see HOME OWNERSHIP AND EQUITY PROTECTION ACT (HOEPA)
manufactured home claims under, 17.8.2.5
HOEPA, 17.8.2.5.3
RESPA, 17.8.2.5.4
state statutes, 17.8.2.5.1
TILA, 17.8.2.5.2
MVRISA, see MOTOR VEHICLE RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (MVRISA)
RESPA, see REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (RESPA)
RISA, see RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (RISA)
TILA, see TRUTH IN LENDING (TILA)
CREDITORS
see also THIRD PARTY CREDITORS
FTC Holder Rule, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
home improvement loans
asserting claims against, 19.8.7.4
tort and other liability, 19.8.7.5
liability for damages, 8.5.1, 8.5.3, 8.5.5, 8.5.6
liability for dealer-related claims, 15.9.1
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.4
manufactured homes
claims against, 17.8.2.6
federally insured, responsibilities, 17.4.4, 17.8.2.6
revocation of acceptance, notification, 8.3.6.3
service contract defenses, raising against, 20.7.6
settling with, 13.7.4.5
unconscionability, 11.2.5.3
warranty actions, adding as party, 13.3.9.3
CUMULATIVE REMEDIES
see also CUMULATIVE WARRANTIES
cancellation remedies, 8.4.1
common law remedies, 1.6.3
statutory rights, 1.6.1, 1.6.2
CUMULATIVE WARRANTIES
see also CUMULATIVE REMEDIES; MULTIPLE WARRANTIES
consistency requirement, 3.9.2
overview, 1.6, 3.9.1
new home warranties, 18.4
presumption, 3.9.1
CURE
see RIGHT TO CURE
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION POLICIES
warranty status, 2.2.3.3, 3.2.2.1
CUSTOMERS
see BUYERS; CONSUMERS; GUESTS
DAMAGE
see also ACCIDENTS
economic loss distinguished, 12.2.8
lemon law cancellations, after, liability, 14.2.8.10
manufactured homes, transport and set up, 17.7
new cars, prior to delivery, 14.6, 15.6.9
personal injury, see PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES
property damage, see PROPERTY DAMAGE
DAMAGED GOODS
see DEFECTIVE GOODS
DAMAGES
actions for, see ACTIONS
actual damages, see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
auto repair law violations, 19.9.3.2.4
breach of warranty
accepted goods, recovery, 8.2.7.8, 8.3.4, 10.4
after refusal of rightful cure, 8.2.7.8
common law warranties, 19.4.4
deduction of damages, 8.5
leases, 21.3.5, 21.3.8
overview, 1.9.5
title warranty, 10.4.11
written warranties, 2.5.3.1
burden of proof, 10.3.4, 10.4.2
buyer’s conduct as cause, see under DEFENSES
buyer’s opinion, 10.4.6
canceled sales, 10.3
comparison with keeping goods, 10.2, 10.4.1
cover, recovery of expenses, 10.3.3
deducting, 8.5
difference in price, 8.1.1, 10.3.4
expenses of holding and reselling, 10.3.5
formula for determination, 10.3.3.5, 10.3.4
generally, 10.3.1
itemization, necessity in notice, 8.3.6
no cover, 10.3.4
offset for buyer’s use, 10.3.6
purchase price, recovery, 10.3.2
substitute goods, recovery of cost, 10.3.3
third party secured, 8.4.5.4
cancellation rights, cumulative remedies, 8.4.1
causation-in-fact, burden of proof, 7.4.1
CLA violations, 21.2.5
condominiums, 18.5.1
consequential damages, see CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
contractual limitations, 9.1
deductions for, see DEDUCTIONS FROM OUTSTANDING BALANCE
direct damages, see DIRECT DAMAGES
economic loss, see ECONOMIC LOSS
FTC Used Car Rule violations, 15.6.9.1, 15.6.9.2
incidental damages, see INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
inconvenience, aggravation, loss of time, 10.5.3.4
lemon law claims, 1.9.5
new cars, 14.2.8.7.3, 14.2.10.6–14.2.10.8
used cars, 15.5.2.8
Magnuson-Moss claims, 1.9.5, 2.5.3.1, 2.7.7
class actions, 2.7.9.3
limited to period of ownership, 2.2.2
pleading, 2.7.5
manufactured home cases, 17.8.5
misrepresentations, 11.4.7.1, 11.4.7.2
mitigation, see MITIGATION OF DAMAGES
multiple damages, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
new car cases
incidental and consequential damages, 14.2.8.7.3
lemon laws, 14.2.10.6–14.2.10.8
non-lemon law actions, 14.2.10.6.3, 14.4
new home cases, 18.7.3–18.7.6
condominiums, 18.5.1
noncanceling buyer, 10.4
breach of warranty, 10.4.1
burden of proof, 10.4.2, 10.4.3
buyer’s opinion, 10.4.6
comparison with canceling buyer, 10.2, 10.4.1
cost of repair, 10.4.4
reduced value of goods, 10.4.1, 10.4.3
resale price, 10.4.5
revocation unavailable, 8.3.3.2
special circumstance exception, 10.4.3, 10.4.10
subjective measure, 10.4.10
personal injuries, see PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES
post-sale warranty disclaimers, 5.7
property damage, see PROPERTY DAMAGE
punitive, see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
questions of fact, 13.8.1.5
RESPA violations, 17.8.2.5
right to cure, compensation not prerequisite, 8.2.7.7.3
security interest, failure to terminate upon demand, 8.4.5.2.3
self-help remedies, 1.9.4
service transactions
negligence, 19.5.4
warranty breach, 19.4.4
special circumstance exception, 10.4.3, 10.4.10, 10.4.11
statutory damages, see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
TILA violations, 17.8.2.5
title warranty breaches, 10.4.11
UCC damages, 10
unconscionable contracts, 11.2.7.4
use of goods, effect on recovery, 8.4.6.1, 8.4.6.5
warranty duration not disclosed, 2.6.4.4
warranty procedures not disclosed, 2.6.4.6
wrongful rejection of goods, 8.2.7.8
DAMAGES, ACTUAL
see also DAMAGES
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.7.1
plain language law violations, 5.8.10, 9.7.3
service contract breach, 20.5.2
warranty disclosures, pre-sale unavailability, 2.6.5.1
DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
see also DAMAGES
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.8
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.7.3
UDAP claims, 11.4.1.3
DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
see also DAMAGES
auto repair law violations, 19.9.3.2.4
breach of contract, 10.6
common law warranty actions, 19.4.4
fraud claims, 11.4.1.2, 11.4.1.3, 11.4.7.2
home improvement cases, 19.8.7.5
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.8, 14.4.3
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.2.1, 2.7.7.3, 14.4.3
misrepresentations, 11.4.7.2
new car cases, 14.2.10.8, 14.4.3
new home cases, 18.7.6
condominiums, 18.5.1
tort claims, 5.15.1, 10.6, 11.4.7.2
UCC claims, 10.6, 14.4.3
UDAP claims, 11.4.1.3
unconscionable contracts, 11.2.7.4
DAMAGES, STATUTORY
FTC Used Car Rule violations, 15.6.9.1
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.8
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.7.3
TILA claims, 17.8.2.5
UDAP violations, 15.6.9.1
DANGEROUS PRODUCTS
see also SAFETY STANDARDS
automobiles, repair attempts, 14.2.6.3.1
economic loss, 12.2.4
government investigations, 7.5.7
negligence claims, 12.4.1
strict liability, 12.3
unreasonably dangerous, definition, 12.3.5
warnings, inadequate, 12.3.7, 12.4.1.5
yet to malfunction, 7.3.8
DEALER COMPENSATION FUNDS
dealer insolvency, 15.9.3
DEALERS
see also DIRECT SELLERS; RETAILERS; SUPPLIERS
accessories, installation, 14.2.4.4
agency relationship to manufacturer, 6.2.5.2, 19.9.5.1
bankruptcy, 15.9.4
bonding, 15.9.2
compensation funds, 15.9.3
creditor liability for claims against, 15.9.1
implied warranty disclaimers, 2.3.2
insolvency, 15.9
inspection of goods, 5.15.1, 12.4.1.4
leases
types, 21.1.2
warranty obligations, 21.3, 21.6.2, 21.5
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.7.2
limited remedy clauses, scope, 9.4.1
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.3
manufactured homes
express warranties, 17.4
HUD insured, responsibilities, 17.4.4, 17.7.6, 17.8.2.6
implied warranties, 17.5
revocation of acceptance, 16.6.7
transport and setup damage, liability, 17.7.6
manufacturer’s warranty
adoption, 2.2.5.3, 6.2.6
deductions for breach, 8.5.6
liability for, 6.2.6, 8.5.6
new cars, see AUTOMOBILE DEALERSHIPS
non-warranty repairs, manufacturer’s liability, 19.9.5.1
repairs by, 6.2.5.2, 19.9.5.1
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
used cars, see USED CAR DEALERS
warranties, see WARRANTIES
warranty actions, adding as party, 13.3.9.2
DECEIT
see FRAUD CLAIMS; MISREPRESENTATIONS; TORT CLAIMS
DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
auto repairs, 19.9.4
deceptive warranty, defined, 6.3.8, 9.11
merger clauses, 3.7.2.9.2
scope issues, 1.5.5
UDAP standards, 11.1.2
used cars, 15.6.7
warranty misrepresentations, 11.1.6, 11.1.7
DECLARATORY RELIEF
see also EQUITABLE RELIEF
anti-tying violations, 2.4.1.5
implied warranties, 2.3.2.1
rendering moot by defendant, 2.7.8.6.4
DEDUCTIONS FROM OUTSTANDING BALANCE
arbitration clauses, application, 13.4.7.1
assignee creditors, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.5, 8.5.6
circumstances, 8.5.1
home improvement cases, 19.8.7.4
installment payment deductions, 8.5.3
lease payments, 21.3.7
manufactured homes, 17.8.6
manufacturer’s breach of warranty, 8.5.6
notice requirements, 8.5.5
sample notice, Appx. I.3
practical problems, 8.5.4
repossession, avoiding, 8.5.2, 8.5.4
retailers who have disclaimed warranties, 8.5.6
UCC self-help remedy, 8.1.1
DEFECTIVE GOODS
burden of proof, 2.5.7.4
cancellation rights, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
circumstantial evidence, 7.4.2
concealment, 11.1.8, 11.4.5
contractual limitations on remedies, 9.1
defective condition, 12.3.4
delivery, proving defective at
admissions by seller or manufacturer, 7.5.3
expert testimony, 7.5.8
eyewitness testimony of performance, 7.5.1
government investigations, 7.5.7
negating other causes, 7.5.2
proper use and maintenance, supporting evidence, 7.5.2
repairs by seller, 7.5.4
replacement parts work well, 7.5.5
similar claims by others, 7.5.6
design defects, see DESIGN DEFECTS
discarding, 8.2.4
disputes, final judge of defect, 2.4.2
duty to disclose, 15.8.5
expiration of warranty period, 7.7.4
full warranties, remedy without charge, 2.5.3
future harm, 7.3.8
inspection, see INSPECTION
investigatory agencies, 7.5.7
keeping
damages, 10.4
strategic decisions, 13.2.2
known material defects, failure to disclose, 11.3.4, 5.13
latent defects, see LATENT DEFECTS
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
manufactured homes, 17
common defects, 17.1.3
correction of defects, 17.3.8
materials, defective, warranty interpretation, 7.3.5.3.2
minor defects
acceptability, reasonable grounds, 8.2.7.3.4
cumulative effect, 8.3.2.2, 14.3.3.2
motor homes, 14.8.4
negligence claims, 12.4
new cars, 14
Internet resources, 14.9.1
new homes, 18
common defects breaching implied warranties, 18.3.6.4
notice of defect, see NOTICE OF BREACH
patent defects, see PATENT DEFECTS
pre-sale inspection, effect, 4.4
remedies, 4.4.4
refunds of purchase price, see REFUNDS
rejection, see REJECTION OF GOODS
repairs, see REPAIRS
replacement, see REPLACEMENT
return to seller, burden of cost, 8.2.7.7
revocation of acceptance, see REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
seller’s ignorance, effect, 8.2.7.3.5
seller’s knowledge, effect, 7.7.4.6.1
notice of breach, 7.2.2.4
shaken faith doctrine, 8.2.7.5
strict liability, 12.3
substantial impairment test, 8.3.2.1–8.3.2.3, 13.3.3
lemon laws, 14.2.4.6
see COVER; SUBSTITUTE GOODS
tort claims, see TORT CLAIMS
UDAP violations, 7.3.8, 11.1.5, 11.1.8
unmerchantable, examples, 7.3.6.1
unreasonable use, full warranties, effect, 2.5.7.4
unreasonably dangerous, 12.3.5
used cars, 15
warning of defects, 12.3.7, 12.3.7, 12.4.1.5
warranty claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
workmanship, defective, warranty interpretation, 7.3.5.3.2
yet to malfunction, see LATENT DEFECTS
DEFENDANTS
see also PARTIES
foreign defendants, service, 13.3.10
Magnuson-Moss claims, attorney fees, 2.7.8.7
warranty claims
distributors, 13.3.9.4
financing institutions, 13.3.9.3
manufacturers and dealers, 13.3.9.2
DEFENSES
breach of warranty claims, 7.7
assumption of risk, 7.7.2.3
buyer’s conduct, 7.7.2
expiration of warranty, 7.7.4
failure to give notice of breach, 7.2.1
generally, 7.7.1
noncompliance with conditions precedent, 7.7.3
pleading, 13.3.12
statute of limitations, 7.6
collection actions, warranty defenses, 7.6.8
leases, 21.6
contract defenses, see CONTRACT DEFENSES
depositions
defense witnesses, 13.5.3
experts, 14.9.4.2.5
failure to mitigate, see MITIGATION OF DAMAGES
FTC preservation rule, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
lemon law obligations, 14.2.4.5
assistive technological devices, 16.7.2
mistake, see MISTAKE
negligence claims, 12.4.4
new home cases, 18.6
set-offs, see SET-OFFS
statute of limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
warranty disclaimers, effect on common law claims, 5.15.3
DEFICIENCY ACTIONS
see COLLECTION ACTIONS
DEFINITIONS
agreement, 3.7.2.4
bargain, 3.5.1
burden of establishing, 7.4.1
buyer, 1.5.10
conformity, 7.3.2, 14.2.4.6
consequential damages, 10.5.1, 17.8.5.3
consistent, 3.9.2
conspicuous, 2.5.5, 5.8.2
consumer, 1.5.12, 2.2.2, 2.3.5, 2.5.2, 14.2.3.6, 15.5.2.2, 20.10, 21.2.3
consumer lease, 21.3.2
consumer product, 1.5.1, 1.5.12, 2.2.1.1, 21.2.3
contract, 5.14, 8.5.6
contradictory, 3.9.2
course of dealing, 3.7.4.2
course of performance, 3.7.4.3
dealer, 15.5.2.2
deceptive warranty, 6.3.8, 9.11
deceptive warranty conditions, 7.7.3
defective condition, 12.3.4
economic loss, 12.2.1
good faith, 11.3.1
goods, 1.5.1
implied warranty, 2.3.1.2.2, 2.3.6.2
incidental damages, 10.5.1
lease, 21.2.1
manufactured home, 17.3.2
manufacturer, 14.2.3.7
merchant, 1.5.9, 4.2.2.2
merchantable, 4.2.3.1, 7.3.6.1
model, 3.4.1
motor vehicle, 14.2.3.4
new, 14.2.3.3
normally, 2.2.1.2
prospective buyer, 2.6.5.4
purchase, 10.3.3.2, 14.2.3.4, 21.2.4
purchase price, 14.2.8.7
reasonable and necessary maintenance, 2.5.7.4
reasonable duty, 2.5.7.2
reasonable number of attempts, 2.5.6
refund, 2.5.3.1
repair, 2.5.3.1
replacement, 2.5.3.1
sale, 1.5.2, 14.2.3.4, 21.2.4
sample, 3.4.1
seller, 1.5.9, 1.5.11
service contract, 2.2.4.1, 20.2
substantial impairment, 8.3.2.2
supplier, 2.2.5.1, 2.3.6.2, 21.2.3
unreasonably dangerous, 12.3.5
usage of trade, 3.7.4.4
used motor vehicle, 15.5.2.2, 15.6.2.1
warrantor, 1.5.9, 2.2.5.1, 2.3.6.2, 21.2.3
without charge, 2.5.3.2
workmanlike, 19.4.3
written warranty, 2.2.3.1, 2.2.3.7
DELAY
cancellation, effect, 8.3.3, 8.3.5
cover, obtaining, effect, 10.3.3.4
repairs, remedies, 8.3.2.6
DELIVERY
see also NONDELIVERY
breach of warranty, accrual of cause of action, 7.6.1
defective condition at, proving
admissions by seller or manufacturer, 7.5.3
difficulties, 10.4.3
expert testimony, 7.5.8
eyewitness testimony of performance, 7.5.1
government investigations, 7.5.7
manufactured homes, 17.8.4
merchantability warranty, 7.3.6.2
negating other causes, 7.5.2
present characteristic warranties, 7.3.5.1.4
proper use and maintenance, supporting evidence, 7.5.2
repairs by seller, 7.5.4
replacement parts work well, 7.5.5
similar claims by others, 7.5.6
defining when delivery occurs, 7.6.2
late delivery
notice requirements, 7.2.2.2
remedies, 8.3.2.6
manufactured homes, 17.7
new cars, undisclosed prior damage, 14.6
pre-delivery inspection forms, 2.2.3.1
statements made after, 3.6.3
statements made before or at, 3.6.1
statements read after, 3.6.2
time for performance as date of, 8.2.7.2.2
DEMONSTRATOR CARS
see also MOTOR VEHICLES; NEW CARS
FTC Used Car Rule, application, 15.6.2.1
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.3
new car damage disclosure laws, application, 15.8.9
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
see also HUD LABEL; HUD WARRANTY
manufactured homes standards
administrative enforcement, 17.3.8
construction and safety standards, 17.3
defect investigations, 7.5.7
installation standards, 17.7.2
label as express warranty, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
warranty requirements, 17.4.4, 17.7.6, 17.8.2.6
NMHCSSA enforcement, 17.3.1, 17.8.1
DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES (DMV)
clear title, issuance to buyers, 8.4.5.2.3
DEPOSITIONS
see also DISCOVERY
consumer plaintiff, 13.5.4
contention questions, 13.5.4
defense witnesses, 13.5.3
expert witnesses, 13.8.4.3
home improvement contractors, 19.8.3
new car cases, 14.9.4.2
dealer’s service manager, 14.9.4.2.3
defense experts, 14.9.4.2.5
manufacturer’s representative, 14.9.4.2.2
selection of deponents, 14.9.4.2.1
service technicians, 14.9.4.2.4
sample deposition transcripts, Appx. J.3
DEPRECIATION
full warranties, refunds or replacement, deductions for, 2.5.3.1
DESCRIPTION OF GOODS (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
see also EXPRESS WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
affirmations of fact or promises, similarities, 3.3
breach of warranty, 7.3.5.1.3
conflict with warranty by model, 3.9.3
creation of warranty, 3.3
merchantability warranty, comparison, 3.3
quality, 3.3
sample or model warranty distinguished, 3.4.1
used car sales, 15.3.5
DESIGN DEFECTS
automobiles
information on specific model cars, 14.5.3
lemon law application, 14.2.4.2
manufactured homes, 17.3.4.2
merchantability warranty breach, 14.5.4
negligent design, 12.4.1.3
unreasonably dangerous, 12.3.5
warranty interpretation, 7.3.5.3.2
DILIGENCE
see DUE DILIGENCE
DIRECT DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
canceled sales, 10.3
defined, 10.4.1
new home defects, 18.7.3
noncanceling buyers, 10.4
DIRECT SELLERS
see also DEALERS; RETAILERS; SELLERS
manufacturer as, 6.2.5.3
manufacturer’s warranty
adoption, 2.2.5.3, 6.2.6
deductions for breach, 8.5.6
liability for, 6.2.6, 8.5.6
DIRECTIONS FOR USE OR INSTALLATION
categorization, 7.7.2.5
express warranty creation, 3.2.4
failure to abide as defense to warranty claim, 7.7.2.5
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.3
DISCLAIMERS
see also LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES; WAIVER
actual knowledge requirement, 5.9
ambiguities created by seller’s conduct, 5.10.4
ambiguities or conflicting clauses, 5.10.2
ambiguities with FTC Buyers Guide, 5.10.3
“as is,” see “AS IS” DISCLAIMERS
back of contract, 5.8.4
bad faith, 5.13, 11.3.4, 15.8.5
buried disclaimers, validity, 5.8.5
consequential damages
disclosure requirements, 2.7.7.2
limited remedy clauses, interdependency, 9.5.3
unconscionability, prohibition, 9.6
conspicuous requirement, 5.8, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
question of fact, 13.8.1.5
contract claims, effect, 5.15.4
contract construction and, 5.10
defeating warranty disclaimers, 5
electronic disclaimers, 5.8.11
express warranties
basis of bargain, 3.5.1
new homes, 18.6.3.2
restrictions, 3.8.1, 5.2
failure to disclose, 11.1.7
failure to examine, effect on validity, 5.9
fraud claims, effect, 5.15.1, 11.4.1.2, 13.8.3.3, 15.8.4
implied warranties, 9.4.3
consumer transaction, 5.11.2
leases, 21.3.4
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 2.3.2, 2.5.4, 5.3
manufactured homes, 17.5.4
new homes, 18.3.7, 18.4.5
state restrictions, 5.4
UCC restrictions, 5.5
used car sales, 5.4.2, 15.4.3, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
incidental damages, interdependency with limited remedy clauses, 9.5.3
language requirements, 5.8.9, 5.9
plain language laws, 5.8.10
leases, 21.3.4
limitations on remedies distinguished, 1.9.2.3, 5.1, 9.1
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 2.3.2, 5.3, 15.4.3
manufacturer’s warranty by retailer, 2.2.5.3, 6.2.6, 8.5.6
merchantability warranty, 5.5, 5.11.2
nature of, 5.1.1
negligence claims, validity, 12.4.4
new home warranties, 18.3.7, 18.4.5, 18.6.3.2
condominiums, 18.5.1
nonbuyer remedies, validity, 6.3.8
not shown or discussed with buyer, validity, 5.8.9
oral disclaimers, 5.8.1
outside the contract, 5.8.6
overview, 1.9.2.1, 5.1
parol evidence rule, 3.7.3.2
part of the bargain, 5.10.1
particular purpose warranty, 4.3.2.5, 5.11.2
pleading, 13.3.12
post-sale disclaimers, validity, 2.6.5.1, 5.7
protected parties, 5.6
reasonable person standard, 5.8.9
revocation of acceptance, effect on, 5.14, 8.3.2.6
rule of inconsistent terms, application, 3.7.3
sample or model warranty, 3.7.6
scope, 5.6
statutory claims, effect, 5.15.2
statutory restrictions
express warranties, 5.2
implied warranties, 5.3–5.5
leases, 21.3.4
title warranty, 4.5.1
tort liability, effect, 5.15.1, 12.1
type size and appearance, 5.8.3
UCC restrictions, 5.13, 15.4.4
UDAP claims, effect, 11.1.1.2
UDAP violations, as, 5.15.2
unconscionability, 2.3.2.3.2, 5.12
used car warranties
see also USED CAR BUYERS GUIDE (FTC)
ambiguities, 5.10.3
express warranties, effect, 15.3.1
implied warranties, 15.4.3, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
statutory warranties, 15.5.2.5, 15.5.7
validity, 5.11
validity, 5.8.4, 5.8.6, 5.10.1, 5.11
“with all faults,” see “AS IS” DISCLAIMERS
written requirement, 5.8.1, 5.8.11
DISCLOSURE
see also CONSPICUOUSNESS
arbitration clauses, 13.4.4
defects, 4.2.2.2, 5.13, 15.8.3
disclaimers, 5.8, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
duty to disclose, 11.4.5, 15.8.5
FTC Used Car Buyers Guide, 15.6.3–15.6.6
half-truths, 11.4.5
informal dispute resolution mechanisms, 2.6.4.7, 2.8.2, 2.8.4, 14.2.9.4
latent car defects, 14.5.5
lemon laundering, 15.8.7.1
lemon law rights, 14.2.5.4
limited remedy clauses, 9.7
new car damage, 15.8.9
nondisclosure, see CONCEALMENT; NONDISCLOSURE
RESPA requirements, 17.8.2.5
salvage vehicles, 15.8.8
seller’s superior knowledge, 11.4.5
service contracts
arbitration clauses, 13.4.4.5
availability, 15.6.3.2
subsequent owner’s rights, 20.10
terms and conditions, 2.3.8, 20.4.3
TILA requirements, 17.8.2.5
UDAP violations, 11.1.8, 15.8.3.2
used car sales, 15.4.5, 15.6, 15.8.3.2
warranties, see DISCLOSURE (WARRANTIES)
DISCLOSURE (WARRANTIES)
see also DISCLOSURE
auto repairs
state law requirements, 19.9.3.2.2
written parts and labor warranty, 19.9.2
CLA requirements, 21.2.5, 21.6.2.2
conspicuous, definition, 2.5.5, 2.6.4.1
disclaimers, 5.3.3, 5.8, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
exemptions, 2.6.2
FTC Used Car Buyers Guide, 15.6.3.2
full warranties, 2.5.1, 2.6.3
informal dispute resolution mechanisms, 2.6.4.7, 2.8.2, 2.8.4
leases, 21.2.5, 21.6.2.2
limited warranties, 2.5.1, 2.6.3, 6.3.8
Magnuson-Moss requirements
arbitration clauses, application, 13.4.4
state law preemption, 2.9.2
nonbuyer limitations, 6.3.8
plain language laws, 5.8.10
pre-sale availability
catalogue and mail order sales, 2.6.5.3
door-to-door sales, 2.6.5.4
general sales, 2.6.5.2
Internet sales, 2.6.5.5
requirements, generally, 2.6.5.1
single document, 2.6.4.1
terms required to be disclosed, 2.6.4
consequential damage exclusions, 2.5.5
consumer’s duties, 2.6.4.6
coverage, 2.6.4.3
designation as full or limited warranty, 2.5.1, 2.6.3
dispute settlement mechanisms, 2.6.4.7, 2.8.4
duration, 2.6.4.4
form, generally, 2.6.4.1
implied warranty limitations, 2.6.4.8
limitations on remedies, 2.3.3, 2.6.4.9, 9.7.1
parties who can enforce warranty, 2.6.4.2
registration cards, 2.4.3, 2.6.4.11
state rights, 2.6.4.10
warrantor’s obligations, 2.6.4.5
UDAP violations, 11.1.7
used cars, see USED CAR BUYERS GUIDE (FTC)
written warranties, 2.6, 5.3.3
arbitration clauses, 13.4.4
used car sales, 15.6.3.2
DISCOVERY
see also EVIDENCE; PRACTICE TIPS
depositions, see DEPOSITIONS
expert evidence, 13.8.4.3
gray market vehicle cases, 14.7
home improvement cases, 19.8.8.4
interrogatories, see INTERROGATORIES
manufactured home cases, 17.8.3
manufacturer, adding to suit for purposes of, 7.5.3, 7.5.6
new car warranty cases, 14.9.4
depositions, 14.9.4.2
document requests, 14.9.4.1
interrogatories, 14.9.4.1
requests for admissions, 14.9.4.1
practice tips, 1.1.5, 13.5, 14.9.4
deposition of the consumer, 13.5.4
depositions, 13.5.2, Appx. J.3
document requests, 13.5.2, Appx. J.2
interrogatories, 13.5.1, Appx. J.2
requests for admissions, Appx. J.3
previous owner, revealing prior defects, 7.5.4
service contracts, 2.3.2.2.3
DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
arbitration, see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
informal mechanisms, see INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
DISTRIBUTORS
see also INDIRECT SELLERS; SUPPLIERS
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.7.1
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.1, 2.2.5.2
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.2.1
warranty actions, adding as party, 13.3.9.4
DIVERSITY JURISDICTION
see also JURISDICTION
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.2.2
requirements for, 2.7.2.3
DOCUMENTS
production requests, see DISCOVERY
single document requirement, see SINGLE DOCUMENT REQUIREMENT
warranty litigation, evaluating the case, 13.1.2
DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES
see HOME SOLICITATION SALES
DOUBLE WIDES
see MANUFACTURED HOMES
DRUGS AND PHARMACEUTICALS
federal preemption, 1.7.2
FDA exclusive enforcement authority, 1.7.2.6
generic medications, 1.7.2.3
over-the-counter medications, 1.7.2.4
prescription medications, 1.7.2.2
vaccines, 1.7.2.5
veterinary medicines, 1.7.3
DUE DILIGENCE
UCC obligation, disclaimer restrictions, 5.13
DURATION OF WARRANTY
see WARRANTY PERIOD
DUTY OF CARE
disclaimers, validity
tort liability, 5.15.1
UCC obligations, 5.13
independent duty, 12.2.6
negligence claims, 12.4.1, 12.4.2
economic loss damages, 12.2.6
misrepresentations, 11.4.3.1
repair or service transactions, 19.5.2
statutory duty, 12.2.6
DUTY OF GOOD FAITH
see GOOD FAITH
ECONOMIC LOSS
see also CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES; DAMAGES
accidents, 12.2.4
auto repair negligence, 19.5.4
breach of duty, 12.2.6
buyer’s damages, 10.5.3.1
components causing, 12.2.8
credit rating damage, 10.5.3.1.4
dangerous situations, 12.2.4
definition, 12.2.1
direct loss, 12.2.8
financing costs, 10.5.3.1.3
fraud claims, 11.4.2.2
general standards, 10.5.3.1.1
indirect loss, 12.2.8
intentional misrepresentation, 11.4.2.2
loss of time, 10.5.3.4
lost wages or profits, 10.5.3.1.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.2.1, 2.7.7.1
negligence claims, 12.2
negligent misrepresentation, 11.4.3.2
service transactions, 19.5.4
nonbuyer claims, 6.3.3.2, 6.3.3.3
personal injuries and, 12.2.4
professional malpractice, 12.2.5
property damage and, 12.2.4
property damage distinguished, 12.2.8
repossession damages, 10.5.3.1.5
service transactions, 12.2.5
special relationships, 12.2.7
statutory duty breach, 12.2.6
strict liability claims, 12.2
substitute transportation and housing, 10.5.3.1.2
tort claims, 6.2.5.6, 12.2
UCC remedies, application, 12.2.5
vertical privity requirements
express warranties, 6.2.3
implied warranties, 6.2.4.2
EFFICIENCY
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.2.4
ELECTRONIC NOTICE
breach of warranty, 7.2.5.1
ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES IN GLOBAL AND NATIONAL COMMERCE ACT (E-SIGN)
disclaimer requirements, 5.8.11
ELECTRONIC WARRANTY DOCUMENTS
disclaimers, 5.8.11
disclosure requirements, 2.2.3.7
pre-sale availability, 2.6.5.5
written warranty status, 2.2.3.7
EMISSIONS SYSTEMS
federal standards, preemptive effect, 1.7.5.4
long-term warranties, 14.5.8
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
see MENTAL ANGUISH
EMPLOYEES
see NONBUYERS
ENCUMBRANCES
see SECURITY INTERESTS
ENERGY CONSERVATION WORK
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
efficiency ratings, 1.7.7
express warranty, 3.2.2.3, 3.2.2.5
federal preemption of state law, 1.7.5.4, 1.7.7
gas mileage, see FUEL ECONOMY
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (U.S.)
gas consumption data, effect as express warranty, 3.2.2.3
EQUITABLE ESTOPPEL
see also EQUITABLE RELIEF
manufacturer liability, 6.2.5.5
post-sale statements, 3.6.2, 3.6.3.1, 3.6.3.2.3
warranty conditions, application, 7.7.3
warranty disclaimers, seller’s conduct invalidating, 5.11.3, 5.15.3
EQUITABLE JURISDICTION
lemon law claims, necessity, 14.2.10.3
EQUITABLE RELIEF
estoppel, see EQUITABLE ESTOPPEL
injunctions, see INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
innocent misrepresentation, 11.4.4
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.7.4.1
rescission, 8.1.4
UCC claims, cumulation of rights, 1.6.3
warranty disclaimers, effect on claims and defenses, 5.15.3
ESCROW
resales after cancellation, proceeds pending law suit, 8.4.4.4, 8.4.5.2.3
ESTIMATES
repair cost
automobile repairs, state law requirements, 19.9.3.2.2
home improvement litigation, 19.8.8.1.2
proof issues, 10.4.4.2
ESTOPPEL
see EQUITABLE ESTOPPEL
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF; DISCOVERY; WITNESSES
advertisements, 3.7.6
“as is” clauses in fraud cases, 13.8.3.3
attorney fees, relevancy, 13.8.3.9
bad faith, 11.3.5
basis of bargain, 3.5.4
blue books, 10.4.8
breach of warranty, generally, 7.3.2
buyer’s opinion of value, 10.4.6, 17.8.5.1
canceled sales, gathering, 8.4.3
cancellation of sale, use of goods as negating, 8.4.6.1
circumstantial, see CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE
conditions precedent, 3.7.8
consequential damages, 10.5.4
corroborative, see CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE
defective or unmerchantable condition, 7.4.2, 12.3.4
delivery, condition at, 7.5
admissions by seller or manufacturer, 7.5.3
expert testimony, 7.5.8
eyewitness testimony, 7.5.1
government investigations, 7.5.7
manufactured homes, 17.8.4, 17.8.5.1
negating causes other than defects, 7.5.2
proper use and maintenance, 7.5.2
repairs by seller, 7.5.4
replacement parts work well, 7.5.5
similar claims by others, 7.5.6
demonstrative evidence, 13.8.3.7
expert evidence, see EXPERT EVIDENCE
fraud cases, 13.8.3.3
fundamental contract assumptions, 3.7.8
government standards, 4.2.3.2.8
history of vehicle, 13.8.3.8
home improvement cases, 19.8.8.1
incidental damages, 10.5.4
indirect seller’s breach of warranty, 6.2.7, 7.5.1.3
inducements to contract, 3.7.8
industry standards, 4.2.3.2.8
informal dispute decisions as, 2.8.5.2, 2.8.6
informal dispute mechanisms, 2.8.5.2, 14.2.9.7
“lemon,” use of word at trial, 13.8.3.4
manufactured home defects, 17.8.4, 17.8.5.1
market compilations, 10.4.8
market price, 10.3.4
merchantability warranty, nonconformity, 7.3.6.1
models, 3.7.6
motions in limine, 13.8.3.1
negligent conduct, 12.4.2
new car defects, 14.9.1, 14.9.5, 14.9.6
new home defects, 18.7.2
nonconformity, 7.3.2
as causation of damage, 7.4.1
notice of breach, admissibility, 7.2.5.4
parol evidence, see PAROL EVIDENCE
parol evidence rule, see PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
particular purpose warranty, nonconformity, 7.3.7
practice tips, 13.8.3, 13.8.7.1
proper use and maintenance, 7.5.2
recall notices as, 13.8.3.2, 14.5.7
record of vehicle’s condition and performance, 13.8.3.10
repair costs
estimates, admissibility, 10.4.4.2
reasonableness, 10.4.4.2
requests for admissions, 10.4.9
Rule 702, 13.8.4
safety standards, 4.2.3.2.8
sample or model reliance, 3.4.2
samples, 3.7.6
secret warranties as, 14.5.3
similar acts, 13.8.3.5
similar claims, 7.5.6
spoliation, 8.4.4.1, 8.4.4.5, 13.2.5
subsequent remedial measures, 13.8.3.6
substantial impairment of value, 8.3.2.2, 14.2.4.6.4, 17.8.5.1
trial issues, 13.8.3–13.8.6
unconscionability, 11.2.3, 11.2.6
usage of trade, notice requirements, 3.7.4.4
value, proof difficulties, 10.4.3
EXAMINATION
see INSPECTION
EXCULPATORY CLAUSES
settlement agreements, 13.7.4.4
EXPENSES
see also CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES; INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
cancellation of sale
cover, reimbursement, 10.3.3
holding or resale, 10.3.5
recovery, 10.3.1
defective goods, return to seller, burden, 8.2.7.7
fees, see FEES
full warranty coverage, 2.5.3.2
lemon law returns, liability, 14.2.6.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, recovery, 2.7.8.8
repairs, see REPAIR COSTS
saved in consequence of seller’s breach, 10.3.3.5
settlements, inclusion, 13.7.4.1
EXPERT EVIDENCE
see also EVIDENCE; WITNESS FEES
admissibility under Daubert rule, 13.8.4, 17.8.4
blue book information, 10.4.8
cross-examining, 13.8.6
defective condition, proof
manufactured homes, 17.7.4, 17.8.4
necessity, 7.4.2, 13.2.2
new cars, 14.9.1, 14.9.5
new homes, 18.7.2
use, 7.5.8
deposing the defense expert, 13.8.4.3, 14.9.4.2.5
disclosure requirements, 13.8.4.3
discovery, 13.8.4.3
sample discovery, Appx. J.2, Appx. J.3
evaluation factors, 13.8.4.2
eyewitness testimony compared, 7.5.1.1
gatekeeping function of court, 13.8.4, 17.8.4
home improvement cases, 19.8.8.1.2
inspections by buyer’s expert, 13.6.1
conduct of inspection, 13.6.1.3
timing of inspection, 13.6.1.1
lemon law claims, witness fees, 14.2.10.10.5
manufactured homes
defects, 17.8.4
setup, 17.7.4
negligence claims, 12.4.1.2, 19.5.2
presenting, 13.8.5
pre-trial Daubert hearing, 13.8.4.4
rejected goods, 8.4.1
Rule 702, 13.8.4, 17.8.4
safety inspections, see SAFETY INSPECTIONS
selection of expert, 13.6.1.2
substantial impairment of value, necessity, 8.3.2.2, 14.2.4.6.4
timing of Daubert motion, 13.8.4.5
value of nonconforming goods, 10.4.7, 10.4.8
written report, 13.8.4.3
EXPIRY OF WARRANTY
see WARRANTY PERIOD
EXPRESS WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
affirmations of fact, see AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
ambiguous, 7.3.5.3
“as is” disclaimers, effect, 5.2, 15.3.1
breach, see BREACH OF WARRANTY
burden of proof, 5.2
characterization, 3.1, 3.2.2.4.3, 7.2.2.3, 7.3.5.2.2
CLA disclosures, 21.2.5, 21.6.2.2
common law warranties, 19.4.2
condominiums, 18.5, 18.6.1
conflicts with other warranties, 3.9
consistent, 3.9.2
contradictory, 3.9.2
creation, generally, 1.9.1.2, 3.1
cumulation, 3.9.1
defects in materials or workmanship, 7.3.5.3.2
description of goods, see DESCRIPTION OF GOODS (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
design defects, inclusion, 7.3.5.3.2
disclaimer restrictions, 3.8.1, 5.2
expiry of warranty period, 7.7.4
future performance, see FUTURE PERFORMANCE WARRANTIES
HUD label, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
implied warranties, effect on, 18.3.8
interpretation, 7.3.5.3
latent car defects, application, 14.5.4
leases, 21.3.3
lemon laws, application, 14.2.4.1
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.2
manufactured homes, 17.4
manufacturer’s liability
non-written warranties, 6.2.3
written warranties, 6.2.2
merger doctrine, effect, 18.6.3.1
misuse, effect, 7.7.2.4
model, see SAMPLE OR MODEL (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
new home sales, 18.6
condominiums, 18.5
effect on implied warranties, 18.3.8
limitations on, 18.6.3
new inspection stickers as, 5.2
oral statements, 3.6.1, 3.6.3
overview, 1.9.1.2, 3.1
post-sale modifications, 3.6
pre-sale inspection, effect, 3.8.2
present condition, see PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS WARRANTIES
promises, see AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
questions of fact, 13.8.1.2
reliance, necessity, 3.5.2
samples, see SAMPLE OR MODEL (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
service contracts distinguished, 20.2
tie-ins
prohibition, 2.4.1.2
remedies, 2.4.1.5
used car sales, 15.3
used goods, written warranty status, 2.2.3.4
warranty period, see WARRANTY PERIOD
written warranties, see WRITTEN WARRANTIES
EXTENDED WARRANTIES
see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE; SERVICE CONTRACTS
FACTORY-BUILT HOUSING
see MANUFACTURED HOMES; MODULAR HOMES; MOTOR HOMES
FALSE STATEMENTS
see also FRAUD CLAIMS; MISREPRESENTATIONS
tort claims, 11.4.3
FAMILY PRODUCTS
see CONSUMER PRODUCTS
FDA
see FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)
FEDERAL ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
see also ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
preemption, 13.4.4.1, 13.4.5
FEDERAL JURISDICTION
see also JURISDICTION
doctrine of primary jurisdiction, 1.7.5.3
lemon law claims, 2.7.2.1, 14.2.10.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.2.1
class actions, 2.7.2.4
diversity jurisdiction, 2.7.2.2, 2.7.2.3
removal to federal court, 2.7.2.5
supplemental jurisdiction, 2.7.2.3
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
see also PREEMPTION
airplanes, 1.7.4
arbitration law, 13.4.4.1, 13.4.5
boats, 1.7.4
conflict preemption, 1.7.1
drugs, 1.7.2.2–1.7.2.4
energy efficiency, 1.7.7
express preemption, 1.7.1
FDA, 1.7.2
field preemption, 1.7.1
food safety, 1.7.8.2
FTC Used Car Rule, effect, 15.6.1, 15.6.8
hazardous substances, 1.7.8.1
herbicides, 1.7.3
lemon law dispute mechanisms, 14.2.9.5
Magnuson-Moss by other federal laws, 2.2.7, 13.4.5
Magnuson-Moss of other warranty laws, 1.6.1, 2.9, 13.4.4.1
manufactured home standards, 17.3.5, 17.3.7.1, 17.3.7.2
medical devices, 1.7.2.1, 16.3
medications, 1.7.2.2–1.7.2.4
motor vehicles, 1.7.5
other products, 1.7.8
overview, 1.7.1
pesticides, 1.7.3
product safety, 1.7.6
strict liability, 12.3.3.1
tobacco, 1.7.8.2
vaccines, 1.7.2.5
veterinary medicines, 1.7.3
wireless communications, 1.7.8.3
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
advisory opinions, 2.1.2
electronic disclosure guidelines, 2.2.3.7
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act
enforcement, 2.7.11
interpretation, 2.1.2
rules, see under FTC RULES
rules, see FTC RULES
staff opinion letters, 2.1.2
state warranty disclosure laws, preemption exemptions, 2.9.2
tie-in waivers, granting, 2.4.1.2
trade regulation rules, see TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
FEDERALLY INSURED LOANS
see also DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
manufactured home purchases, express warranties, 17.4.4
FEES
see also EXPENSES
canceling buyer, recovery as incidental damages, 10.5.2
lemon law refunds, inclusions, 14.2.8.7
witnesses, see WITNESS FEES
FIFTY/FIFTY (50/50) WARRANTIES
described, 2.4.1.4
service contract status, 2.2.3.4
tie-in violation, 2.4.1.4, 15.3.3
UDAP violation, 2.4.1.4
used car sales, 15.3.3
written warranty status, 2.2.3.4, 2.4.1.4
FINANCE CHARGES
see FINANCING COSTS
FINANCE LEASES
see CONSUMER FINANCE LEASES
FINANCERS
see CREDITORS; LESSORS; THIRD PARTY CREDITORS
FINANCING AGREEMENTS
used cars, disclosure requirements, 15.6.5
FINANCING COSTS
canceling buyer, recovery, 10.3.2, 10.5.3.1.3
consequential damages, 10.5.3.1.3, 17.8.5.3
incidental damages, 10.5.2
lemon law refunds, 14.2.8.7
FINANCING STATEMENTS
secured party filing, effect, 8.4.5.2.2, 8.4.5.2.3
FINANCING STATUTES
see CREDIT STATUTES
FINISHED PRODUCT TEST
mixed transaction, predominant purpose, 19.3.4.2
FITNESS FOR ORDINARY PURPOSES
fitness, meaning of term, 4.2.3.2.2–4.2.3.2.4
merchantable standard, 4.2.3.2, 7.3.6.1
ordinary purposes, meaning of term, 4.2.3.2.1, 7.3.6.1
particular purpose distinction, 4.3.2.4.2–4.3.2.4.5
FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
see also IMPLIED WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
advantages over merchantability warranty, 4.3.1, 4.3.2.4.4
application, 4.3.2.2, 4.3.2.4
breach of warranty, 4.3.2.5, 7.3.7
burden of proof, 4.3.4
characterization
advantageous, 13.1.5
future performance warranty, 7.2.2.2, 7.3.4, 7.3.7, 7.6.3.5
present condition warranty, 7.2.2.1, 7.3.4
common law warranty, comparison, 19.4.3
disclaimers, validity, 5.11.2
elements, 4.3.2
express warranty conflicts, 3.9.3
fitness, 4.3.2.8
good faith, effect, 4.3.3
knowledge, 4.3.2.3
Magnuson-Moss, application, 2.3.1.2.1
manufactured homes, 17.5.3
misuse, effect, 7.7.2.4
nonconformity, proof, 7.3.7
ordinary purpose as particular purpose, 4.3.2.4.2, 4.3.2.4.5
ordinary purpose not particular purpose, 4.3.2.4.3
overview, 1.9.1.4, 4.3.1
parol evidence rule, application, 4.3.4.2
particular purpose, 4.3.2.4
quality, 4.3.2.8
reliance requirement, 4.3.2.5, 4.3.2.6
selection requirement, 4.3.2.7
specific or special purpose, 4.3.2.4.1, 4.3.2.4.2
standards, interpretation, 7.3.7
used car sales, 15.4.1
FLESCH TEST
warranty disclosures, application, 2.6.4.1
FLOORING
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)
exclusive enforcement authority, 1.7.2.6
FDA-approved label, 1.7.2.1.3, 1.7.2.1.5, 1.7.2.2
fraud on the FDA, 1.7.2.1.5
medical devices, 1.7.2.1
generic manufacturing standards, 1.7.2.1.4
review system, 1.7.2.1.1, 16.3
medications
generic medications, 1.7.2.3
over-the-counter medications, 1.7.2.4
prescription medications, 1.7.2.2
preemption of state law, 1.7.2, 1.7.8.2
preemption regulation, 1.7.2.1.6
vaccines, 1.7.2.5
FOOD SAFETY
see FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)
FORM CONTRACTS
see STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
FOUR CORNERS TEST
parol evidence, application, 3.7.2.3
FRAUD CLAIMS
see also MISREPRESENTATIONS; STATUTE OF FRAUDS; TORT CLAIMS
advantages over UDAP claims, 11.4.1.3
advantages over warranty claim, 11.4.1.2
auto repairs, 19.7
concealment, see FRAUDULENT CONCEALMENT
damages, 11.4.7.1, 11.4.7.2
disclaimers, validity, 5.15.1, 13.8.3.3
economic loss damages, 11.4.2.2
election of remedies, necessity, 1.6.3
elements, 11.4.2.1, 11.4.8
federal preemption, 1.7
home improvement contracts, 19.7
informal dispute mechanisms, improper, 2.8.6
leases, application, 21.2.7
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.5
manufactured home cases, 17.8.2.4
new cars, 14.4.4
new home cases, 18.7.1.2
nondisclosure, see FRAUDULENT CONCEALMENT
non-warranty remedy, 3.2.4
overview, 1.2.7, 11.4.1.1
pleading, 11.4.8
practice tips, 11.4.8
privity, necessity, 6.2.5.6
punitive damages, 10.6, 11.4.7.2
remedies, 11.4.7
rescission remedy, 11.4.7.3
scope issues, 1.5.5, 1.5.6, 1.5.12
service transactions, 19.7
statute of limitations, 7.6.10
title defects, 15.2
UCC claims, cumulation of remedies, 1.6.3
used car sales, 15.8.4, 15.7.2
warranty disclaimers, effect, 5.15.1
warranty dispute resolution mechanisms, 2.8.6
FRAUDULENT CONCEALMENT
see also CONCEALMENT; FRAUD CLAIMS
statute of limitations, tolling, 7.6.6
tort claims, 11.4.5
FREE
see WITHOUT CHARGE
FREEDOM OF CONTRACT
UCC policy and restrictions, 9.1
FTC RULES
advice requests, 2.1.2
informal dispute resolution mechanisms
binding arbitration, prohibition, 13.4.6.2
compliance, 2.8.1.2
lemon laws, application, 14.2.9.4
lemon laws, preemption, 14.2.9.5
timing of decision, 2.8.1.3
interpretation rules, deference, 2.1.2
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act
arbitration clauses, application, 13.4.4, 13.4.6.2
disclosure requirements, 2.6
impracticable lien clearances, 2.5.3.3
interpretation rules, 2.1.2
pre-sale availability of warranty, 2.6.5.1
reasonable consumer duties, proposed rules, 2.5.7.2
repair attempts, reasonable number, 2.5.6
repair extensions, 2.4.4
Rule 703, 2.8.1, 13.4.6.2, 14.2.9.4, 14.2.9.5
service contracts, 2.3.8, 2.6.1
text, Appx. B
trade regulation rules
cooling-off period for door-to-door sales, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
holders-in-due course, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
preservation of claims and defenses, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
used cars, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
FUEL ECONOMY
express warranties, 3.2.2.3
federal standards, preemptive effect, 1.7.5.4
implied warranties, 3.2.2.3
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.2.4
representations, 3.2.2.3
FULL WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES
consequential damage exclusions, 2.5.5
consumer duties reasonable, 2.5.7, 2.6.4.6
consumer election of remedy, 2.5.6
coverage, 2.6.4.3
criteria, 2.1.1, 2.5.1
designation requirements, 2.6.3
duration, specification, 2.6.3
implied warranties, disclaimers or limits, 2.5.4
liens on product, effect, 2.5.3.3
limited remedy disclosures, 2.3.3
limited warranties distinguished, 2.5.1
Magnuson-Moss Act requirements, 2.5
proof of purchase, 2.5.7.5
reasonable and necessary maintenance, 2.5.7.4
registration card conditions, prohibition, 2.4.3
repair, replace, or refund, 2.5.3.1
subsequent owner’s rights, 2.5.2, 2.6.4.2
without charge, 2.5.3.2
FUNDAMENTAL CONTRACT ASSUMPTIONS
advertisements, 3.7.6
parol evidence exception, 3.7.8
FUNGICIDES
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.3
FURNACES
see also HOME IMPROVEMENTS
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.1.7
personal property status, 2.2.1.5
manufactured homes, 17.1.3.10, 17.3.2
FURNITURE
see CONSUMER PRODUCTS
FUTURE PERFORMANCE WARRANTIES
see also AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISE (EXPRESS WARRANTY); EXPRESS WARRANTIES
breach of warranty
generally, 7.3.5.2
overview, 7.3.3
standards, interpretation, 7.3.5.2.3
statute of limitations, 7.6.3.1
characterization, 7.3.5.2.2, 7.6.3.2
advantageous, 13.1.5
as affirmation of fact, 3.2.2.4.3
general or specific, 7.3.4
duration and conditions, 7.3.5.2.4
interpretation, 7.3.5.2.3, 7.6.3.2
particular purpose warranty, additional, 7.3.7
present characteristic warranty distinguished, 7.3.3
product’s future performance, 3.2.2.4.3
promises creating, 3.2.2.4
repair or replace warranty, 3.2.2.4.2, 7.6.3.4
seller’s future actions, 3.2.2.4.2
specific time period, 7.6.3.3
standards, interpretation, 7.3.5.2.3
what is, 7.6.3.2
GARAGE SALES
express warranty creation at, 3.2.3
UCC, application, 1.5.9
GAS MILEAGE
see FUEL ECONOMY
GIFT RECIPIENTS
see NONBUYERS; THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES
GOOD AND WORKMANLIKE CONSTRUCTION
see WORKMANLIKE MANNER
GOOD FAITH
breach of duty, see BAD FAITH
breach of warranty, application, 9.5.2
common law duty, 11.3.3
cover purchase, requirement, 10.3.3.3, 10.3.4
defined, 11.3.1
disclaimer of duty, validity, 5.13, 15.8.5
duty to disclose, 5.13, 15.8.5
insurance contracts, 20.3.1, 20.5.6
limited remedy clauses, failure of essential purpose, application, 9.5.2
particular purpose warranty, application, 4.3.3
question of fact, 11.3.5, 13.8.1.5
service contracts, 20.3.1, 20.5.6
UCC obligation, 11.3
disclaimer restrictions, 5.13, 11.3.4, 15.8.5
fundamental policy, 11.3.1
liberal construction, 1.8.2.1
remedies for breach, 11.3.4
scope, 11.3.2
used car application, 15.8.5
use of product after cancellation, 8.4.6.4
warranty dispute resolution mechanisms, requirement, 2.8.3
GOODS
see also CONSUMER PRODUCTS
computer software, status, 1.5.4
damaged, see DEFECTIVE GOODS
definition, 1.5.1
goods of that kind, interpretation of term, 4.2.2.3
houses, status, 1.5.6
leases, see LEASES
manufactured homes, status, 17.1.2, 17.2.1
misuse, see MISUSE OF PRODUCT
modular homes, status, 17.1.2, 17.2.1
motor vehicles, see MOTOR VEHICLES
nonconforming, see DEFECTIVE GOODS
real property, status, 1.5.6
sale of goods, see SALE OF GOODS
transaction distinguished from sale, 1.5.2
unmerchantable, examples, 7.3.6.1
used, see USED GOODS
utility service, status, 1.5.7
GOODS TRANSACTIONS
see SALE OF GOODS
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
defective product investigations, 7.5.7
GOVERNMENT STANDARDS
see SAFETY STANDARDS; STANDARDS
GRAY MARKET SALES
express warranties, 14.7
warranty of title, 4.5.1
GUARANTEES
see also WARRANTIES
UDAP violations, 11.1.6
GUESTS
see also NONBUYERS
warranty suits, 6.3.3.2
GUIDES (FTC)
used cars, see USED CAR GUIDE (FTC)
HABITABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
see also NEW HOME WARRANTIES
breach of warranty, 18.3.6
common defects, 18.3.6.4
habitability, 18.3.6.2
notice of defects, 18.3.10
workmanlike construction, 18.3.6.3
condominiums, 18.3.5.2, 18.5.1
disclaimers, 18.3.7
duration, 18.3.9
liberal interpretation, 18.3.6.1
merger clauses, effect, 18.3.8
new homes, application, 18.3.2
scope
buyers, 18.3.3
property, 18.3.5
sellers, 18.3.4
statutory warranties, 18.4.4
used homes, application, 18.3.5.1
HAGUE CONVENTION
service of process, foreign defendants and witnesses, 13.3.10
HALF-TRUTH
fraud by, 11.4.5
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT
see FURNACES; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
HERBICIDES
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.3
HIDDEN DEFECTS
see LATENT DEFECTS
HOLDER RULE (FTC)
cancellation of sales, application
deduction of damages, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.5, 8.5.6
reselling goods, 8.4.5.3, 8.4.5.4
home improvement contracts, application, 19.8.7.4
insolvent car dealers, application, 15.9.1
leases, application, 21.6.1.2, 21.6.1.3
Magnuson-Moss derivative liability, 2.2.5.4
manufactured homes, application, 17.8.2.6
HOLDERS-IN-DUE COURSE
assignees of leases, status, 21.6.1.2
FTC rule, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
HOME IMPROVEMENTS
see also HOME SOLICITATION SALES; SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
bonding requirements, 19.8.7.2
building codes, 19.8.3
cancellation of contract, 19.8.1
complaints
government investigations, 7.5.7
pleading, 19.8.8.2
TILA, 19.8.1.2
completion certificates, 19.8.2
consumer product status, 2.2.1.5
cooling-off periods, 19.8.1.2, 19.8.1.3, 19.8.1.4
corporate veil, piercing, 19.8.7.3
failure to complete work, 19.8.2
HOEPA coverage, 19.8.1.2
insolvent contractors, 19.8.7
lender liability, 19.8.7.4, 19.8.7.5
litigation tips, 19.8.8
mortgages and liens, 19.8.8.3
permits, 19.8.2, 19.8.3
refusal to pay as remedy, 19.8.7.4
state statutes and regulations, 19.8.4–19.8.6
substantial renovations, 18.3.4.1
UDAP violations, 19.8.5
unmerchantable, examples, 7.3.6.1
HOME OWNERSHIP AND EQUITY PROTECTION ACT (HOEPA)
home improvement violations, TILA rescission, 19.8.1.2
manufactured homes, application, 17.8.2.5.3
HOME SOLICITATION SALES
see also HOME IMPROVEMENTS
cooling-off periods
FTC rule, 19.8.1.3
state law, 19.8.1.4
TILA rescission, 19.8.1.2
prospective buyer, definition, 2.6.5.4
used car sales, 15.7.2
warranty disclosures, pre-sale requirements, 2.6.5.4
HOME WARRANTY PROGRAMS
see also NEW HOME WARRANTIES
service agreements, 18.6.2.2
HOMES
defective component damage, 12.2.8.4
manufactured homes, see MANUFACTURED HOMES
modular homes, see MODULAR HOMES
new home warranties, see NEW HOME WARRANTIES
sales, see HOUSE SALES; REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
HORIZONTAL PRIVITY
see also PRIVITY OF CONTRACT
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.3.5
nonbuyer claims, 6.3
HOUSE SALES
see also REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
breach of contract, 18.7.1.3
causes of action, 18.7.1
caveat emptor, 18.3.1
express warranties, 18.6
federally insured loans, 18.6.2.1
HOW program, 18.6.2.2
implied warranties, application, 18.3.2, 18.3.5.1
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 18.2
merger doctrine, 18.3.8, 18.6.3.1
new home warranties, see NEW HOME WARRANTIES
prefabricated homes, see MANUFACTURED HOMES; MODULAR HOMES
scope issues, 1.5.6
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3
tort claims, 18.7.1.2
UCC, application, 18.1
UDAP claims, 18.7.1.1
HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS
see CONSUMER PRODUCTS
HOUSING
manufactured housing, see MANUFACTURED HOMES
substitute housing, consequential damages, 10.5.3.1.2
HOW PROGRAM
home warranty service agreements, 18.6.2.2
HUD LABEL
express warranty creation, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
HUD WARRANTY
see also DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
manufactured homes
circumstances, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
dealer responsibilities, 17.4.4, 17.7.6, 17.8.2.6
lender responsibilities, 17.4.4, 17.8.2.6
manufacturer responsibilities, 17.4.4
new homes, 18.6.2.1
IMPLIED WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
arbitration, 13.4.5
“as is” or “with all faults” disclaimers
see also “AS IS” DISCLAIMERS
alternative language, 5.5
effect, 5.2
used car sales, 15.4.3, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
validity, circumstances, 5.11.1
breach, see BREACH OF WARRANTY
characterization
advantageous, 13.1.5
performance warranty, 7.2.2.2, 7.3.4, 7.3.7, 7.6.3.5
common law warranties, 18.3, 19.4.3
component suppliers, application, 2.2.5.2
condominiums, 18.5
creation, 1.9.1.3, 1.9.1.4
cumulation, 3.9.1
definition, 2.3.1.2.1, 2.3.1.2.2, 2.3.6.2
disclaimer or modification restrictions
conspicuousness requirement, 5.8, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
FTC Used Car Rule, 15.4.5
leases, 21.3.4
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 2.3.2, 2.5.4, 5.3
state law restrictions, 5.4
UCC restrictions, 5.5, 15.4.4
used car sales, 5.4.2, 15.4.3, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
written requirement, 5.8.1
duration
disclosure, 2.6.4.8
limits on, 2.3.2.3, 2.5.4, 5.3.2
express warranty conflicts, 3.9
fitness for a particular purpose, see FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
full warranties, 2.5.4
habitability, see HABITABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
latent car defects, application, 14.5.4
leases
disclaimer, 21.3.4
finance leases, 21.3.3
lessor obligations, 21.3.3
manufacturer liability, 2.2.6.6, 2.2.6.7
lemon laws, application, 14.2.4.2
limited remedy clauses, application, 2.3.3, 9.4.3
Magnuson-Moss claims
application generally, 2.1.1, 2.3.1
attorney fees, 2.7.8.2, 2.7.8.3
liability for breach, 2.3.1, 2.7.7.2
privity considerations, 2.3.6.2, 6.3.2
remedies, 2.7
manufacturer’s liability, 6.2.4
merchantability, see MERCHANTABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
merger doctrine, effect, 18.3.8
new home sales
common law, 18.3
condominiums, 18.5
disclaimers, 18.3.7
statutory, 18.4
non-UCC sales
by analogy to UCC, 19.2.3
common law warranties, 19.4.3
overview, 4.1
parol evidence rule, application, 4.3.4.2
particular purpose, see FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
post-sale inspection, effect, 4.4.2.3
pre-sale inspection, effect, 4.4
present condition warranties, 7.3.3
privity, 6.2.3.1
questions of fact, 13.8.1.3
registration cards, effect, 2.4.3
scope issues, 1.5
state law application, 2.3.1.2
statute of limitations, 7.6.3.5
tie-ins
prohibition, 2.4.1.2, 13.4.5
remedies, 2.4.1.5
title warranty, see TITLE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
used car sales, 15.4
used goods, 1.5.3
written necessity, 2.3.1.3
IMPOSSIBILITY
warranty conditions, application, 7.7.3
IMPROPER USE
see MISUSE OF PRODUCT
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
attorney fees as, 10.7
canceled sales, 10.3.1, 10.5.1
definition, 10.5.1
financing expenses, 10.3.2, 10.5.2
full warranties, compensation, 2.5.3.2
generally, 10.5.1, 10.5.2
inclusions, 10.5.1, 10.5.2
lemon laws, reimbursement, 14.2.8.7.3, 14.2.10.6.2
limited remedy clauses
failure of essential purpose, 9.5.3
unconscionability, 9.6.2
validity, 9.5.4, 9.6.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.7.1
manufactured home cases, 17.8.5.2
non-canceling buyer, 10.5.1
pleading, 13.3.8
proof, 10.5.4
recovery, generally, 10.5.1, 10.5.2
resales after cancellation, application of proceeds, restrictions, 8.4.4.4
INCONSISTENT WARRANTIES
see also CUMULATIVE WARRANTIES; MULTIPLE WARRANTIES
express warranties, 3.9.3
INDIRECT SELLERS
see also DISTRIBUTORS; MANUFACTURERS; SELLERS
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.2.1
notice of breach to, 7.2.2.5
proving breach of warranty against, 6.2.7, 7.5.1.3
rescission remedy, 8.3.8.5
revocation of acceptance against, 8.3.8
manufactured homes, 17.6.7
strict liability, 12.3.2
warranties given by, direct seller liability, 6.2.6
warranty claims, liability, 6.2
INDUCEMENTS
parol evidence exception, 3.7.8
INDUSTRY PRACTICE
see USAGE OF TRADE
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
see STANDARDS
INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
see also ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
arbitration distinguished, 2.8.1.4
FTC Rule 703
binding arbitration, prohibition, 13.4.6.2
compliance, 2.8.1.2
lemon laws, application, 14.2.9.4
lemon laws, preemption, 14.2.9.5
timing of decision, 2.8.1.3
lemon law claims, 14.2.9
appellate review, 14.2.9.2.2–14.2.9.2.4
attorney fee awards, 14.2.9.3
binding effect, 14.2.9.2.1, 14.2.9.2.3
constitutional challenges, 14.2.2, 14.2.9.6
deciding whether to use, 14.2.9.1
disclosure requirements, 14.2.9.4
failure to meet requirements, 14.2.9.1, 14.2.9.4
federal preemption, 2.9.1, 14.2.9.5
filing, limitations period, 14.2.7
precondition, 14.2.10.1
preparation tips, 14.2.9.7
procedures, 14.2.9.1
standards, 14.2.9.4
used cars, 15.5.2.8
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.8
class actions, 2.7.9.2, 2.8.1
decision admissible in evidence, 2.8.5.2, 2.8.6
disclosure requirements, 2.6.4.7, 2.8.2, 2.8.4
FTC requirements, compliance, 2.8.1.2
nonbinding nature, 2.8.5.2, 13.4.6.2
precondition, 2.7.4, 2.8.1
qualifying mechanisms, 2.8.5
settlement outside, 2.8.2
warrantor’s obligations, 2.8.3
manufactured homes, 17.3.1, 17.3.9, 17.7.4
qualifying mechanisms, requirements, 2.8.5
information regarding, provision, 2.8.5.1, 2.8.5.3
lemon laws, 14.2.9.1, 14.2.9.4
members’ qualifications, 2.8.5.1
operation, 2.8.5.2
organization, 2.8.5.1
recordkeeping, 2.8.5.3
remedies for improper mechanisms, 2.8.6
service contracts, 20.5.1
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
see also EQUITABLE RELIEF
Magnuson-Moss violations, 2.7.7.4.1, 2.7.11
rendering moot by defendant, 2.7.8.6.4
INJURIES
see PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES
INSECTICIDES
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.3
INSOLVENCY
see also BANKRUPTCY
dealers, 15.9
home improvement contractors, 19.8.7
service contractors, 20.7.2
INSPECTION
buyer’s rights
contractual specification of time, 8.2.2.3
reasonable time, 8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.2
seller’s conduct extending time period, 8.2.2.4
canceled sales, prior to return or resale, 8.4.1, 13.2.2
contract clauses stating buyer examined goods, 4.4.3, 8.2.2.3
disclaimers, effect, 5.11.2
expert inspection, see EXPERT EVIDENCE
failure to inspect, effect, 8.3.3
implied warranties, 4.4.2.4
misrepresentation claims, 11.4.6
UDAP claims, 11.1.1.2
manufactured homes, common defects, 17.1.3
manufacturer’s duty, 12.4.1.4
particular purpose warranty, effect, 4.3.2.6
post-sale, see POST-SALE INSPECTION
practice tips
buyer’s expert, 13.6.1
seller, by, 13.6.2
pre-sale, see PRE-SALE INSPECTION
safety inspections, see SAFETY INSPECTIONS
state inspection laws, 15.5.6
sticker as express warranty, 5.2
used car dealers, duty, 5.15.1, 12.4.1.4, 15.5.6
INSPECTION FORMS
written warranty status, 2.2.3.1
INSTALLATION
express warranty breach, 3.2.4
full warranties, replacement without charge, 2.5.3.2
instructions, see DIRECTIONS FOR USE OR INSTALLATION
manufactured homes, defects caused by, 17.7
strict liability, 12.3.3
INSTALLMENT PAYMENTS
deductions for damages, 8.5.3, 8.5.4
manufactured homes, 17.8.6
INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
see SECURITY INTERESTS
INSTALLMENT SALES LEGISLATION (STATE)
see RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (RISA)
INSTRUCTIONS
see DIRECTIONS FOR USE OR INSTALLATION
INSULATION
see BUILDING MATERIALS; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
INSURANCE
automobile insurance, post-cancellation, 14.2.8.10
good faith doctrine, 20.5.6
manufactured home setups, 17.7.6, 17.7.7
mechanical breakdowns, see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE
service contracts
regulation as, 2.2.4.2, 2.3.2.2.5, 20.3, 20.5.4, 20.5.5, 20.5.7, 20.7.2
reimbursement insurance, 20.1.3, 20.3.1, 20.7.2
INSURANCE GUARANTY FUNDS
service contracts, recovery under, 20.7.2
INSURANCE PREMIUMS
lemon law refunds, 14.2.8.7
INTEGRATION CLAUSES
see MERGER CLAUSES
INTENTIONAL MISREPRESENTATION
see FRAUD CLAIMS
INTEREST
prejudgment interest, 10.5.3.1.3
lemon law refunds, 14.2.8.7.1
INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
see also WEB RESOURCES
electronic warranty documents, 2.2.3.7
pre-sale availability of warranty, 2.6.5.5
INTERROGATORIES
see also DISCOVERY
practice tips, 13.5.1
new car cases, 14.9.4.1
sample interrogatories, Appx. J.2
INVESTIGATIONS
product or sellers by government agencies, 7.5.7
ITINERANT SALES
see HOME SOLICITATION SALES
JOINDER
lemon law claims, 14.4.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.2.1
JUDGMENTS
collection of, 14.9.7
JURISDICTION
doctrine of primary jurisdiction, 1.7.5.3
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.2
Magnuson-Moss actions, 2.7.2
amount in controversy, 2.7.2.1
class actions, 2.7.2.4
diversity jurisdiction, 2.7.2.2, 2.7.2.3
mandatory arbitration clauses, effect, 2.7.2.6
removal to federal court, 2.7.2.5
supplemental jurisdiction, 2.7.2.3
motor home cases, 14.8.3
warranty class actions, 13.3.11.2
JURY TRIALS
attorney fee awards, 13.8.1.6
“lemon,” use of word, 13.8.3.4
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.4
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.3
merger clause determinations, 3.7.2.10
practice tips, 14.9.5
jury instructions, 13.8.8
selection of jury, 13.8.2
verdict forms, 13.8.8, 19.9.3.1
questions of fact, see QUESTIONS OF FACT
spoliation of evidence, adverse inference, 13.2.5
KNOWLEDGE
see also SCIENTER
“as is” disclaimers, effect, 5.11.2
danger or risk
common knowledge, 12.3.5
failure to warn, 12.3.6
defect, notice necessity, 7.2.2.4, 7.2.5.1
disclaimers, requirement, 5.9
latent defects, 7.7.4.4
particular purpose warranty, requirement, 4.3.2.3
seller’s superior knowledge, 11.4.5
LABELING
see also PACKAGING
affirmation of fact or promise, 3.2.2.5
description of goods warranty, 3.3
federal preemption
drugs and pharmaceuticals, 1.7.2
hazardous substances, 1.7.8.1
pesticides and herbicides, 1.7.3
product safety, 1.7.6
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act
application, 2.2.7
state law preemption, 2.9.2
manufactured homes, HUD label, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.3
warning of dangers or defects, 1.7.8, 12.4.1.5
LABOR
see also SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.1.6
parts and labor warranty, 19.9.2
LAND
see REAL PROPERTY
LANGUAGE
“as is” disclaimers, alternative language, 5.5
Buyers Guide, used cars, 5.8.9, 5.9, 15.6.6
contract provisions, unconscionability, 11.2.5.2.2
plain language laws, see PLAIN LANGUAGE LAWS
warranty disclaimers, 5.8.9, 5.9
LATENT DEFECTS
see also DEFECTIVE GOODS
assumption of risk defense, applicability, 7.7.2.3
defects yet to malfunction, 7.3.8, 11.1.5
discovery after warranty period, 7.7.4.4
duty to disclose
cars, 11.1.5, 14.5.5, 15.8.5
nonmerchants, 4.2.2.2
extensions beyond written warranty, 14.5.4
negligence claims, 14.5.6
new cars, 14.5
emissions system, 14.5.8
vehicle recalls, 14.5.7
new homes, 18.6.3
pre-sale inspection, effect, 4.4.2.1
recall notices, 14.5.7, 15.5.6
revocation of acceptance, 8.3.4
secret warranties, 14.5.3, 14.5.5
seller’s knowledge, effect, 14.5.5
service contract coverage, 14.5.2
strict liability, 14.5.6
UDAP violations, 11.1.5, 14.5.5
warnings, effect, 7.7.2.3
LEASES
automobile leases, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
commercial leases, see COMMERCIAL LEASES
consumer finance leases, see CONSUMER FINANCE LEASES
consumer leases, see CONSUMER LEASES
RTO, see RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
LEGISLATIVE HISTORY
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, 2.1.2
UCC, individual state enactments, 1.4.3
LEMON LAUNDERING
AT devices, 16.7.3
causes of action, 15.8.7.1
breach of warranty, 15.3.7
determining a laundered lemon, 15.8.7.2
litigation issues, 15.8.6
manufacturer warranties, 15.3.2.2, 15.3.7
LEMON LAWS (STATE)
see also STATUTORY WARRANTIES
accessories and options, application, 14.2.4.3, 14.2.4.4
alternative damage claims, 14.4
assistive technological devices, 16
attorney fees, 14.2.10.10
informal dispute resolution, 14.2.9.3
Chrysler, application, 14.9.3
claims under
attorney fees and costs, 14.2.10.10
damages, 14.2.10.6–14.2.10.8
dispute resolution precondition, 14.2.10.1
equitable relief, 14.2.10.9
jurisdiction, 2.7.2.1, 14.2.10.2
jury trials, 14.2.10.4
pleading, 13.3.1.1, 13.3.1.4
proper state court, 14.2.10.3
replace or refund remedy, 14.2.10
sample pleadings, Appx. J
commercial vehicles, application, 14.2.3.6
common law, relationship, 1.6.3
constitutional issues, 14.2.2
continued use, effect, 14.2.4.7
costs, recovery of, 14.2.10.10.5
covered car owners, 14.2.3.6
covered defects
abuse or neglect, 14.2.4.5
dealer installations, 14.2.4.3, 14.2.4.4, 14.2.4.5
express warranties, 14.2.4.1, 14.2.4.3
implied warranties, 14.2.4.2
substantial impairment, 14.2.4.6
unauthorized modifications, 14.2.4.5
covered defendants, 14.2.3.7
car manufacturers, 14.2.3.7.1
component manufacturers, 14.2.3.7.1, 14.2.4.1
dealers, 14.2.3.7.2
distributors, 14.2.3.7.1
covered vehicles
demonstrators, 14.2.3.3
leased vehicles, 14.2.3.4
motor homes, 17.4.2
new vehicles, 14.2.3.3
out-of-state vehicles, 14.2.3.5
types, 14.2.3.1
used vehicles, 14.2.3.3, 15.5.2.2, 15.5.3
damage prior to delivery, 14.6
damages remedy, 14.2.10.6
alternative claims, 14.4
limitation of damages clauses, 14.2.10.7
multiple and punitive damages, 14.2.10.8, 14.4.3
relation to other remedies, 14.2.10.6.3
days out of service, 14.2.6.3
dealers, application, 14.2.3.7.2
equitable relief, 14.2.10.9
expert witness fees, 14.2.10.10.5
General Motors, application, 14.9.3
informal dispute resolution mechanisms, 14.2.9
see also under INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
binding effect, 14.2.9.2.1, 14.2.9.2.3
prerequisite to judicial enforcement, 14.2.10.1
judicial enforcement, 14.2.10
latent defects, 14.5
leases, application, 14.2.3.4, 15.5.2.2
refund or replace remedy, 14.2.8.7.4, 21.2.4, 21.4
liberal construction, 1.8.1, 14.2.1
limited remedy clauses, application, 14.2.10.5
low-mileage used vehicles, application, 14.2.3.3
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, preemption, 2.9.1
manufactured homes, application, 17.4.2
manufacturers, application, 14.2.3.7.1
motor homes, application, 14.2.3.2, 14.8.1
notice requirements, 14.2.5
overview, 1.2.5, 1.9.5, 14.2.1
post-cancellation damage, responsibility, 14.2.8.10
practice tips, 14.9
sample pleadings, Appx. J
preemptive effect, 14.4.2
refunds, 14.2.8
calculation of, 14.2.8.7
choice of remedy, 14.2.8.3
inability to return car, effect, 14.2.8.3
judicial enforcement, 14.2.10
leased vehicles, 14.2.8.7.4
trade-in allowances, 14.2.8.7.2
use deduction, 14.2.8.8
repair attempts, allowable number, 14.2.6.3
replacement remedy, 14.2.8
allowance for use, 14.2.8.6
choice of remedy, 14.2.8.3
comparable replacement, 14.2.8.5
inability to return car, effect, 14.2.8.3
judicial enforcement, 14.2.10
research and resource aids, 1.4.5
residency requirements, 14.2.3.5
retroactivity, 14.2.9.6
right to cure, 14.2.6
scope, 14.2.3
state-by-state analysis, Appx. F
statute of limitations, 14.2.7
substantial impairment of value, requirement, 14.2.4.6
third party lender or lessor, 14.2.8.9
UCC revocation alternative, 14.3
use of goods after cancellation of sale, application, 8.4.6.3
use of word “lemon” at trial, 13.8.3.4
used car lemon laws, 15.5.2
covered parts, 15.5.2.4
disclaimers, 15.5.2.5
duration, 15.5.2.3
notice of defect, 15.5.2.6
private enforcement, 15.5.2.8
refunds, 15.5.2.7
replacement cars, 15.5.2.7
right to cure, 15.5.2.6
scope, 15.5.2.2
used cars, applicability of new car laws, 15.5.3
van converters, application, 14.2.3.7.1
violation as UDAP violation, 11.1.9
warranty period, 14.2.7
wheelchair lemon laws, see ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGICAL (AT) DEVICE WARRANTY LAWS
LENDERS
see CREDITORS
LESSEES
consumer status, 2.2.6.4–2.2.6.7
LESSORS
see also CONSUMER LEASES
CLA liability, 21.2.5, 21.6.2.2
lemon law refunds, receipt, 14.2.8.9
Magnuson-Moss liability, 21.2.3
strict liability, 12.3.2
types of leases, 21.1.2
warranty defenses, raising against, 21.6
warranty obligations, 21.3
LIABILITY
builders, 18.3.4.1, 18.3.4.3, 18.4.2, 18.4.3, 18.4.7
creditors, 2.2.5.4, 15.9.1, 19.8.7.4, 19.8.7.5
dealers, 2.2.5.3, 21.5
direct sellers for indirect seller’s warranty, 6.2.6, 8.5.6
disclaimers, see DISCLAIMERS
distributors, 2.2.5.2
home improvement contracts, 19.8.7
indirect sellers, 6.2
individuals, 2.2.5.5
lemon laws, under, 14.2.4
lessors, 21.3, 21.5
limitations on remedies, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
Magnuson-Moss violations, 2.2.5
manufactured home transport and set up, 17.7
manufacturers, 2.2.5.2, 6.2, 19.9.5, 21.4
negligent repairs by authorized dealer, 6.2.5.2, 19.9.5.1
new home sales, 18.3.4, 18.4.2, 18.4.3, 18.4.7
privity issues, 6.1
recall costs, 19.9.5.2
security interests, failure to terminate on demand, 8.4.5.2.3
service contracts, 20.5–20.7
service transactions, negligence, 19.5.3
strict liability, see STRICT LIABILITY
third parties, see THIRD PARTY LIABILITY
LICENSES
auto repair shops, 19.9.3.3
home improvement contractors, 19.8.8.1
manufactured home installers, 17.7.7
mechanics, 19.9.3.3, 19.9.3.4
service contractors, 20.5.7
LICENSORS
strict liability, 12.3.2
LIENHOLDERS
see THIRD PARTY CREDITORS
LIENS
see SECURITY INTERESTS; STATUTORY LIENS
LIMITATIONS
contractual limitations on remedies, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
limited warranties, see LIMITED WARRANTIES
statute of limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
warranty period, see WARRANTY PERIOD
LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
see also DISCLAIMERS
ambiguity, 9.2, 9.4.1
avoiding, 9.4
bad faith, effect, 9.10
buyer agreement, necessity, 9.3
conspicuousness, 9.7
cure based on, 8.3.7.3
disclaimers distinguished, 1.9.2.3, 5.1, 9.1
disclosure requirements, 2.3.3, 2.6.4.9, 9.7
express warranties, application, 9.4.2
failure of essential purpose, 9.5
implied warranties, application, 9.4.3
incidental or consequential damages, 9.5.3, 9.5.4
lemon law claims, application
damages, 14.2.10.7
replace or refund remedy, 14.2.10.5
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 2.3.3
manufactured homes, 17.6.2, 17.8.5.4
nonbuyers, validity, 6.3.8
overview, 1.9.2.3, 9.1
personal injury damages, validity, 5.12, 9.4.4, 10.5.3.2
plain language laws, 9.7.3
post-sale conduct of seller as waiver, 9.8
remote purchasers, application, 9.3
repair or replace remedy, 9.1, 9.4.2
failure of essential purpose, 9.5.2, 14.2.10.7
manufactured homes, 17.6.3
scope, 9.4
state restrictions, 9.9
tort claims, validity, 12.1
UDAP claims, effect on, 11.1.1.2
UDAP violations, 9.11
unconscionability, 9.6
burden of proof, 9.6.1, 11.2.6, 13.8.1
LIMITED WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES
designation requirements, 2.6.3
full warranties distinguished, 2.5.1
implied warranties, duration, 2.3.2.3.1, 2.5.4
registration card conditions, disclosure, 2.4.3
revocation of acceptance, 2.7.7.4
used cars, Buyers Guide requirement, 5.7
LITIGATION AIDS
see PRACTICE TIPS; RESEARCH AIDS
LOAN STATUTES
see CREDIT STATUTES
LODESTAR FORMULA
lemon law claims, application, 14.2.10.10.4
LOSS
see DAMAGES
LOST WAGES
consequential damages, 10.5.3.1.2
LOW-MILEAGE VEHICLES
see DEMONSTRATOR CARS
MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
see also MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
anti-tying violations, 2.4.1.5
arbitration, 2.7.2.6, 13.4.4–13.4.6
FTC dispute resolution requirements, application, 2.8.1
assistive technological devices, 16.7.4
attorney fees and costs, 2.7.8
available relief, 2.7.7
circumstances, 2.7.1
class actions, 2.7.9
consumer lessees, 21.2.6
damages
actual damages, 2.7.7.1
personal injury damages, 2.7.7.2
pleading, 2.7.5
punitive damages, 2.7.7.3
statutory damages, 2.7.7.4
derivative liability, 2.2.5.4
equitable relief, 2.7.7.4.1
express warranties, ambiguous, 7.3.5.3.1
FTC Used Car Rule violations, 15.6.9.2
implied warranties, 4.1, 4.5.3
informal dispute resolution, 2.8
precondition to claim, 2.8.1
jurisdiction, 2.7.2
jury trials, 2.7.3
liability, 2.2.5
limitations, 2.7.10
manufactured homes
breach of federal standards, 17.3.6
pleading, 17.8.2.1
revocation of acceptance, 17.6.7
new cars, 14.4.3
notice of breach, 2.3.7, 2.5.7.3, 7.2.2.3
pleading, 2.2.2, 2.7.6, 13.3.1.1, 13.3.1.2
damages, 2.7.5
post-sale warranty disclaimers, 5.7
preconditions, 2.3.7, 2.7.4, 2.8.1
privity considerations
horizontal privity, 2.3.5, 6.3.2
vertical privity, 2.3.6, 6.2.2
relief available, 2.7.7
revocation of acceptance, 2.7.7.4.2
right to cure not necessary, 2.3.7
sample pleadings, Appx. J
service contracts, 2.3.8, 20.5.4
settlement, 2.7.8.6
standing, 2.2.2
substantial impairment not necessary, 14.2.4.6.1
tie-in violations, 2.4.1.5
title warranty breach, 2.3.1.2.2, 4.5.3
used cars, 15.8.1
MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
actions under, see MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
auto repairs, application, 19.9.2
basis of the bargain, 2.2.3.5
commercial use, 2.2.1, 2.2.2
common law, relationship, 1.6.3
conditions precedent, restrictions, 7.7.3
consumer leases, application, 2.2.6, 21.2.3
Consumer Product Safety Act, relationship, 2.2.1.4
consumer products, application, 1.5.1, 1.5.6, 2.2.1
consumer use, 2.2.1, 2.2.2
customer satisfaction policies, exemptions, 2.2.3.3
damages under, 2.7.7
date of application, 2.2.1.7
disclaimer restrictions, 2.3.2, 5.3
disclosure requirements, 2.6, 9.7.1
arbitration clauses, application, 13.4.4
service contracts, 20.4.3
violations as UDAP violation, 11.1.7
equitable relief, 2.7.7.4.1
federal enforcement, 2.7.11
federal preemption, 2.2.7
FTC rules, see under FTC RULES
full warranties, requirements, 2.5
implied warranties
compliance, 2.3.1, 4.1, 4.5.3
duration limitation, 2.3.2.3, 2.5.4, 2.6.4.8, 5.3.2
restrictions on disclaimers, 2.3.2, 2.5.4, 2.6.4.8, 5.3
interpretation, resources, 2.1.2, Appx. B
leases, application, 2.2.6, 21.2.3
liable parties, 2.2.5
liberal construction, 1.8.1
limited remedy clauses, requirements, 9.7.1
manufactured homes, application, 17.2.2
medical devices, application, 2.2.1.4
modular homes, application, 17.2.2, 18.2
new home sales, application, 18.2
overview, 1.2.1, 2.1.1
preemption by other federal laws, 2.2.7
preemption of other laws, 1.6.1, 2.9
rent-to-own (RTO) transactions, application, 2.2.6.10
research and resource aids, 1.4.5
return of defective goods, application, 8.2.7.7.2
revocation of acceptance, 2.7.7.4.2
right to cure, 2.3.7
rules, see under FTC RULES
scope, 1.5, 2.2
seed exemption, 2.2.1.1
service contracts, application, 1.9.1.6, 2.2.4, 20.4.3, 20.5.4
service transactions, application, 19.2.1
state law preemption, 2.9
statute of limitations, 2.7.10
supplemental jurisdiction, 2.7.2.3
text, Appx. A
tie-in restrictions, 2.4.1
violations
remedies, 2.5.3.1, 2.7
UDAP violation, as, 11.1.9
written warranties
covered warranties, 2.2.3
requirements, 2.4
MAIL ORDER SALES
see also CATALOGUE SALES
definition, 2.6.5.3
Magnuson-Moss application, 2.6.5.3
warranty disclosures, pre-sale requirements, 2.6.5.3
MAINTENANCE
see also REPAIRS
prior maintenance, express warranties, 3.2.2.3
proper use and maintenance, supporting evidence, 7.5.2
reasonable and necessary, definition, 2.5.7.4
MALPRACTICE CLAIMS
professional malpractice, 19.5.1
MANUFACTURED HOME WARRANTY LAWS (STATE)
see also STATUTORY WARRANTIES
claims under, 17.8.2.3
disclaimer of implied warranties, 17.5.4
federal preemption, 17.3.5, 17.3.7.1
generally, 17.1.2, 17.4.2
installation warranties, 17.7.3
modular homes, application, 17.1.2
NMHCSSA
incorporation by reference, 17.3.6
preemption, 17.3.5, 17.3.7.1
used manufactured homes, application, 17.4.2
violation as UDAP violation, 11.1.9
MANUFACTURED HOMES
see also MODULAR HOMES
allergic reactions, warning of possible, 12.3.6
arbitration agreements, 13.4.3
breach of warranty claims, 17.8
administrative remedies, 17.8.1
attorney fees, 17.8.7
causes of action, 17.8.2
damages, 17.8.5
deduction of damages, 17.8.6
discovery, 17.8.3
limited remedy clauses, effect, 17.8.5.4
pleadings, 17.8.2
proof of condition at delivery, 17.8.4
recovery against bond or special fund, 17.8.8
canceled sales, continued use, 8.4.6.2, 17.6.5
categories, 17.1.2
common law, application, 17.2.3
construction and safety standards
administrative enforcement, 17.3.8, 17.8.1
federal, see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
state standards, 17.3.5, 17.4.3
consumer manual, 17.3.3
consumer product status, 2.2.1.5
credit statutes, application, 17.8.2.5
defects, common, 17.1.3
appliances, 17.1.3.10
correction, 17.3.8
doors, 17.1.3.3
electrical system, 17.1.3.7
flooring, 17.1.3.6
formaldehyde emissions, 17.1.3.11
government investigation, 7.5.7
hardboard siding, 17.1.3.9
heating and cooling duct work, 17.1.3.5
heating appliances, 17.1.3.10
improper installation, 17.1.3.3, 17.1.3.10
leaking roofs, 17.1.3.2
overview, 17.1.3.1
plumbing, 17.1.3.8
sagging roofs and ceilings, 17.1.3.4
ventilation, 17.1.3.10
windows, 17.1.3.3
defects, correction, 17.3.8
defects, transportation and setup, 17.7
dealer liability, 17.7.6
federal standards, 17.7.2
industry standards, 17.7.3
manufacturer liability, 17.7.5
problems, overview, 17.7.1
responsibility for, 17.7.4
state standards, 17.7.3
transport company liability, 17.7.7
definition, 17.3.2
design approval, 17.3.4.2
dispute resolution system, 17.3.1, 17.3.9, 17.7.4
HUD program, 17.3.9.2
state-operated programs, 17.3.9.3
express warranties, 17.4
federally insured loans, 17.4.4
HUD label as, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
state law, 17.4.2
federal law, see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
federally insured loans, 17.4.4
goods status, 17.1.2, 17.2.1
HOEPA claims, 17.8.2.5.3
HUD label, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
HUD standards, 17.3
see also NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
administrative enforcement, 17.3.8, 17.3.9.1, 17.8.1
application, 17.1.2
compliance, effect, 17.3.7.2
consumer enforcement, 17.3.6
role, 17.5.2.2
HUD warranty, 17.4.4, 17.7.6, 17.8.2.6
implied warranties, 17.5
disclaimers, 17.5.4
fitness for particular purpose, 17.5.3
merchantability, 17.3.6, 17.5.2
inspection requirements, 17.3.4
installation and setup standards
enforcement, 17.7.4
federal standards, 17.3.1, 17.7.2
HUD-insured loans, 17.4.4, 17.7.6
industry standards, 17.7.3
state standards, 17.7.3
lemon law application, 14.2.3.1, 17.4.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.2.1.5, 2.2.1.7, 17.2.2, 17.3.6, 17.8.2.1
merchantability standards, 17.5.2.3
modular homes distinguished, 17.1.2
MVRISAs, application, 17.8.2.5.1
nature of market, 17.1.1
new home warranty statutes, application, 17.2.3, 17.4.2, 17.8.2.3
permanently attached, applicable warranties, 17.2.3
personal property status, 2.2.1.5
quality assurance, 17.3.4
RESPA claims, 17.8.2.5.4
revocation of acceptance, 8.3.2.2, 17.6
defects justifying revocation, 17.6.2
right to revoke, 17.6.1
sale after revocation, 17.6.6
time, 17.6.4
use after revocation, 17.6.5
RISAs, application, 17.8.2.5.1
state law, application, 17.2.3, 17.8.2.3
warranty laws, see MANUFACTURED HOME WARRANTY LAWS (STATE)
state standards, 17.4.2, 17.4.3, 17.8.2.3
substantial impairment of value, objective view, 8.3.2.2
TILA claims, 17.8.2.5.2
tort claims, 17.2.3, 17.8.2.4
UCC claims, 17.1.2, 17.2.1, 17.8.2.1
UDAP claims, 17.2.3, 17.8.2.2
warranty law, overview, 1.2.5, 17.4, 17.5
MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
MANUFACTURER WARRANTIES
see also MANUFACTURERS; WARRANTIES
breach of warranty, see BREACH OF WARRANTY
consumer as third party beneficiary, 6.2.5.1
dealer as agent, 6.2.5.2
dealer liability, 6.2.6, 8.5.6
deduction of damages, 8.5.6
disputes, determination, 6.2.1
emissions control equipment, 19.9.5.2
express warranties, 3.2.3, 6.2.3, 6.2.5.4
General Motors and Chrysler, 14.9.3
implied warranties
disclaimer, 2.3.2
merchantability, 4.2.2.1
vertical privity, 2.3.6.2, 6.2.3.1, 6.2.4.2, 6.2.5.4
leases, enforcement, 2.2.6, 21.6.2, 21.4
limited remedy clauses, scope, 9.4.1
manufactured homes, HUD requirements, 17.4.4
privity issues, 2.3.5, 2.3.6, 6.2
service contract status, 2.2.6.9
used cars, application
“certified” used cars, 15.3.2.2
unexpired original warranties, 15.3.2.1
written warranties, 6.2.2
MANUFACTURERS
see also INDIRECT SELLERS; SUPPLIERS
adding to suit for discovery purposes, 7.5.3, 13.3.9.2
admissions of defects, 7.5.3
agency relationship to retailer, 6.2.5.2, 8.3.2.6
breach of warranty, see BREACH OF WARRANTY
dealer repairs, liability for, 6.2.5.2, 19.9.5.1
defined, 14.2.3.7
deposing representative, 14.9.4.2.2
direct seller, as, 6.2.5.3
disclaimers by seller, effect, 5.6
duty of care, 12.4.1
duty of good faith, 11.3.1
equitable estoppel, application, 6.2.5.5
express warranties, creation, 3.2.3
identifying, 13.3.9.2
implied warranties, liability for, 2.3.6.2, 6.2.4, 6.2.5.4
leases, warranty liability, 2.2.6, 21.4
lemon law liability, 14.2.3.7.1, 14.2.4
see also LEMON LAWS (STATE)
dealer’s actions, 14.2.4.3
new GM and Chrysler, 14.9.3
limited remedy clauses, scope, 9.4.1
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.1.7, 2.2.5.2, 2.3.6
manufactured homes
construction and safety standards, 17.3
design approval, 17.3.4.2
HUD warranty requirements, 17.4.4
implied warranty of merchantability, 17.5.2
quality assurance and inspection requirements, 17.3.4
revocation of acceptance against, 17.6.7
transport and set up damage, liability, 17.7.4, 17.7.5
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.2.1
motor homes, 14.8.2
new cars
see also LEMON LAWS (STATE); NEW CARS
new GM and Chrysler, 14.9.3
non-warranty claims against, 6.2.5.6
negligence claims, 12.4.1
notice of breach to, 7.2.2.5
privity, effect on liability, 6.1, 6.2
“prudent manufacturer” test, 12.3.5
rebate programs, 6.2.5.4
recalls, liability for cost, 19.9.5.2
rescission claims, 8.3.8.5
revocation of acceptance against, 8.3.8, 17.6.7
right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
strict liability, see STRICT LIABILITY
warranties, see MANUFACTURER WARRANTIES
warranty claims against, 6.2.1, 13.3.9.2
warranty liability, 6.2
MARKET PRICE
see also PRICE
determination, 10.3.4
MCCARRAN-FERGUSON ACT
overview, 2.2.4.2
service contracts, regulation as insurance, 2.2.4.2, 2.3.2.2.5, 20.5.4
MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN
insurance, see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE; SERVICE CONTRACTS
lemons, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
propensity to fail, 11.1.5
see also LATENT DEFECTS
breach of warranty claims, 7.3.8
MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE
see also SERVICE CONTRACTS
coverage denial, 20.4
remedies, 20.5
insurance regulation, 2.2.4.2, 20.3, 20.5.7
Magnuson-Moss application, 2.2.4.2, 20.5.4
overview, 1.2.9, 1.9.1.6, 20.1
relationship to service contract, 20.1.2
MECHANICS
see also AUTOMOBILE REPAIR SHOPS
certification, 19.9.3.4
licensing requirements, 19.9.3.3, 19.9.3.4
liens, see MECHANICS’ LIENS
MECHANICS’ LIENS
see also SECURITY INTERESTS; STATUTORY LIENS
auto repairs, 19.9.1.1
MEDIATION
see also INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
manufactured home disputes, 17.3.9
settlement, 13.7.3
MEDICAL DEVICES
see also BLOOD PRODUCTS
consumer product status, 2.2.1.4
defective devices
lemon laws, see ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGICAL (AT) DEVICE WARRANTY LAWS
other causes of action, 16.7.4
FDA generic manufacturing standards, 1.7.2.1.4
FDA review system, 1.7.2.1.1, 16.3
fraud on the FDA, 1.7.2.1.5
federal preemption, 1.7.2.1, 16.3
warranty claims, 1.7.2.1.3, 16.3
MEDICATIONS
see DRUGS AND PHARMACEUTICALS
MENTAL ANGUISH
see also DAMAGES; PAIN AND SUFFERING
breach of warranty, recovery of damages, 10.5.3.3
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.7.1
manufactured home cases, 17.8.5.3
new home cases, 18.7.4
MERCHANT BUYERS
see COMMERCIAL BUYERS
MERCHANTABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
see also IMPLIED WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
breach of warranty, 7.3.6
burden of proof, 7.4.1
circumstantial evidence, use in proving breach, 7.4.2
common law warranty, comparison, 19.4.3
description of goods warranty, comparison, 3.3
design defects as breach, 14.5.4
disclaimers, validity, 5.5
consumer transactions, 5.11.2
elements, prerequisites, 4.2.3
express warranty conflicts, 3.9.3
finance leases, 21.3.3
fitness for ordinary purposes, 4.2.3.2, 7.3.6.1
instructions on usage or installation, application, 3.2.4
lemon law application, 14.2.4.2, 14.2.4.6
lessor liability, 21.3.3
liberal construction, 4.2.1
Magnuson-Moss, application, 2.3.1.2.1
manufactured homes, 17.5.2
creation of warranty, 17.5.2.1
federal standards breach, 17.3.6, 17.5.2.2
merchantability standards, 17.5.2.3
misuse, effect, 7.7.2.4
nature of, 4.2.1
“no fault” concept, 4.2.1.2
operation of law, 4.2.1.1
new car defects breaching, 14.3.2
nonconformity standards, 7.3.6
examples, 7.3.6.1
existence at delivery, 7.3.6.2
overview, 1.9.1.3, 4.2.1
packaging and labeling, 4.2.3.3
particular purpose warranty, comparison, 4.3.2.4.4
passing without objection in the trade, 4.2.3.4
post-sale statements, 3.6.2
pre-sale inspection, effect, 4.4
present condition warranty, characterization as, 7.3.3, 7.3.4
quality standards, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.3.2.6
scope, 4.2.2
standards, criteria, 4.2.3, 7.3.6.1
used cars, 15.4.1, 15.4.2
used goods, 1.5.3, 4.2.3.2.5
MERCHANTS
see also DIRECT SELLERS; RETAILERS; SELLERS
definition, 1.5.9, 4.2.2.2
good faith obligation, 11.3.1, 15.8.5
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.2
policies, warranty status, 2.2.3.3
warranty laws, application, 1.5.9
MERGER CLAUSES
ambiguous contracts, 3.7.7
fraud claims, application, 11.4.1.2
inconspicuous, 3.7.2.9.2
ineffective contracts, 3.7.2.9.3
intent of parties, 3.7.2.9.1, 3.7.2.10
new home warranties, effect, 18.3.8, 18.6.3.2
parol evidence, effect on, 3.7.2.9
question of law or fact, 3.7.2.10
third party liability, effect on, 3.7.2.9.4
unfair or unconscionable, 3.7.2.9.2
used car sales, 15.3.9
validity, 3.7.2.9.2–3.7.2.9.3
MERGER DOCTRINE
new home sales, 18.6.3.1
effect on express warranties, 18.6.3.1
effect on implied warranties, 18.3.8
MICROFICHE
warranty disclosures on, 2.6.5.2
MISREPRESENTATIONS
see also TORT CLAIMS
common law claims
advantages, 11.4.1.2, 11.4.1.3
overview, 11.4.1.1
concealment, see CONCEALMENT
damages, 11.4.7.1, 11.4.7.2
economic loss, 11.4.2.2, 11.4.3.2, 11.4.4
half-truths, 11.4.5
home improvement contracts, 19.8.1.1
innocent misrepresentation, 11.4.4
negligent misrepresentation distinguished, 11.4.3.1
intentional misrepresentation, see FRAUD CLAIMS
justifiable reliance, 11.4.6
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.5
negligent misrepresentation, 11.4.3
new home cases, 18.7.1.2
nomenclature, 11.4.1.1
pleading, 11.4.8
practice tips, 11.4.8
product condition or features, 11.1.8
punitive damages, 10.6, 11.4.7.2
recklessness, 11.4.3.3
remedies, 11.4.7
rescission, 11.4.7.3
service contracts, 20.4.4, 20.7.4
UDAP violations, 11.1.6–11.1.8
used car sales, 15.8.3, 15.7.2
warranty advertising, 11.1.6
warranty disclaimers, effect, 5.15.1
MISTAKES
material facts, 11.4.4
warranty disclaimers, seller’s conduct invalidating, 5.11.3, 5.15.1, 5.15.3
MISUSE OF PRODUCT
burden of proof, 2.5.7.4, 14.2.4.5
categorization, 7.7.2.1, 7.7.2.4
defense to negligence action, 12.4.4
defense to warranty claim, 7.7.2.4, 7.7.2.5
failure to abide by directions, 7.7.2.5
full warranties, effect, 2.5.7.4
lemon laws, effect, 14.2.4.5
minimum standard of care, 7.7.2.4
strict liability claims, effect on, 12.3.8
unreasonable use, 2.5.7.4
MITIGATION OF DAMAGES
see also COVER
economic loss, requirement, 10.5.3.1.1
manufactured home cases, 17.8.5.3
new home cases, 18.7.5
notice of breach as, 7.2.2
MIXED TRANSACTIONS
see also SALE OF GOODS; SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
predominant purpose, 19.3.1, 19.3.2
determining, 19.3.4
goods, 19.3.2.1
services, 19.3.2.2
questions of fact, 13.8.1.5
scope issues, 1.5.5
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3.3
UCC applicability, 19.3
MOBILE HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
MOBILE HOME WARRANTY LAWS (STATE)
see MANUFACTURED HOME WARRANTY LAWS (STATE)
MOBILE HOMES
see MANUFACTURED HOMES
MODEL WARRANTY
see SAMPLE OR MODEL (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
MODIFICATION OF PRODUCT
see MISUSE OF PRODUCT; REPAIRS
MODIFICATION OF WARRANTY
see DISCLAIMERS
MODULAR HOMES
see also MANUFACTURED HOMES
consumer product status, 2.2.1.5, 17.2.2
goods, status, 17.1.2, 17.2.1
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.1.5, 17.2.2, 18.2
manufactured homes distinguished, 17.1.2
NMHCSSA, application, 17.1.2, 17.3.2
UCC application, 17.2.1, 18.1
warranty laws, application, 1.5.6, 17.2.3
MORTGAGES
home improvement cases, practice tips, 19.8.8.3
MOTOR HOMES
see also RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
choice of forum, 14.8.3
defects, 14.8.4
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.2, 14.8.1, 15.5.2.2, 17.4.2
living quarters, 14.2.3.2.2
manufactured homes distinguished, 17.1.2
multiple manufacturers, 14.8.2
NMHCSSA, application, 17.1.2
trial issues, 14.8.5
MOTOR VEHICLE FINANCE ACTS
see MOTOR VEHICLE RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (MVRISA)
MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
see AUTOMOBILE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
MOTOR VEHICLE RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (MVRISA)
see also RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (RISA)
manufactured home claims under, 17.8.2.5
MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
see NATIONAL TRAFFIC AND MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY ACT
MOTOR VEHICLE STATUTES (STATE)
inspection laws, 15.5.6
repair laws, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
retail installment sales, see MOTOR VEHICLE RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (MVRISA)
warranty laws, 14.4.5, 15.8.2
MOTOR VEHICLES
consumer product status, 2.2.1.2, 14.2.3.6
dealers, see AUTOMOBILE DEALERSHIPS
emissions control equipment, 19.9.5.2
extended warranties, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.5
fuel economy, representations, 3.2.2.3
history of vehicle, admissibility, 13.8.3.8
leases, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
“lemon,” use of word at trial, 13.8.3.4
manufacturers, identifying, 13.3.9.2
mechanical breakdown, see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN
mechanical breakdown insurance, see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE; SERVICE CONTRACTS
new, see NEW CARS
new car sales, see AUTOMOBILE SALES
odometer readings, see ODOMETER READINGS
recalls, 14.5.7, 19.9.5.2
court-ordered, 1.7.5.2
Internet notice, 14.5.7
records of condition and performance, 13.8.3.10
repair laws, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
repairs, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
salvage vehicles, see SALVAGE VEHICLES
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
state laws, see MOTOR VEHICLE STATUTES (STATE)
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3
taxicabs, see TAXICABS
used motor vehicles, see USED CAR SALES
MOTORCYCLES
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.1, 15.5.2.2
MOVABLE PROPERTY
warranty laws, application, 1.5.6
MULTIPLE WARRANTIES
consistent, see CUMULATIVE WARRANTIES
express warranties, 3.9
inconsistent, see INCONSISTENT WARRANTIES
overview, 1.9.1.1
pleading, 3.3
NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR LEGAL SERVICES
see SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION
motor vehicle defect investigations, 7.5.7
motor vehicle recalls, 19.9.5.2
primary jurisdiction, 1.7.5.3
safety hotline, 14.9.1
safety standards, preemptive effect, 1.7.5.1
website, 14.9.1
NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
see also MANUFACTURED HOMES; SAFETY STANDARDS
administrative enforcement, 17.3.8, 17.3.9.1, 17.8.1
amendments, 17.3.1
application, 17.1.2
“consensus committee,” 17.3.1
construction standards, 17.3.3
consumer enforcement, 17.3.6
coverage, 17.3.2
history, 17.1.2
overview, 17.3.1
preemption of state law, 17.3.5, 17.3.7.1, 17.3.7.2
quality assurance and inspection requirements, 17.3.4
selected provisions, text, Appx. C
NATIONAL TRAFFIC AND MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY ACT
see also SAFETY STANDARDS
latent defects, requirements, 14.5.7
preemption of state law, 1.7.5.1
recall notices, 14.5.7, 19.9.5.2
violations, 14.5.7, 19.9.5.2
as UDAP violation, 14.5.7
NEGATIVE EQUITY
lemon law refunds, 14.2.8.7
NEGLIGENCE
automobile repairs by authorized dealer, 19.9.5.1
buyer’s conduct as, categorization, 7.7.2.1, 7.7.2.2
claims, see NEGLIGENCE CLAIMS
comparative negligence, see COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE
contributory negligence, see CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE
disclaimers, effect, 5.15.1
leases, application, 21.2.7
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.5
misrepresentations, see NEGLIGENT MISREPRESENTATION
source of warranty law, 1.2.8
NEGLIGENCE CLAIMS
see also NEGLIGENCE; TORT CLAIMS
defenses, 12.4.4
design and manufacture, 12.4.1.3
economic damages, 12.2
elements of claim
duty of care, 12.4.1
nonconformity with standard, 12.4.2
proximate cause, 12.4.3
federal preemption, 1.7
horizontal privity, application, 6.3.7
inadequate warning of defects or danger, 12.4.1.5
inspection of goods, 12.4.1.4
latent car defects, 14.5.6
manufactured homes
breach of federal standards, 17.3.6
faulty setup, 17.7.6, 17.7.7
pleading, 17.8.2.4
misrepresentation, see NEGLIGENT MISREPRESENTATION
new cars, 14.4.4
new homes, 18.7.1.2
overview, 1.2.8, 12.1
privity, necessity, 6.2.5.6, 12.1
proof of negligent conduct, 12.4.2
repairs by authorized dealer, 19.9.5.1
scope issues, 1.5.5, 1.5.6, 1.5.12
service transactions, 19.5
statute of limitations, 7.6.10
strict liability claim in same action, 12.4.1.1
used car claims, 15.8.4
warranty disclaimers, effect, 5.15.1
NEGLIGENT MISREPRESENTATION
see also MISREPRESENTATIONS
damages, 11.4.7.1
economic loss damages, 11.4.3.2
elements, 11.4.3.1
nature of tort, 11.4.3.1
recklessness alternative, 11.4.3.3
NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
leases, status, 21.6.1.2
NEW CARS
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES; MOTOR VEHICLES
consumer product status, 14.2.3.6
crashworthiness, 7.7.2.2
damage before delivery, 14.6
damage, duty to disclose, 15.8.9
damages remedies, 14.4
lemon laws, 14.2.10.6
dealers, see AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
defects
government investigations, 7.5.7
Internet resources, 14.9.1
latent defects, 14.5
optional accessories, 14.2.4.4
recall notices, 14.5.7
safety inspections, 14.9.1
definition, 14.2.3.3
demonstrators, status as, 14.2.3.3
see also DEMONSTRATORS
emissions system warranty, 14.5.8
extended warranties, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
gray market vehicles, see GRAY MARKET VEHICLES
leases, see AUTOMOBILE LEASES
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
Magnuson-Moss warranties, see MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
mechanical breakdown insurance, see MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE; SERVICE CONTRACTS
merchantability, 14.3.2
resales, see USED CAR SALES
revocation of acceptance, 8.3.2.2, 14.3
sales, see AUTOMOBILE SALES
secret warranties, 14.5.3
security interests, financing statement, 8.4.5.2.3
substantial impairment of value, 8.3.2.2, 14.2.4.6, 14.3.3
tie-ins, restrictions, 2.4.1
unauthorized modifications, 14.2.4.5
warranties, overview, 14.1
warranty claims, practice tips, 14.9
new GM and Chrysler, 14.9.3
sample pleadings, Appx. J
NEW HOME WARRANTIES
see also HOUSE SALES
breach of warranty, 18.3.6
litigating, 18.7
builders, application, 18.3.4.1, 18.3.4.3, 18.4.2, 18.4.3
commercial buyers, application, 18.3.3
common defects breaching, 18.3.6.4
condominiums, 18.5, Appx. H
contractual restrictions, 18.6.3.3
covered property, 18.3.5, 18.4.3
cumulation, 18.4
damages for breach, 18.7.3–18.7.6
disclaimers, 18.3.7, 18.4.5
condominiums, 18.5.1
duration, 18.3.9, 18.4.6
condominiums, 18.5.1
express warranties, 18.6
federally insured loans, 18.6.2.1
habitability
common law warranty, 18.3.2–18.3.5, 18.3.6.2
statutory warranties, 18.4.4
HOW program, 18.6.2.2
implied warranties
common law, 18.3
statutory, 18.4
liable sellers, 18.3.4, 18.4.2, 18.4.7
manufactured homes, application, 17.4.2
marketing through realtors, 18.6.2.2
merger clauses, effect, 18.3.8, 18.6.3.2
merger doctrine, effect, 18.3.8, 18.6.3.1
notice of defects, 18.3.10, 18.4.7, 18.6.3.3
overview, 1.2.5, 1.5.6
pleading causes of action, 18.7.1
privity issues, 18.3.3
proof of defects, 18.7.2
puffing, 18.6.3.4
quality, 18.3
remedies, 18.4.8, 18.7.3–18.7.8
scope, 18.3.3–18.3.5, 18.4.2–18.4.3
statutory warranties, 18.4
relation to common law remedies, 18.4.9
state-by-state analysis, Appx. H
structural defects, 18.4.4
subsequent buyers, rights, 18.3.3.2, 18.6.1
substantial renovations, application, 18.3.4.1
third party warranty programs, 18.6.2.2
tort claims, 18.7.1.2
UDAP claims, 18.7.1.1
workmanship
common law warranty, 18.3.2–18.3.5, 18.3.6.3
statutory warranties, 18.4.4
NEW PRODUCTS
see CONSUMER PRODUCTS; NEW CARS
NMHCSSA
see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
NONBUYERS
assignment of warranty rights, 6.3.4
contractual limitations on rights, 6.3.8
horizontal privity issues, 6.3
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.6
notice of breach, by, 7.2.2.7
UCC provisions, 6.2.4.2.1, 6.3.3.2
warranty suits, 6.3.3.2
NONCONFORMITY
see also BREACH OF WARRANTY; DEFECTIVE GOODS
acceptability to buyer, 8.2.7.3
buyer unaware at time of acceptance, 8.3.3.3
conformity, definition, 7.3.2, 14.2.4.6
delivery, at, 7.5
merchantability warranty, 7.3.6.2
present characteristic warranty, 7.3.5.1.4
disputes, final judge, 2.4.2
express warranties, 7.3.5
future performance warranty, 7.3.5.2
present characteristic warranty, 7.3.5.1
implied warranties
fitness for particular purpose, 7.3.7
merchantability warranty, 7.3.6
latent defects, see LATENT DEFECTS
motor vehicle lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
new cars, 14.2.4
perfect tender rule, 7.3.1
rejection of goods, 7.3.1, 8.2.6
remedies when no breach of warranty, 8.3.2.6
revocation of acceptance, 7.3.1
right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
seller’s ignorance, effect, 8.2.7.3.5
tender obligations, 8.3.2.6
warranty standards, 7.3
NONDELIVERY
notice of breach, requirement, 7.2.2.2
NONDISCLOSURE
see also CONCEALMENT
fraud by silence, 11.4.5
lemon laundering, 15.8.7.1
new cars
damage before delivery, 14.6
demonstrators, 14.6, 15.8.9
salvage vehicles, 15.8.8
UDAP violations, 7.7.4.6.1, 11.1.5, 11.1.7, 15.8.3
used cars, known defects, 15.8.3.2, 15.8.3.3, 15.8.5
NONMERCHANTS
see also PRIVATE SALES; SELLERS
express warranties, creation, 3.2.3
hidden defects, disclosure, 4.2.2.2
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.2.2
particular purpose warranty, application, 4.3.2.2, 4.3.2.6
warranty laws, application, 1.5.9
NONSALE TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER LEASES
purchase, inclusion in term, 10.3.3.2
NOTICE
see also SIGNS
breach of warranty, see NOTICE OF BREACH
cancellation of sale
assignees, to, 8.4.5.3
buyer’s intention to resell, 8.4.4.5
buyer’s intention to use goods, 8.4.6.5
third party lenders, to, 8.4.5.4
cover, intention, necessity, 10.3.3.1
cure
acceptability to buyer, 8.2.7.3.2
seasonable notice, 8.2.7.4
seller’s intention, 8.2.7.3
deductions for damages, 8.5.5
sample notice, Appx. I.3
lemon laws
dispute resolution mechanisms, 14.2.9
requirements, 14.2.5
rights, 14.2.5.4
used car defects, 15.5.2.6
Magnuson-Moss claims
class actions, 2.7.9.1
dispute resolution mechanisms, 2.8.5.2
requirements, 2.3.7, 7.2.2.3
motor vehicle safety defects, 14.5.7, 19.9.5.2
practice tips, 13.2.5
rejection of goods
contents, 8.2.5.3
form, 8.2.5.2
leases, 21.3.6.2
practice tips, 8.2.5.4
requirement, 7.2.2.1, 8.2.5
sample notice, Appx. I.2
timeliness, 8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.5, 8.2.5.1
revocation of acceptance, 8.3.6
content, 8.3.6.2
form, 8.3.6.1
leases, 21.3.6.4
sample notice, Appx. I.2
third party notification, 8.3.6.3
security interests, termination demand, 8.4.5.2.3
UCC requirements, 13.2.5
usage of trade evidence, 3.7.4.4
warranty registration cards, failure to return, effect, 2.4.3
NOTICE OF BREACH
see also BREACH OF WARRANTY
actual knowledge, effect, 7.2.2.4, 7.2.5.1
actual notice, necessity, 7.2.5.1
assignees, to, 7.2.2.6
failure to give notice, effect, 7.2.1, 7.2.2.8
form and content
contractual specification, 7.2.5.3
form of notice, 7.2.5.2
minimal requirements for content, 7.2.5.1
tactical considerations, 7.2.5.4
full warranties, 2.5.7.3
general requirement, 7.2.1
indirect sellers, to, 7.2.2.5
late or nondelivery, 7.2.2.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.3.7, 2.5.7.3, 7.2.2.3
manufacturers, to, 7.2.2.5
new car defects, 14.2.5
new home warranties, 18.3.10, 18.4.7, 18.6.3.3
nonbuyers, by, 7.2.2.7
not required, circumstances, 2.3.7, 7.2.2
notice of revocation distinguished, 8.3.6
overview, 1.9.2.4
personal injury cases, 7.2.2.7, 7.2.2.8
pleading, 13.3.5
pleadings as, 7.2.2.9
practice tips, 13.2.6
purpose, 7.2.1
questions of fact, 13.8.1.5
rejected goods, 7.2.2.1
repair attempts, additional notice, 7.2.3.3
sufficiency, question of fact, 7.2.5.1
time
consumer cases, reasonable time, 7.2.3.2
contractual specification, 7.2.4
reasonable time, requirement, 7.2.3.1, 7.2.4
second notice after repair attempt, 7.2.3.3
title defects, 4.5.2
tort claims, necessity, 12.1
warranty expiration, after, 7.7.4.4
ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
see also ODOMETER READINGS
disclaimers, effect on claims under, 5.15.2
ODOMETER READINGS
see also ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
auto repairs, recording requirements, 19.9.3.2.2
used car sales, 15.3.6, 15.8.6
OFF-PREMISES SALES
see HOME SOLICITATION SALES
OFF-ROAD VEHICLES
used car lemon laws, application, 15.5.2.2
OFFSETS
see SET-OFFS
ONLINE RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
OPINIONS
see also PUFFING
express warranty, creation, 3.2.2.7
OPPRESSION
see UNCONSCIONABILITY
ORAL DISCLAIMERS
see also DISCLAIMERS
validity, 5.8.1
ORAL STATEMENTS
see also AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY); ORAL WARRANTIES; PAROL EVIDENCE; POST-SALE STATEMENTS
express warranty status
made after delivery, 3.6.3
made before or at delivery, 3.6.1
modification of original bargain, 3.6.3.2
parol evidence rule, 3.7
use to interpret ambiguous terms, 3.7.7
used car dealers, 15.3.9
ORAL WARRANTIES
see also ORAL STATEMENTS; WARRANTIES
contract provisions disclaiming, 5.2
parol evidence rule exclusion, 5.2
used car sales, 15.3.9
ORDINARY PURPOSE
see FITNESS FOR ORDINARY PURPOSES
OUTSTANDING BALANCE DEDUCTIONS
see DEDUCTIONS FROM OUTSTANDING BALANCE
PACKAGES
see CONTAINERS
PACKAGING
see also LABELING
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.3
pesticides and herbicides, 1.7.3
product safety, 1.7.6
PAIN AND SUFFERING
see also DAMAGES; MENTAL ANGUISH
breach of warranty, recovery of damages, 10.5.3.3
manufactured home cases, 17.8.5.3
PAROL EVIDENCE
see also EVIDENCE
additional consistent terms, 3.7.3
admissibility, see PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
advertisements, 3.7.6
ambiguous terms, interpretation, 3.7.7
conditions precedent, 3.7.8
course of dealing, 3.7.4.1, 3.7.4.2
course of performance, 3.7.4.1, 3.7.4.3
evaluating, 3.7.2
content of the writing, 3.7.2.5
examination of evidence, 3.7.2.6
form contracts, 3.7.2.7
four corners test, 3.7.2.3
intent of parties, 3.7.2.1, 3.7.2.9.1, 3.7.2.10
merger or integration clauses, 3.7.2.9
post-sale conduct, 3.7.2.8
presumption contract not exclusive, 3.7.2.2
surrounding circumstances, 3.7.2.4
examination, 3.7.2.6
four corners test, application, 3.7.2.3
fraud claims, 3.7.9, 11.4.1.2
fundamental assumptions, 3.7.8
inducements to contract, 3.7.8
merger clauses as bar, 3.7.2.9
mistake, 3.7.9
oral statements, 3.7
prior written statements, 3.7
sample or model warranty, 3.7.6
UDAP claims, 3.7.9
usage of trade, 3.7.4.1, 3.7.4.4
PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
see also PAROL EVIDENCE
disclaimers, application, 3.7.3.2
exceptions, 3.7.4, 3.7.6, 3.7.8
express warranties, application, 3.2.1, 3.7
fitness for particular purpose warranty, application, 4.3.4.2
form contracts, application, 3.7.2.7
fraud and UDAP claims, application, 3.7.9, 11.4.1.2
generally, 3.7.1
harmonious evidence, application, 3.7.3
implied warranties, application, 4.3.4.2
intent
burden of proof, 3.7.1, 3.7.2.2
determination of intent, 3.7.2
question of law or fact, 3.7.2.10
interpretation evidence, application, 3.7.7
merger clauses, effect, 3.7.2.9
oral warranties, application, 5.2
post-sale statements, application, 3.6.3.2.3, 3.7.5
tort claims, application, 5.15.1, 12.1
UCC version, 3.7.1
unconscionability claims, application, 11.2.4
written warranties, application, 3.7
PARTICULAR PURPOSE WARRANTY
see FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
PARTIES
see also DEFENDANTS
lemon law litigation, 14.2.3.7, 14.2.4.3
naming, 13.3.9
service contracts
parties to transaction, 20.1.3
third party liability, 20.7
warranty actions, 13.3.9
PARTS
see also COMPONENT SUPPLIERS
defective, see DEFECTIVE GOODS
full warranties, replacement or refund after unsuccessful repair, 2.5.6
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.1.6, 2.2.1.7
parts and labor warranty, 19.9.2
replaced parts, return, 19.9.3.2.2, 19.9.3.2.3, 19.9.4
replacement cost as measure of reduced value, 10.4.4.1
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3
PATENT DEFECTS
see also DEFECTIVE GOODS
assumption of risk defense, applicability, 7.7.2.3
warnings, effect, 7.7.2.3
PAYMENT
signification of acceptance, 8.2.3.4, 8.2.4
PENDENT JURISDICTION
see SUPPLEMENTAL JURISDICTION
PERFECT TENDER RULE
see also TENDER
defects not yet malfunctioned, 7.3.8
generally, 7.3.1
mitigation through right to cure, 8.2.7.1
PERMITS
home improvement contracts, relevance, 19.8.3
PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
consequential damages, 10.5.3.2
economic loss linked to, 12.2.4
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.6.2
limitations, unconscionability, 5.12, 9.4.4
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.2.1, 2.7.7.2
mental anguish damages, 10.5.3.3
negligence claims, 12.2.1
nonbuyer warranty claims
notice of breach, 7.2.2.7, 7.2.2.8
privity issues, 6.3.3.2
proximate cause, requirement, 10.5.3.2
strict liability claims, 12.2.1
PERSONAL PRODUCTS
see CONSUMER PRODUCTS
PERSONAL PROPERTY
consumer product status, 2.2.1.2
damage to, see PROPERTY DAMAGE
realty distinguished, 2.2.1.5
PESTICIDES
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.3
PHOTOGRAPHS
see also EVIDENCE
home improvement cases, 19.8.8.1.3
PICTURES
see also ADVERTISEMENTS
express warranty, creation
affirmation of fact, 3.2.2.6
breach of warranty, 7.3.5.1.3
description of goods, 3.3
PLAIN LANGUAGE LAWS
application
disclaimers, 5.8.10
limited remedy clauses, 9.7.3
PLEADINGS
see also PRACTICE TIPS
assistive technological device claims, 16.7.2
breach of warranty, 13.3.3
defenses to warranty claims, 13.3.12
existence and terms of the warranty, 13.3.6
fraud, 11.4.8
home improvement cases, 19.8.8.2
incidental and consequential damages, 10.5.1, 13.3.8
leases, unconscionability and UDAP alternatives, 21.2.7
lemon law claims
benefits, 13.3.1.1
generally, 13.3.1.4
Magnuson-Moss claims
benefits, 13.3.1.1
damages, 2.7.5
failure to plead, attorney fees, 2.7.8.3
generally, 2.7.6, 13.3.1.2
preconditions to suit, 2.7.4
manufactured home cases, 17.8.2
misrepresentation, 11.4.4, 11.4.8
multiple warranties, 3.3
NCLC resources, 1.1.5
new car warranty cases, 14.9.2
new home cases, 18.7.1
non-UCC claims, benefits, 13.3.1.1
notice of breach
pleading, 13.3.5
pleadings as, 7.2.2.9
offset for buyer use, 10.3.6.2
parties, naming, 13.3.9
practice tips, 13.3
privity, 13.3.7
revocation or rejection, 13.3.4
sample complaints, Appx. J.1
sample document requests, Appx. J.2
sample requests for admissions, Appx. J.3
sample trial documents, Appx. J.4
seller’s answer, 13.3.12
service contract breach, 20.5.2
specificity of allegations, 13.3.3
Statute of Frauds, 3.6.3.2.3
tort claims
benefits, 13.3.1.1
generally, 13.3.1.5
UCC claims, 13.3
disadvantages, 13.3.1.1
multiple claims, 13.3.2
new home cases, 18.7.1.1
unconscionability, 11.2.3
UDAP claims
benefits, 13.3.1.1
generally, 13.3.1.3
used car cases,
warranty claims, 13.3
POLICY OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
warranty status, 2.2.3.3, 3.2.2.1
POST-SALE CONDUCT
buyer’s conduct
as cause of damage, 7.7.2
reasonableness, 13.8.7.2
disclaimers, see POST-SALE DISCLAIMERS
extending time to reject, 8.2.2.4
inspection by buyer, see POST-SALE INSPECTION
limited remedy clauses, waiver, 9.8
parol evidence rule, effect, 3.7.2.8
statements, see POST-SALE STATEMENTS
UDAP violations, 11.1.4
POST-SALE DISCLAIMERS
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 2.6.5.1, 5.7
validity, 5.7
POST-SALE INSPECTION
see also INSPECTION; POST-SALE CONDUCT
implied warranties, effect, 4.4.2.3
POST-SALE STATEMENTS
see also POST-SALE CONDUCT
basis of bargain status, 3.6
statements after delivery, 3.6.3
statements before or at delivery, 3.6.1
statements read after delivery, 3.6.2
implied warranty of merchantability alternative, 3.6.2
layered contracting, 3.6.2
manufactured homes, 17.4.1
modification of original bargain, 3.6.3.2.1, 3.6.3.2.2
parol evidence rule, application, 3.6.3.2.3, 3.7.5
promissory estoppel, 3.6.3.1
Statute of Frauds, application, 3.6.3.2.3
PRACTICE TIPS
see also DISCOVERY; EVIDENCE; PLEADINGS; RESEARCH AIDS
admissions by seller or manufacturer, eliciting, 7.5.3
alternative dispute resolution, 14.2.9.7
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
basis of bargain, tips on proof, 3.5.4
binding arbitration, 13.4
see also ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
buyer’s testimony of value, 10.4.6
cancellation of sale
allowing cure attempts prior to, 8.3.7.4
decision whether to cancel, 13.2.2
notice of rejection, 8.2.5.4, Appx. I.2
notice of revocation, 8.3.6.1, Appx. I.2
offsets for buyer’s use, 10.3.6
overcoming judicial resistance, 8.3.1.2
practical problems, generally, 8.4.1
proof of defect, 13.2.2
resale of paid goods, 8.4.4.1
return of goods, 8.4.3
revocation against indirect seller, 8.3.8.4
steps prior to return of goods, 8.4.1, 8.4.3.2
use of goods, protection of buyer, 8.4.1, 8.4.6.5, 13.2.4
client interview and initial contact, 13.1.1
consequential damages, documentation, 10.5.3.1.1
cure, allowing attempts, 8.3.7.4, 13.2.1
damages, 10.3–10.7
demand letters, 13.2.6
discovery, 13.5
see also DISCOVERY
expert opinions, 13.8.4.3
new car cases, 14.9.4
electronic disclaimers, 5.8.11
evaluating and framing the case, 13.1
evidence, 13.8.3–13.8.6
new car cases, 14.9.6
expert testimony
admissibility, 13.8.4
cross-examining, 13.8.6
Daubert Rule, 13.8.4
discovery, 13.8.4.3
inspections by expert, 13.6.1
presenting, 13.8.5
seller as expert, 10.4.7
fraud claims, 11.4.8
FTC Used Car Rule violations, proving,
home improvement cases, 19.8.8
deposition of contractor, 19.8.3
discovery, 19.8.8.4
investigating the case, 19.8.8.1
mortgages and liens, 19.8.8.3
pleadings, 19.8.8.2
TILA rescission, 19.8.1.2
informal dispute resolution, 14.2.9.7
inspections, 13.6
judgments, collecting, 14.9.7
jury trials
jury instructions, 13.8.8
jury selection, 13.8.2
verdict forms, 13.8.8
lemon laundering, 15.8.7.2
lemon laws, 14.9
attorney fees, 14.2.10.10
dispute resolution, 14.2.9.7
notices, 14.2.5.3
reasonable use deductions, 14.2.8.8
repair attempts, 14.2.6.3.2
manufactured home cases, 17.3.4, 17.8
misrepresentation claims, 11.4.8
motions in limine, 13.8.3.1
motor home cases, 14.8
NCLC treatise, tools and resources, 1.1.5
new car warranty cases, 14.9
collecting the judgment, 14.9.7
discovery, 14.9.4
evidence and proof, 14.9.6
investigating defects, 14.9.1
pleadings, 14.9.2
safety inspections, 14.9.1
trial, 14.9.5
new home warranty cases, 18.7
notice of breach
form and content, 7.2.5.4, 13.2.6
indirect sellers, 7.2.2.5
notice of rejection, 8.2.5.4, Appx. I.2
parties, naming, 13.3.9
pleading warranty claims, 13.3
see also PLEADINGS
new car cases, 14.9.2
sample pleadings, Appx. J
pre-sale damage, undisclosed, 14.6
presentation of the case, 13.8
publicity efforts, 13.2.7
sample notices, Appx. I
secured creditors, dealing with, 13.2.3
seller’s answer, 13.3.12
service contracts
claims administrators, 20.7.3
dealer liability, 2.3.2.2.3
service on foreign defendants and witnesses, 13.3.10
settlement, 13.7
similar acts by defendant, 13.8.3.5
similar claim evidence, 7.5.6
spoliation of evidence, 13.2.5
statute of limitations, 7.6
strategic decisions, 13.2
substantial impairment, proof, 14.2.4.6.4
TILA rescission, 19.8.1.2
trial, 13.8, 14.9.5
sample trial documents, Appx. J.4
themes, 13.8.7
unconscionability, proving, 11.2.6
used car litigation, 15.9
warranty law in a nutshell, 1.9
warranty litigation, 13
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
withholding installment payments for damages, 8.5.4
PRECEDENT
see CASE LAW
PREEMPTION
FAA of other federal laws, 13.4.4.1, 13.4.5
federal preemption of state law, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
lemon law of other claims, 14.4.2
lemon law of UCC, 14.2.1, 14.4.2
Magnuson-Moss by other federal laws, 2.2.7
FAA, 13.4.5
new home statutory warranties, 18.4.9
service contract laws by insurance laws, 2.2.4.2, 20.5.4
PREFABRICATED HOMES
see MANUFACTURED HOMES; MODULAR HOMES
PREJUDGMENT INTEREST
lemon law refunds, 14.2.8.7.1
seller’s breach, awarding, 10.5.3.1.3
PRE-SALE CONDUCT
affirmations of fact, 3.2.2.6
disclaimers, seller’s conduct invalidating, 5.11.3
good faith obligation, 11.3.2
PRE-SALE INSPECTION
see also INSPECTION
effect
disclaimers, 5.11.2
express warranties, 3.8.2, 4.4.1
implied warranties, 4.4
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
see DRUGS AND PHARMACEUTICALS
PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS WARRANTIES
see also AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISE (EXPRESS WARRANTY); EXPRESS WARRANTIES
breach of warranty
breach of statement, 3.2.2.4.3
defective condition at delivery, 7.3.5.1.4, 7.5
generally, 7.3.5.1
overview, 7.3.3
characterization
as promise of future performance, 3.2.2.4.3, 7.3.5.2.2
general or specific, 7.3.4
future performance warranty distinguished, 3.2.2.4.3, 7.3.3
PRESERVATION OF CLAIMS AND DEFENSES RULE (FTC)
see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
PRESUMPTIONS
see also BURDEN OF PROOF; FUNDAMENTAL CONTRACT ASSUMPTIONS
affirmations of fact, basis of bargain, 3.5.3
lemon laws, reasonable number of repair attempts, 14.2.6.3.4
sample or model, intention, 3.4.2
PRICE
see also MARKET PRICE; PURCHASE PRICE
cover, 10.3.3
difference as damages, 10.3.4
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.3.2.7
unconscionability, 11.2.5.3
PRIMARY JURISDICTION
doctrine of, 1.7.5.3
PRIVATE SALES
definition, 8.4.4.5
express warranty creation, 3.2.3
resales of refused goods, 8.4.4.5
PRIVATE SELLERS
see NONMERCHANTS
PRIVITY OF CONTRACT
common law warranties, requirement, 19.4.3
dealer as manufacturer’s agent, 6.2.5.2
durational limits distinguished, 6.3.2
express warranties, 6.2.2, 6.2.3
horizontal privity, 6.3
implied warranties, 6.2.3.1, 6.2.4
indirect sellers, 6.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, necessity, 2.3.5, 2.3.6, 6.2.2
manufacturer’s liability, 6.2
negligence claims, applicability, 6.2.5.6, 12.1
new home warranties, necessity, 18.3.3
non-warranty claims, necessity, 6.2.5.6
overview, 1.9.2.2, 6.1
pleading, 13.3.7
service contracts, application, 20.10
state law concerning warranties
horizontal privity, 6.3.3
vertical privity, 6.2.3, 6.2.4.2
strict liability claims, applicability, 6.2.5.6, 12.1
UDAP claims, application, 6.2.5.6, 11.1.1.2
vertical privity, 6.2
PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
see DISCOVERY
PRODUCTS
see CONSUMER PRODUCTS
PRODUCTS LIABILITY
see STRICT LIABILITY
PRODUCTS SAFETY
see SAFETY STANDARDS
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
see also SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
common law warranties, application, 19.4.3
malpractice claims, 19.5.1
economic damages, 12.2.5
PROMISES
contractual obligations, 3.2.4
determination of promise, 7.3.2
express warranty, see AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
post-sale statements, 3.6.3
PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS
see ADVERTISEMENTS
PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF; EVIDENCE; PROOF OF PURCHASE
PROOF OF PURCHASE
full warranties, 2.5.7.5
PROPERTY DAMAGE
see also CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES; DAMAGES
breach of warranty, recovery, 10.5.3.2
economic loss distinguished, 12.2.8
economic loss linked to, 12.2.4
negligence claims, 12.2.1
nonbuyer warranty claims, 6.3.3.2
proximate cause, requirement for recovery, 10.5.3.2
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.2.1
PROXIMATE CAUSE
breach of warranty claims, 10.5.3.2
burden of proof, 7.4.1, 19.4.3
negligence claims, 12.4.3
questions of fact, 13.8.1.5
strict liability claims, 12.3.7
PUBLIC SALES
see AUCTIONS
PUBLICITY
alternative to litigation, 13.2.7
PUFFING
express warranty, effect, 3.2.2.7
new home sales, 18.6.3.4
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
see also SECURITY INTERESTS
financing statements, filing requirements, 8.4.5.2.2
PURCHASE PRICE
see also PRICE
excessive price as unconscionable, 11.2.5.3
lemon law definition, 14.2.8.7
recovery upon cancellation, 10.3.2
refunds, see REFUNDS
PURCHASES
see also SALE OF GOODS
definition, 10.3.3.2, 14.2.3.4
QUALITY
affirmation of fact or promise, 3.2.2.2
fitness for particular purpose, 4.3.2.8
manufactured home standards, 17.3.4
merchantability standards, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.3.2.6
brand names, 4.2.1
new homes, see HABITABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY); NEW HOME WARRANTIES; WORKMANLIKE MANNER
warranty by description, 3.3
QUESTIONS OF FACT
canceled sales, 13.8.1.4
causation, 7.7.2.1, 12.3.7, 13.8.1.5
common law unconscionability, 11.2.3
comparable replacement, 14.2.8.5
conspicuousness, 13.8.1.5
express warranties, 13.8.1.2
failure to mitigate, unreasonableness, 10.5.3.1.1
good faith, 11.3.5, 13.8.1.5
implied warranty claims, 13.8.1.3
intent, 3.7.2.10
notice of breach sufficiency, 7.2.5.4, 13.8.1.5
parol evidence, intent of parties, 3.7.2.10
predominant purpose, 19.3.4.1
rejection of goods, 13.8.1.4
good faith, 8.2.4
revocation of acceptance, 13.8.1.4
preconditions, 8.3.1.1
use of goods invalidating, 8.4.6.1
substantial impairment, 14.2.4.6.4
unfairness, 11.2.3
warranty claims, 13.8.1
QUESTIONS OF LAW
attorney fees, 13.8.1.6, 14.2.10.10.1
unconscionability, 9.6.1, 11.2.3, 13.8.1.6
REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (RESPA)
kickback restrictions, 18.6.2.2
manufactured homes, application, 17.8.2.5.4
REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
see also HOUSE SALES; REAL PROPERTY
scope issues, 1.5.6
UCC unconscionability, application, 11.2.2
REAL PROPERTY
Article 2A, application, 21.2.1
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.1.5
personalty distinguished, 2.2.1.5
transactions, see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
warranty laws, application, 1.5.6
new home warranties, 18.3.5, 18.4
REASONABLENESS
buyer’s conduct, 13.8.7.2
cover, 10.3.3.3
notice of breach, time, 7.2.3.1, 7.2.3.2, 7.2.4
UCC obligation
disclaimer restrictions, 5.13
liberal construction, 1.8.2.1
use of lemon, 14.2.8.8
REBATE PROGRAMS
privity, creation, 6.2.5.4
RECALLS
evidential value, 13.8.3.2, 13.8.3.6
motor vehicles, 14.5.7, 19.9.5.2
court-ordered, 1.7.5.2
Internet notice, 14.5.7
RECORDS
vehicle’s condition and performance, 13.8.3.10
warranty dispute resolution mechanisms, 2.8.5.3
RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
see also MOTOR HOMES
claims, generally, 14.9
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.1, 14.8.1
NMHCSSA, application, 17.1.2
REFUNDS
definition, 2.5.3.1
FTC cooling-off rule, 19.8.1.3
full warranties
consumer election, 2.5.6
liens discharged, precondition, 2.5.3.3
reasonable time without charge, 2.5.3.1
lease payments, 21.3.6.5
lemon law remedy, 14.2.8
calculation, 14.2.8.7
circumstances, 14.2.8.1
deduction for use, 14.2.8.8
judicial enforcement, 14.2.10
lienholders, effect, 14.2.8.9
replacement choice, 14.2.8.3, 14.2.8.5
strategic decisions, 13.2.2
used cars, 15.5.2.7
“no cash refunds” policy, effect, 8.3.1.1
service contract cancellations, 20.8
UCC self-help remedies, 8.1
REFUSAL OF GOODS
see REJECTION OF GOODS; RETURN OF GOODS
REGISTRATION CARDS
see WARRANTY REGISTRATION CARDS
REJECTION OF GOODS
see also CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC); REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
acceptance by inconsistent acts, 8.2.4
acceptance by signification, 8.2.3
arbitration clauses
application, 13.4.7.1
effect, 13.4.7.2
buyer’s rights, overview, 8.2.1
damages, see DAMAGES
expert inspection prior to return or resale, 8.4.1
failure to reject as acceptance, 8.2.2
fraud or material misrepresentation, 11.4.7.3
FTC Holder Rule, application, 8.4.5.3, 8.4.5.4
holding goods for seller, 8.4.2, 8.4.4.3
home improvement contracts, 19.8.1.1
law versus equity, 8.1.4
leases, 21.3.6, 21.3.8
right to reject, 21.3.6.2
limitations on, 8.1.3
Magnuson-Moss relief, 2.7.7.4
nonconformities not involving breach of warranty, 8.3.2.6
nonconformity sufficient to reject, 7.3.1, 8.2.6
notice of rejection
contents, 8.2.5.3
form, 8.2.5.2
practice tips, 8.2.5.4
requirement, 7.2.2.1, 8.2.5
sample notice, Appx. I.2
seasonable notice, 8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.5, 8.2.5.1
opportunity to inspect prior to, 8.2.2
overview, 1.9.4, 8.1
payment for goods, 8.2.1, 8.2.3.4
pleading, 13.3.4
practical problems, 8.2.5.4, 8.4.1
questions of fact, 13.8.1.4
refusal to pay, 8.2.3.4
repair assurances, extension of time, 8.3.3
repair of goods by buyer, 8.2.3.2
resales for seller’s account, 8.4.4
resales prior to rejection, 8.2.3.5
return of goods to seller, 8.4.3, 8.4.4.3
revocation distinguished, 8.1.2
security interest in goods
assignee’s interest, 8.4.5.3
buyer’s interest, 8.4.4
obstacles to resale, 8.4.5.1
seller’s interest, 8.4.5.2
termination, 8.4.5.2–8.4.5.4
third party creditor’s interest, 8.4.5.4
seller’s right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
signification of acceptance, 8.2.3
strategic decisions, 13.2.2
timeliness of rejection and notice, 8.2.2
UCC self-help remedy, 8.1.1
use of goods after, effect, 8.2.3.3, 8.4.6
RELATED CREDITORS
see also AFFILIATED LESSORS; CREDITORS
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.4
RELATIVES
see NONBUYERS
RELEASES
settlement agreements, 13.7.4.2, 13.7.4.4
RELIANCE
common law warranty damages, 19.4.4
express warranties, necessity, 3.5.2
justifiable reliance, 11.4.6
particular purpose warranty, necessity, 4.3.2.5, 4.3.2.6
REMEDIES
buyer’s, see BUYER’S REMEDIES
Magnuson-Moss, see MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
self-help, see SELF-HELP REMEDIES (UCC)
UCC, see UCC REMEDIES
UDAP, see UDAP CLAIMS
REMODELING CONTRACTS
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
REMOVAL TO FEDERAL COURT
state court actions, 2.7.2.5
RENOVATIONS
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.6.10
RENTAL TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER LEASES
purchase, inclusion in term, 10.3.3.2
REPAIR ATTEMPTS
see also REPAIRS
lemon laws
AT devices, 16.4
costs of transport, 14.2.6.2
new cars, 14.2.6
number of attempts, 14.2.6.3
used cars, 15.5.2.6
Magnuson-Moss obligations
extensions, 2.4.4
number of attempts, 2.5.6
precondition to suit, 2.5.6, 2.7.4
manufactured homes, 17.6.3
notice of breach, additional, necessity, 7.2.3.3
tolling of limitations, 7.6.5
UCC right to cure, 8.2.7.6
use of goods during, 8.4.6.5
REPAIR COSTS
see also REPAIRS
credit card payments, stopping, 19.9.1.2
dangerous products, 12.2.4
deduction from outstanding balance, 8.5.1
emissions control equipment, 19.9.5.2
estimates
automobile repairs, 19.9.3.2.2
home improvement litigation, 19.8.8.1.3
proof issues, 10.4.4.2
full warranties, 2.5.3.1, 2.5.3.2
incidental damages, as, 10.5.2
lemon laws, 14.2.6.1, 14.2.6.2
measure of damages, 10.4.4
reduced value, 8.3.2.2, 8.3.2.3
new home warranties, 18.7.3.1
recalls, 19.9.5.2
tort claims, 11.2.5
REPAIRS
see also MAINTENANCE
acceptance conditional upon, effect, 8.3.3.1, 8.3.3.2
assurances distinguished from reasonable assumption, 8.2.2.4
attempts to repair, see REPAIR ATTEMPTS
automobiles, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
buyer’s attempt as signification of acceptance, 8.2.3.2
contractual and statutory cure distinguished, 8.2.7.1
cost of repair, see REPAIR COSTS
cure by, 8.2.7.5
dealer liability for manufacturer warranty, 6.2.6
dealers as manufacturer’s agent, 6.2.5.2, 19.9.5.1
definition, 2.5.3.1
delays, remedies, 8.3.2.6
economic loss damages, 12.2.4
evidence of defect at delivery, as, 7.5.4
express warranty of future action, 3.2.2.4.2, 7.6.3.4
failure to repair as nonconformity, 8.3.2.5
failure to repair within reasonable time, 9.5.2
full warranties
reasonable time without charge, 2.5.3.1
unsuccessful attempts, refund or replacement, 2.5.6
lemon law requirements, 14.2.6
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.1.6, 2.2.1.7
manufacturer’s right, see RIGHT TO CURE
motor vehicles, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
negligence claims, 12.4.2, 19.5
new home warranties, 18.7.3.1
notice of breach, time, 7.2.3.3
prior approval, 20.4.6
prior repairs, express warranties, 3.2.2.3
reasonable assumption of repair, 8.3.3.2
rejection of goods, extension of time, 8.2.2.4, 8.3.3
repair or replace remedy, see under BUYER’S REMEDIES
revocation of acceptance, extension of time, 8.3.4
right to cure by, see RIGHT TO CURE
scope issues, 1.5.5
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
shaken faith doctrine, 8.2.7.5
shoddy repairs, 7.7.4.5, 20.6
spoliation of evidence issues, 3.2.5
state law, 19.9.3.1
automobile repair, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
strict liability, 12.3.3
technicians, deposing, 14.9.4.2.4
tolling, statute of limitations, 7.6.5
UDAP violations, 11.1.5
use of goods during, 8.4.6.5
used car dealers, duty, 5.15.1
warranty period
expiration, effect, 7.7.4.2
extensions for, 2.4.4
REPLACEMENT
auto repairs, return of replaced parts, 19.9.3.2.2, 19.9.3.2.3, 19.9.4
contractual rights, statutory right to cure, distinction, 8.2.7.1
cure by, 8.2.7.5
defective parts
adequacy as cure, 8.2.7.5
cost as measure of damages, 10.4.4.1
evidence of faulty product, 7.5.5
definition, 2.5.3.1
express warranty of future action, 3.2.2.4.2
full warranties
consumer election, 2.5.6
liens discharged, precondition, 2.5.3.3
reasonable time without charge, 2.5.3.1
lemon law remedy, 14.2.8
circumstances, 14.2.8.1
comparable vehicle, 14.2.8.5
judicial enforcement, 14.2.10
refund choice, 14.2.8.3
strategic decisions, 13.2.2
use of lemon, effect, 14.2.8.6
used cars, 15.5.2.7
limited remedy clauses, 9.1, 9.4.2, 9.5.2
manufactured homes, 17.6.3
REPLEVIN
buyer deductions from purchase price, validity, 8.5.2
REPOSSESSION
canceled sales, secured parties, 8.4.5.1, 8.4.5.2.1, 8.4.5.3, 8.4.5.4
consequential damages, recovery, 10.5.3.1.5
defective goods when buyer has deducted damages, 8.5.2, 8.5.4
new cars, effect on lemon law rights, 14.2.8.4
resale of repossessed goods, warranty of title, 4.5.1
revocation of acceptance after, 8.4.5.5
spoliation of evidence, as, 13.2.5
REPRESENTATIONS
express warranty, see AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS
see also ADMISSIONS
blue book admissibility, 10.4.8
new car warranty cases, 14.9.4.1
sample requests, Appx. J.3
value of goods, 10.4.9
RES IPSA LOQUITUR
negligence claims, application of doctrine, 12.4.2
RESALES OF REFUSED GOODS
see also REJECTION OF GOODS; REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
advantages, 8.4.4.3
after notice of rejection, 8.2.3.5
buyer payments or expenses, 8.4.4
expenses, recovery, 10.3.5
expert inspection prior to, 8.4.1
financing statements, filings, effect, 8.4.5.2.2, 8.4.5.2.3
holding for seller prior to, 8.4.2
manufactured homes, 17.6.6
notice of buyer’s intention, 8.4.4.5
price as measure of damages, 10.4.5
prior to rejection as signification of acceptance, 8.2.3.5, 8.2.4
procedures, 8.4.4.5
proceeds, entitlement, 8.4.2, 8.4.4.4, 8.4.5.4
right to, 8.4.4.1
security interest of creditor or seller, effect, 8.4.5
stipulation of sale, 8.4.4.1
third party lenders, permission, 8.4.5.4
RESCISSION
see also CANCELLATION RIGHTS
alternative claim against manufacturer, 8.3.8.5
home improvement contracts, 19.8.1.2
manufactured home credit transactions, 17.8.2.5
misrepresentations, 11.4.7.3
new home purchases, 18.7.7
revocation of acceptance distinguished, 8.1.4
unconscionable contracts, 11.2.7
RESEARCH AIDS
see also PRACTICE TIPS; WEB RESOURCES
lemon laws, 1.4.5
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, 1.4.5
NCLC resources, 1.1
new car defects, 14.9.1
primary sources, 1.1.5
settlement value, 13.7.1
UCC
case law, 1.4.1
official comments, 1.4.2
state legislative history, 1.4.3
treatises, 1.4.4
UDAP statutes, 1.4.5
unreported cases, 1.1.6
RESTITUTION
unconscionable contracts, 11.2.7.4
RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (RISA)
manufactured home claims under, 17.8.2.5.1
motor vehicles, see MOTOR VEHICLE RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (MVRISA)
RETAILERS
see also DEALERS; DIRECT SELLERS; MERCHANTS; SUPPLIERS
good faith duty, 11.3.1
house brands, liability, 12.4.1.4
inspection of goods for sale, 12.4.1.4
leased goods, warranty obligations, 21.5
raising against lessor, 21.6.2
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.1
manufacturer’s warranty
adoption, 2.2.5.3, 6.2.6
deductions for breach, 8.5.6
liability for, 6.2.6, 8.5.6
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.2
service contract liability, 20.7.4
strict liability, 12.3.2
RETURN OF GOODS
canceled sales, 8.4.3
advantages and disadvantages, 8.4.3.1
damages, 10.2
protecting buyer, 8.4.3.2
providing clear title, 8.4.3.3
seller’s refusal to accept, 8.4.3.4
fraud or material misrepresentation, 11.4.7.3
lemon laws
inability to return, effect, 14.2.8.3
repair cost, 14.2.6.2
practice tips, 8.4.1, 8.4.3, 13.2.2
REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
see also ACCEPTANCE; CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC); REJECTION OF GOODS
arbitration clauses
application, 13.4.7.1
effect, 13.4.7.2
condition of goods returned, 8.3.5
damages, see DAMAGES
dealer’s responsibility, 17.6.7
deterioration of goods, effect, 8.3.5
disclaimers, effect, 5.14, 8.3.2.6
expert inspection prior to return or resale, 8.4.1
fraud or material misrepresentation, 11.4.7.3
FTC Holder Rule, application, 8.4.5.3, 8.4.5.4
holding goods for seller, 8.4.2, 8.4.4.3
home improvement contracts, 19.8.1.1
implied warranty breach, 2.3.6.2
indirect sellers, availability against, 8.3.8
manufactured homes, 17.6.7
rescission alternative, 8.3.8.5
judicial resistance, overcoming, 8.3.1.2
justification for original acceptance, 8.3.3
assumption seller would repair, 8.3.3.2
unaware of defect, 8.3.3.3
law versus equity, 8.1.4
leases, 21.3.6, 21.3.8
finance leases, 21.5
grounds, 21.3.6.4
right to revoke, 21.3.6.3
lemon law alternative, 14.3
limitations on, 8.1.3
Magnuson-Moss relief, 2.7.7.4.2
major failure right after purchase, 8.3.2.4
manufactured homes, 17.6
manufacturer’s warranty breach, returns to seller, 8.3.2.6
new cars, 14.3
damage prior to delivery, 14.6
nonconformities, 7.3.1
not involving breach of warranty, 8.3.2.6
notice of revocation, 7.2.2.1, 8.3.6
sample notice, Appx. I.2
overview, 1.9.4, 8.1, 8.3.1.1
pleading, 13.3.4
practical problems, 8.4.1
prerequisites, generally, 8.3.1.1
questions of fact, 13.8.1.4
rejection distinguished, 8.1.2
remedy unavailable, damages, 8.3.4
repossession, after, 8.4.5.5
resales for seller’s account, 8.4.4
return of goods to seller, 8.4.3, 8.4.4.3
see also RETURN OF GOODS
clear title, 8.4.3.3
use prior to, 8.4.1
right to cure, 8.2.7.8, 8.3.7
security interest in goods
assignee’s interest, 8.4.5.3
buyer’s interest, 8.4.4
obstacles to resale, 8.4.5.1
seller’s interest, 8.4.5.2
termination, 8.4.5.2–8.4.5.4
third party creditor’s interest, 8.4.5.4
shaken faith doctrine, 8.3.2.4
strategic decisions, 13.2.2
substantial impairment of value of goods
failure to repair, 8.3.2.5
generally, 8.3.2.1
nonconformity need not involve warranty, 8.3.2.6
objective view, 8.3.2.2
subjective view, 8.3.2.3, 8.3.2.4
timeliness, 8.3.4
UCC self-help remedy, 8.1.1
use of goods after, effect, 8.4.6, 10.3.1, 10.3.6
used cars, 15.7.1
written warranty breach, 2.3.6.1
RIGHT TO CURE
see also REPAIRS
after expiration of performance time
cure acceptable to buyer, 8.2.7.2.1, 8.2.7.3
determining whether time expired, 8.2.7.2.2
allowing cure when no right, 13.2.1
attempts to cure, acceptable number, 2.7.4, 8.2.7.6
before expiration of performance time
repair of defective product, 8.2.7.5
replacement of defective part, 8.2.7.5
requirements, 8.2.7.2
damage compensation, no prerequisite, 8.2.7.7.3
damages claims, inapplicability, 8.2.7.1
deadline, 8.2.7.6
leases, 21.3.6.2
lemon laws, 14.2.6.1
cost of vehicle return, 14.2.6.2
refusal of cure, effect, 14.2.6.2
repair attempts, allowable number, 14.2.6.3
used cars, 15.5.2.6
Magnuson-Moss suits, precondition, 2.7.4
manufactured homes, 17.6.3
minor versus major defects, 8.2.7.5, 8.2.7.3.4
new home warranties, 18.3.10
nonconformities, 7.3.1
refusal of rightful cure, effect, 8.2.7.8
repair of defective product, 8.2.7.5
repair or replace remedy, distinction, 8.2.7.1
replacement of defective part, 8.2.7.5
returning goods to seller, burden of cost, 8.2.7.7
revocation of acceptance, after, 8.3.6.2, 8.3.7
seasonable notice, 8.2.7.4
shaken faith doctrine, 8.2.7.5
substituted goods, acceptability, reasonable grounds, 8.2.7.3
UCC statutory right, generally, 8.2.7.1
RODENTICIDES
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.3
ROOFING SHINGLES
see also BUILDING MATERIALS; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
consumer product status, 1.2.6, 2.2.1.5
manufactured home leaks, 17.1.3.2
SAFETY INSPECTIONS
see also EXPERT EVIDENCE; SAFETY STANDARDS
new car warranty cases, 14.9.1
used cars
inspection sticker as express warranty, 5.2
negligence, 5.15.1, 12.4.1.4
state law, 15.5.6
SAFETY STANDARDS
see also SAFETY INSPECTIONS; STANDARDS
Consumer Product Safety Act, see CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT
evidence, admissibility, 4.2.3.2.8
federal preemption, 1.7, 12.3.3
food and drugs, see FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)
latent defects, UDAP violations, 14.5.7
manufactured homes
federal, see NATIONAL MANUFACTURED HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT
state standards, 17.4.3
merchantability application, 4.2.3.2.4, 4.2.3.2.8
motor vehicles, see NATIONAL TRAFFIC AND MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY ACT
noncompliance as unreasonably dangerous, 12.3.5
strict liability, 12.3.3
SALE OF GOODS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
“as is” sales, see “AS IS” DISCLAIMERS
cancellation, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
definition of sale, 1.5.2
mixed goods and services transactions, see MIXED TRANSACTIONS
nonconformity with contract obligations, 7.3
predominantly goods transactions, 19.3.2.1
rejection of goods, see REJECTION OF GOODS
revocation of acceptance, see REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
scope issues, 1.5
Statute of Frauds, written requirement, 3.6.3.2.3
strict liability, see STRICT LIABILITY
substituted goods, acceptability, 8.2.7.3
transaction distinguished, 1.5.2
UCC Article 2 applicability, 1.2.2, 1.5.2
UDAP violations, 11.1.5
used goods, see USED GOODS
utility services, status, 1.5.7
warranties, see WARRANTIES; WARRANTIES (UCC)
SALE OF SERVICES
see SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
SALES
definition, 14.2.3.4
goods, see SALE OF GOODS
mixed transactions, see MIXED TRANSACTIONS
private sales, see PRIVATE SALES
resales, see RESALES OF REFUSED GOODS
services, see SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
SALVAGE VEHICLES
used car sales
claims re, 15.8.8
express warranties, 15.3.8
wreck and repair disclosure, 15.8.3
SAMPLE OR MODEL (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
see also EXPRESS WARRANTIES
admissibility of evidence, 3.7.6
breach of warranty, 7.3.5.1.3
conflict with description warranty, 3.9.3
creation of warranty, 3.4.2
product itself warranty distinguished, 3.2.2.6
sample and model distinguished, 3.4.1
scope of warranty, 3.4.3
SATISFACTION POLICIES
see CUSTOMER SATISFACTION POLICIES
SCIENTER
see also KNOWLEDGE
negligent misrepresentation, 11.4.3.1
SEALS OF APPROVAL
disclosure exemptions, 2.6.2
written warranty status, 2.2.3.6
SECONDHAND GOODS
see USED GOODS
SECRET WARRANTIES
new cars, 14.5.3
UDAP violation, 14.5.5
specific information about, sources, 14.5.3
used cars, application, 15.3.2.1
SECURITY INTERESTS
Article 2A, application, 21.2.1
canceled sales, assignee’s interest, 8.4.5.3
canceled sales, buyer’s interest, 8.4.2, 8.4.4, 8.4.5.2.1
incidental damages, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
leases, 21.3.6.5
manufactured homes, 17.6.5
canceled sales, resale obstacles, 8.4.5.1
canceled sales, returned goods, 8.4.3.3
canceled sales, seller’s interest, 8.4.5.2
financing statements, filing, effect, 8.4.5.2.2, 8.4.5.2.3
termination on cancellation, 8.4.5.2.1
canceled sales, third party lender’s interest, 8.4.3.3, 8.4.5.4
home improvement sales, practice tips, 19.8.8.3
lemon law refunds, effect, 14.2.8.9
manufactured homes, effect on resales, 17.6.6
mechanics’ liens, see MECHANICS’ LIENS
release as precondition to remedy, 2.5.3.3
repossessions, see REPOSSESSION
seller created, buyer’s title, 4.5.2
strategic decisions, 13.2.3
termination, UCC requirements, 8.4.5.2.3
failure to meet, attorney fees, 10.7
warranty of title, 4.5
SEEDS
Magnuson-Moss exemption, 2.2.1.1
SELF-HELP REMEDIES (UCC)
see also BUYER’S REMEDIES; UCC REMEDIES
arbitration agreements, application, 13.4.7.1
deductions from balance, see DEDUCTIONS FROM OUTSTANDING BALANCE
law versus equity, 8.1.4
overview, 1.9.4, 8.1.1
rejection of goods, see REJECTION OF GOODS
revocation of acceptance, see REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
sample notices, Appx. I
SELLERS
see also DEALERS; MERCHANTS; NONMERCHANTS; RETAILERS
admissions of defects, 7.5.3
bad faith, see BAD FAITH
conduct extending time to reject, 8.2.2.4
conduct invalidating disclaimers, 5.10.4, 5.11.3
definition, 1.5.9, 1.5.11
direct sellers, see DIRECT SELLERS
disclaimers by manufacturer, effect, 5.6
duty of care, 12.4.1.1
duty of disclosure, 11.4.5
duty of good faith, 11.3
expert witness, use as, 10.4.7
express warranty creation, 3.2.3
government investigations, 7.5.7
implied warranty disclaimer, 2.3.2
indirect sellers, see INDIRECT SELLERS
knowledge of defect, 7.2.2.4, 11.4.5
leases, obligations to lessee, 21.5
limited remedies, waiver by conduct, 9.8
merchant status, 4.2.2.2
merchantability warranty, application, 4.2.2
new home warranties, application, 18.3.4, 18.4.2
notice of breach to, see NOTICE OF BREACH
particular purpose warranty
application, 4.3.2.2, 4.3.2.6, 4.3.3
knowledge, 4.3.2.3
publicity efforts against, 13.2.7
removal of goods after cancellation, 8.4.2
returned goods, non-acceptance, 8.4.3.4
right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
security interests in canceled goods, 8.4.5
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
special relationship, determination, 12.2.7
strict liability, see STRICT LIABILITY
superior knowledge, 11.4.5
UCC flexible standards, 1.8.2.3
warranty laws, application, 1.5.9
SERVICE CONTRACT LAWS (STATE)
see also SERVICE CONTRACTS
regulation as insurance, effect, 2.2.4.2, 2.3.2.2.5, 20.3.2, 20.5.7
remedies, 20.5.8
summary of laws and regulations, Appx. G
SERVICE CONTRACTORS
see also SERVICE CONTRACTS
dealer or seller as, 2.3.2.2, 20.1.3
failure to cover claim, 20.5
insurance protection, 20.1.3, 20.3.1, 20.7.2
licensing requirements, 20.5.7
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.1
SERVICE CONTRACTS
see also MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE; SERVICE CONTRACTORS
arbitration clauses, 13.4.4.5, 20.5.3
assignments, 20.10
automatic renewal, 20.9
automobiles
insurance regulation, 20.3
latent defects, 14.5.2
problems, consumer remedies, 20.5
state law, see SERVICE CONTRACT LAWS (STATE)
claims administrators, 20.7.3
common law implied warranties, 19.4.3
coverage denial, disputing, 20.4
dealer, entering into, 2.3.2.2
definition, 2.2.4.1, 20.2
disclosure, 2.3.8, 13.4.4.5, 20.4.3
duration, 20.4.2
exclusions, 20.4.3
express warranties distinguished, 20.2
50/50 warranties as, 2.2.3.4
good faith obligation, 20.3.1, 20.5.6
implied warranties, disclaimer restrictions, 2.3.2.2, 5.3, 15.4.3
insurance, regulation as, 2.3.2.2.5, 2.2.4.2, 20.3, 20.5.4, 20.5.5, 20.5.7, 20.7.2
leased products, manufacturer’s warranty as, 2.2.6.9
lemon laws, application, 14.2.4.1
Magnuson-Moss application, 1.9.1.6, 2.2.4, 20.4.3, 20.5.4
misrepresentations, 20.4.4
new homes, 18.6.2.2
overview, 1.2.9, 1.9.1.6, 20.1
parties to transaction, 20.1.3
prior approval for repairs, 20.4.6
refunds on cancellation, 20.8
regular maintenance requirements, 20.4.5
regulation, 2.3.8
reimbursement insurance, 20.1.3, 20.3.1, 20.7.2
relationship to extended warranties and insurance, 20.1.2
remedies for breach, 20.5
attorney fees, 2.7.8.2
bad faith, 20.5.6
informal approaches, 20.5.1
insurance regulated contracts, 20.5.7
Magnuson-Moss, 2.3.8, 20.5.4
mandatory arbitration, 20.5.3
shaping the claim, 20.5.2
state law, 20.5.8
UDAP, 11.1.3, 20.5.5
renewal, automatic, 20.9
shoddy repair work, 20.6
state law, see SERVICE CONTRACT LAWS (STATE)
subsequent product owners, 20.10
terms and conditions, 2.3.8, 20.4.3
third party liability, 20.7
contract administrators, 20.7.3
creditors, 20.7.6
dealer or retailer, 20.7.4
insurance coverage, 20.7.2
other parties, 20.7.5
UCC, application, 1.2.9
UDAP statutes, application, 20.5.5
UDAP violations, 11.1.3, 20.4.4, 20.5.5
used car sales, effect, 15.4.3
vehicle etch protection, 2.4.1.3, 20.3.2
warranties distinguished, 2.2.3.1, 2.2.4.1, 20.2
SERVICE OF PROCESS
foreign defendants and witnesses, 13.3.10
SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
see also CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
auto repairs, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS
bailment contracts, 19.6
common law warranties, 19.4
cooling-off periods, 19.8.1.2, 19.8.1.3, 19.8.1.4
economic loss damages, 12.2.5
fraud claims, 19.7
home improvement contracts, see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 2.2.1.6, 19.2.1
mixed goods and services transactions, see MIXED TRANSACTIONS
negligence claims, 12.1, 12.4.1.1, 19.5
nonconformity with contract obligations, 7.3
overview, 1.2.8
predominantly service transactions, 19.3.2.2
professional services, see PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
rescission, 19.8.1
scope issues, 1.5.5
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.1, 12.3.3.3
UCC Article 2, application, 19.2.2, 19.2.3, 19.8.1.1
UCC unconscionability, application, 11.2.2, 19.8.1.1
UDAP claims, 19.7
SERVICES
see SERVICE TRANSACTIONS
SET-OFFS
canceled sales, use of goods, 8.4.6.6, 10.3.1, 10.3.6
calculating the offset, 10.3.6.2
leases, 21.3.6.5
manufactured homes, 17.6.5
cover, expenses saved, 10.3.3.5
damages against outstanding balance, 1.9.4
lemon law refunds, allowance for use, 14.2.4.7, 14.2.8.8
Magnuson-Moss refunds, depreciation, 2.5.3.1
SETTLEMENT
Buckhannon decision, 2.7.8.6
confidentiality agreements, 13.7.4.4
credit record, protecting, 13.7.4.3
“cyber” settlement programs, 13.7.1
defendant’s bankruptcy, protecting against, 13.7.5
delay in payment, protecting against, 13.7.4.2
exculpatory clauses, 13.7.4.4
financing entity, settling with, 13.7.4.5
lemon law claims
attorney fees, 14.2.10.10.3
expenses, 13.7.4.1
Magnuson-Moss claims
attorney fees, 2.7.8.2, 2.7.8.6
expenses, 13.7.4.1
outside dispute mechanism, 2.8.2
other parties, effect on, 13.7.6
practice tips, 13.7
attorney fees, 13.7.7
first considerations, 13.7.1
mediation, 13.7.3
negotiating, 13.7.2
terms, 13.7.4
prevailing party, 2.7.8.6.1
SHAKEN FAITH DOCTRINE
cure by repair and, 8.2.7.5
lemon laws, application, 14.2.6.1
substantial impairment of value, 8.3.2.4
SIDING
see BUILDING MATERIALS; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
SIGNS
see also NOTICE
auto repair shops, notice of statutory rights, 19.9.3.2.3
SILENCE
fraud by, 11.4.5
SIMILAR FACT EVIDENCE
see also EVIDENCE
similar acts, 13.8.3.5
similar claims, 7.5.6
SINGLE DOCUMENT REQUIREMENT
disclaimers, 5.8.6
warranty disclosure, 2.6.4.1
written warranties, 2.2.3.6
SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP
determination, 12.2.7
SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE
new home warranty breach, 18.4.8, 18.7.7
SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE WARRANTIES
see FUTURE PERFORMANCE WARRANTIES
SPOLIATION
avoiding problems when buyer revokes acceptance, 8.4.3.2
evidence, 13.2.5
STANDARD FORM CONTRACTS
see also CONTRACTS
parol evidence rule, application, 3.7.2.7
unconscionability, 11.2.5.2.3
STANDARD OF CARE
see DUTY OF CARE
STANDARDS
auto repair shops, 19.9.3.3
conspicuousness, determination, 5.8.9
consumer buyers, flexibility, 1.8.2.3, 1.8.3
deception, 11.1.2
government or industry standards, 4.2.3.2.8
manufactured homes
construction and safety, 17.3, 17.4.3
consumer enforcement, 17.3.6, 17.3.7.1
HUD label, 17.3.6, 17.4.1
HUD standards, 17.3, 17.4.1, 17.5.2.2
installation, 17.3.1, 17.7.2, 17.7.3
quality assurance and inspection, 17.3.4
state enforcement, 17.3.8, 17.8.1
state standards, 17.4.2, 17.4.3
merchantable, 4.2.3, 7.3.6.1, 15.4.2
negligent conduct, 12.4.1, 12.4.2
new homes, habitability, 18.3.6.2
nonconformity, 7.3
reasonable person standard, 5.8.9
safety, see SAFETY STANDARDS
UCC unconscionability, 11.2.5
unfairness, 11.1.2
used cars, 15.4.2, 15.5.4, 15.5.7
failure to meet, 15.7.2
warranty, see WARRANTIES
STATE LAW
assistive technology devices, 16
credit repair, see CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATION STATUTES (STATE)
credit statutes, see RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (RISA)
federal preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
home improvement contracts
other statutes, 19.8.6
special home improvement statutes, 19.8.4
UDAP statutes and regulations, 19.8.5
home solicitations, 19.8.1.4
home warranty programs, 18.6.2.2
horizontal privity, 6.3.3
implied warranties
disclaimer restrictions, 2.3.2, 5.4
Magnuson-Moss remedies, 2.3.1.1, 2.3.1.2
vertical privity, 6.2.4.2
leases, 21.2.7
lemon car laws, Appx. F
see also LEMON LAWS (STATE)
limited remedy clauses, restrictions, 9.9
loans, see CREDIT STATUTES
Magnuson-Moss claims, application, 2.3.1.1, 2.3.4
class actions, 2.7.9.3
damages, 2.7.7.1
implied warranties, 2.3.1.2
limitations, 2.7.10
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, preemption, 2.9
manufactured homes
construction standards, federal preemption, 17.3.5
credit statute causes of action, 17.8.2.5
installation standards, 17.7.3, 17.7.7
warranties, see MANUFACTURED HOME WARRANTY LAWS (STATE)
manufacturer’s liability (vertical privity)
express warranties, 6.2.3
implied warranties, 6.2.4.2
motor vehicle inspections, 15.5.6
motor vehicle repairs, see AUTOMOBILE REPAIR LAWS (STATE)
motor vehicle statutes, see MOTOR VEHICLE STATUTES (STATE)
motor vehicle warranties, 14.4.5, 15.8.2
new cars
damage disclosure, 15.8.9
emissions system warranties, 14.5.8
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
new home warranties, Appx. H
see also NEW HOME WARRANTIES
notice of breach requirements, 7.2.2.8
plain language laws, see PLAIN LANGUAGE LAWS
products liability, 12.3.1
products safety, 12.3.3
noncompliance as unreasonably dangerous, 12.3.5
service contract breach, 20.5
service contract laws, Appx. G
see also SERVICE CONTRACT LAWS (STATE)
UETA, adoption, 5.8.11
unfair and deceptive practices, see UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
used car standards, 15.5
inspection laws, 15.5.6
lemon laws, 15.5.2, 15.5.3
state summaries, 15.5.7
vertical privity, 6.2.4.2
violation as UDAP violation, 11.1.9
warranty rights, disclosure requirements, 2.6.4.10
warranty statutes, see STATUTORY WARRANTIES
STATEMENTS
express warranty creation, see AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
false statements, see FALSE STATEMENTS
financing, see FINANCING STATEMENTS
oral statements, see ORAL STATEMENTS
post-sale statements, see POST-SALE STATEMENTS
written warranty status, 2.2.3.1
STATUTE OF FRAUDS
pleading, 13.3.12
post-sale statements, application, 3.6.3.2.2, 3.6.3.2.3
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
breach of warranty claims, 7.6
common law express warranties, 19.4.2
future performance warranties, 7.6.3.1
leases, 7.6.4, 21.3.3
cause of action, accrual, 7.6
CLA violations, 21.2.5
contractual limitations, effect, 7.6.9
leased goods, 7.6.4, 21.3.3
lemon law claims
new cars, 14.2.7
used cars, 15.5.2.8
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.10
negligence claims, 12.4.4
non-UCC claims, 7.6.10
pleading, 13.3.12
savings provision, 7.6.7
tolling
fraudulent concealment, 7.6.6
lemon laws, 14.2.7
repair attempts, 7.6.5
tort claims, 12.1
tort claims, 12.1
UCC claims, 7.6
timely actions, refiling, 7.6.7
UDAP claims, 11.1.1.3
warranty defenses, raising, 7.6.8
STATUTORY DUTY
breach, economic loss claims, 12.2.6
STATUTORY LIENS
auto repairs, 19.9.1.1
home improvements, 19.8.8.3
STATUTORY WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES
assistive technological devices, 16
broadly applicable state laws, 1.2.6
claims re, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
federal preemption, 1.7
FTC Used Car Rule, 15.6.8
Magnuson-Moss, see MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
manufactured homes, see MANUFACTURED HOME WARRANTY LAWS (STATE)
new cars, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
new homes, 18.4
see also NEW HOME WARRANTIES
condominium-specific, 18.5, Appx. H
express warranties, creation, 18.6.1
federally insured purchases, 18.6.2.1
state-by-state analysis, Appx. H
overview, 1.9.1.5
UCC, see WARRANTIES (UCC)
used car sales, 5.4.2
lemon laws, 15.5.2
state by state summary, 15.5.5, 15.5.7
written warranties, 15.3.3
STORM WINDOWS
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
STRICT LIABILITY
see also TORT CLAIMS
advantages over warranty claims, 12.1
breach of warranty, 7.3.1
defective services, application, 12.3.3
disclaimers, effect, 5.15.1
economic damages, 12.2
property damage distinguished, 12.2.8
elements of claim
causation, 12.3.7
defective condition, 12.3.4
normal or foreseeable use, 12.3.8
overview, 12.3.1
parties liable, 12.3.2
products covered, 12.3.3
unreasonably dangerous, 12.3.5
federal preemption, 1.7, 12.3.3.1
horizontal privity, application, 6.3.7
latent car defects, 14.5.6
leases, application, 21.2.7
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.5
manufactured home cases, 17.8.2.4
negligence claim in same action, 12.4.1.1
new cars, 14.4.4
new home cases, 18.7.1.2
overview, 1.2.8, 12.1
privity, necessity, 6.2.5.6, 12.1
scope issues, 1.5.5, 1.5.12
statute of limitations, 7.6.10
tort claims, 12
used goods, 12.3.3.2
used car sales, 15.8.4
SUBSTANTIAL IMPAIRMENT OF VALUE
defined, 8.3.2.2, 14.2.4.6.1
evidence, 8.3.2.2, 14.2.4.6.4
generally, 8.3.2.1
lemon laws, requirement, 14.2.4.6
new car defects, 14.2.4.6, 14.3.3
objective view, 8.3.2.2
lemon laws, 14.2.4.6.2
question of fact, 14.2.4.6.4
revocation of acceptance, requirement, 8.3.2.1
specific impairments found to be substantial, 14.2.4.6.3
subjective view
lemon laws, 14.2.4.6.2
rationale for, 8.3.2.3
shaken faith doctrine, 8.3.2.4
title warranty breach, 8.3.2.2
used car defects, 15.7.1
SUBSTITUTE GOODS
acceptability to buyer, 8.2.7.3
purchased by buyer, see COVER
SUBSTITUTE TRANSPORTATION AND HOUSING
consequential damages, 10.5.3.1.2
SUITABILITY WARRANTY
see also FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE (IMPLIED WARRANTY); HABITABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
condominiums, 18.5.1
SUITS
see ACTIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL JURISDICTION
see also JURISDICTION
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.7.2.3
SUPPLIERS
see also DISTRIBUTORS; MANUFACTURERS; RETAILERS
component suppliers, see COMPONENT SUPPLIERS
definition, 2.2.5.1, 2.2.5.5, 2.3.6.2
individuals, status as, 2.2.5.5
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.1
SWIMMING POOLS
see HOME IMPROVEMENTS
TAXES
canceling buyer, recovery as incidental damages, 10.5.2
lemon law refunds, 14.2.8.7
TAXICABS
consumer product status, 2.2.1.2
TELEPHONE SERVICES
see also UTILITY SERVICES
pay telephone use, warranty application, 1.5.7
wireless, see WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
TENANTS
see NONBUYERS
TENDER
canceled sales, circumstances, 8.4.3, 8.4.4.3
cure after performance date, acceptability, 8.2.7.3
delivery, breach of warranty action, accrual of cause, 7.6.1
lemon law damage claims, 14.2.10.6.1
lemon law replacement or refund remedy, 14.2.8.1
payment after as signification of acceptance, 8.2.3.4
perfect tender rule, see PERFECT TENDER RULE
revocation of acceptance, no requirement, 8.3.1.1
THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES
lessees as, 21.5
service contracts
consumer as, 20.7.3
subsequent owners, 20.10
warranty rights
consumers, 6.2.5.1
nonbuyers, 6.3.6
THIRD PARTY CREDITORS
see also CREDITORS
FTC Holder Rule, application, 8.4.5.4, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.5, 8.5.6, 17.8.2.6
lemon law refunds, receipt, 14.2.8.9
liability for damages, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.5, 8.5.6
Magnuson-Moss liability, 2.2.5.4
manufactured home claims against, 17.8.2.6
revocation of acceptance, notification, 8.3.6.3
security interests in canceled goods, 2.5.3.3, 8.4.5.4
settling with, 13.7.4.5
withholding payments, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.6
notice, 8.5.5
THIRD PARTY LIABILITY
see also LIABILITY
creditors, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.5, 8.5.6
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.2.5.4
manufactured homes, 17.8.2.6
merger clauses, effect, 3.7.2.9.4
service contracts, 20.7
TIE-INS
arbitration service provider, 13.4.5
50/50 warranties, 2.4.1.4
FTC waivers, 2.4.1.2
restrictions on, 2.4.1, 7.7.3
violations, remedies, 2.4.1.5
vehicle anti-theft products, 2.4.1.3
TIME
canceled sales, security interests, termination, 8.4.5.2.3
inspection
contractual specifications, 8.2.2.3
reasonable opportunity, 8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.2
notice of breach, 7.2.3, 7.2.4
performance of contract obligations, expiration, determination, 8.2.7.2.2
rejection of goods, notice, 8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.5
revocation of acceptance, 8.3.4
manufactured homes, 17.6.4
TITLE
canceled sales, clear title
return of goods, requirement, 8.4.3.3
sale of goods, obstacles, 8.4.5.1–8.4.5.4
defending title, 4.5.2
DMV, issuance of clear title to buyers, 8.4.5.2.3
implied warranty, see TITLE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
salvage vehicles, 15.8.8
TITLE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
see also TITLE
breach as substantial impairment, 14.3.3.4
breach of warranty
causes of action, 4.5.3
damages, 10.4.11
disclaimers, 4.5.1
Magnuson-Moss, application, 2.3.1.2.2, 4.5.3
nature and creation, 4.5.1
resales of refused goods, breach when secured creditor, 8.4.5.1, 8.4.5.2.3
used car sales, 15.2
TOBACCO REGULATION
preemption issues, 1.7.8.2
TOLLING
statute of limitations
fraudulent concealment, 7.6.6
lemon laws, 14.2.7
repair attempts, 7.6.5
tort claims, 12.1
warranty period during repairs, 2.4.4, 7.7.4.1, 7.7.4.2
TORT CLAIMS
automobile repairs, 19.9.3.2.4, 19.9.5.1
damages, 13.3.1.5
disclaimers, effect, 5.15.1
economic loss, recovery, 6.2.5.6, 12.2
federal preemption, 1.7
flexible standards for consumers, 1.8.3
fraud, see FRAUD CLAIMS
horizontal privity, necessity, 6.3.7
latent car defects, 14.5.6
leases, application, 21.2.7
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.5
manufactured homes, 17.8.2.4
misrepresentation, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE CLAIMS
new cars, 14.4.4
new homes, 18.7.1.2
overview, 1.2.8, 11.4.1, 12.1
pleading, 13.3.1.3, 13.3.1.5
privity, necessity, 6.2.5.6, 12.1
property damage, 10.5.3.2
spoliation of evidence, 13.2.5
statute of limitations, 7.6.10, 12.1
strict liability, see STRICT LIABILITY
UCC claims, cumulation of rights, 1.6.3
TOWING COSTS
lemon law repairs, 14.2.6.2
TRADE-INS
lemon law refunds, calculating, 14.2.8.7.2
nonconforming goods, price as measure of damages, 10.4.5
TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
see also FTC RULES
cooling-off period for door-to-door sales, see COOLING-OFF PERIOD RULE (FTC)
holders-in-due course, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
preservation of claims and defenses, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
used cars, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
TRADE USAGE
see USAGE OF TRADE
TRAILERS
see MOTOR HOMES; RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
TRANSACTIONS IN GOODS
see SALE OF GOODS
TRANSFERS
leases, status, 2.2.6.6, 2.2.6.9
TRANSPORTATION
manufactured homes for set up, liability for damage, 17.7
substitute transportation, consequential damages, 10.5.3.1.2
TRAVEL TRAILERS
see MOTOR HOMES; RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
TRIALS
see JURY TRIALS; PRACTICE TIPS
TRUTH IN LENDING (TILA)
home improvement contracts, application, 19.8.1.2
manufactured home purchases, application, 17.8.2.5.2
UCC
see UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
UCC CLAIMS
see also UCC REMEDIES; WARRANTY CLAIMS
advantages over UDAP claims, 11.1.1.3
assistive technological devices, 16.7.4
attorney fees, 2.7.8.5, 10.7, 13.9
damages, 10
discovery, 13.5
evaluating and framing the case, 13.1
evidence issues, 13.8.3
inspections, 13.6
manufactured homes, 17.8.2.1
new cars, 14.4.3
pleadings, 13.3
multiple claims, 13.3.2
non-UCC claims, 13.3.1
settlement considerations, 13.7
statute of limitations, 7.6
strategic decisions, 13.2
trial issues, 13.8
UCC REMEDIES
see also BUYER’S REMEDIES; UCC CLAIMS; WARRANTIES (UCC)
bad faith, 11.3.4, 15.8.5
cancellation rights, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
contractual limitations, 9.1
damages, 10
economic loss damages, application, 12.2.5
leases, 21.3.8
limited remedy clauses
application, 9.1, 9.5
failure of essential purpose, effect, 9.5
state restrictions, 9.9
unconscionability, 9.6
self-help remedies, see SELF-HELP REMEDIES (UCC)
unconscionable contracts, 11.2.7
UCSPA
see UNIFORM CONSUMER SALES PRACTICES ACT
UDAP CLAIMS
see also CONSUMER PROTECTION CLAIMS; UDAP VIOLATIONS; UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
advantages over warranty claims, 11.1.1.2
attorney fees, recovery, 10.7, 11.1.1.2, 13.9
disclaimers, validity, 5.15.2
federal preemption, 1.7
fraud claim advantages over, 11.4.1.3
General Motors and Chrysler, 14.9.3
horizontal privity, application, 6.3.7
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.4.5, 9.11
pleading, 13.3.1.1, 13.3.1.3
privity, necessity, 6.2.5.6, 11.1.1.2
scope issues, 1.5.5, 1.5.6, 1.5.12
statute of limitations, 11.1.1.3
UCC advantages over, 11.1.1.3
UCC unconscionability alternative, 21.2.6
UDAP REMEDIES
see UDAP CLAIMS
UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
see also UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
auto repair regulations, 19.9.4
auto repairs, application, 19.7
home improvement contracts, application, 19.7, 19.8.4
leases, application, 21.2.7
liberal construction, 1.8.1
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, no preemption, 2.9.1
manufactured homes, application, 17.8.2.2
nonmerchants, application, 1.5.9
research and resource aids, 1.4.5
scope issues, 1.5.5, 1.5.6, 1.5.9, 1.5.12
service contracts, application, 20.5.5
service transactions, application, 19.7
warranty application, 11.1.1
UDAP VIOLATIONS
see also UDAP CLAIMS; UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
advertising statements, 3.2.2.3, 11.1.6
assistive technological devices, 16.7.4
auto repair shops, unlicensed, 19.9.3.3
auto repairs, 19.7, 19.9.3.2.4, 19.9.4
breach of good faith, 11.3.4
breach of service contract, 11.1.3
breach of warranty, 11.1.3
malicious or oppressive conduct, 10.6
defective products, 11.1.5
express warranties, deceptive, 7.3.5.3.1
50/50 warranties, 2.4.1.4
FTC Used Car Rule violations, 15.6.9.1
home improvement cases, 19.8.2, 19.8.3, 19.8.4, 19.8.5
informal dispute mechanisms, improper, 2.8.6
known defects, failure to disclose, 7.7.4.6.1, 15.8.3.2, 15.8.3.3
latent car defects, failure to disclose, 14.5.5
leases, 21.2.7
lemon law violations, 14.2.10.6.2
manufactured homes, 17.8.2.2
installers, unlicensed, 17.7.7
misrepresentations, 11.1.6–11.1.8
new cars, 14.4.4, 14.5.5
damage prior to delivery, nondisclosure, 14.6
gray market vehicles, 14.7
new GM and Chrysler, 14.9.3
new homes, 18.7.1
NTMVSA violations, 14.5.7
per se violations, 11.1.1.2
post-breach conduct, 11.1.4
private remedies, see UDAP CLAIMS
recall notices, charging for, 19.9.5.2
secret warranties, 14.5.5
security interests, failure to recognize buyer’s rights, 8.4.5.2.3
service contracts, 11.1.3, 20.4.4, 20.5.5
service transactions, 19.7
substandard repairs, 7.7.4.5, 20.6
title defects, 15.2
used car sales, 15.8.3
violations of other statutes as, 11.1.9
warranty advertisements, 11.1.6
warranty disclaimers as, 5.15.2, 11.1.7
warranty dispute resolution mechanisms, 2.8.6
ULTRAFICHE CARDS
warranty disclosures on, 2.6.5.2
UNCONSCIONABILITY
at time contract made, 11.2.4
bad faith, distinguished, 11.3.5
consequential damages limitations, 5.12, 9.6.2
contract terms, prohibition, 9.6
definition, 11.2.5.1
disclaimer of warranty, 5.12
implied warranties, 2.3.2.3.2
excessive price, 11.2.5.3
hearing of evidence, 11.2.3
inspection clauses, 4.4.3, 8.2.2.3
leases, 21.2.6
limited remedy clauses, 9.6
matter of law, 11.2.3
merger clauses, 3.7.2.9.2
personal injury damage limitations, 5.12, 9.4.4, 9.6.2
pleading alternative UDAP violation, 11.2.3
procedural unconscionability, 9.6.3, 11.2.5.2
relation to substantive, 11.2.5.4
proving, 11.2.6
question of law, 11.2.3, 13.8.1.6
real estate sale, 11.2.2
service transactions, 11.2.2, 19.8.1.1
substantive unconscionability, 9.6.3, 11.2.5.3
relation of procedural to, 11.2.5.4
UCC concept, 11.2
flexibility, 1.8.2.3
overview, 11.2.2
remedies, 11.2.7
scope, 11.2.2
standards, 11.2.5
UCSPA standards, 11.2.5.1
waivers, 11.2.5.3
warranty period, 7.7.4.6.1
UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
acronym, use of term UDAP, 1.1.6, 11.1.1.1
deceptive practices, see DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
overview, 1.2.7, 11.1.1.1
remedies, see UDAP CLAIMS
state law, see UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
unfair practices, see UNFAIR PRACTICES
violations, see UDAP VIOLATIONS
UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP) LEGISLATION
service contracts, application, 20.5.7
UNFAIR PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
limited remedy clauses, 9.11
merger clauses, 3.7.2.9.2
short warranty periods, 7.7.4.6
UDAP standards, 11.1.2
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
Article 1
“conspicuous” definition, 5.8.2
good faith, 11.3.1
overview, 1.2.4
revised version, 1.2.4, Appx. E.2
Article 2, see ARTICLE 2 (UCC)
Article 2A, see ARTICLE 2A (UCC)
Article 9, revision and comments, Appx. E.5
cancellation rights, see CANCELLATION RIGHTS (UCC)
case law, 1.4.1
claims, see UCC CLAIMS
common law, relationship, 1.6.3
consumer protection laws, relationship, 1.6.2
cumulation of rights and remedies, 1.6.2, 1.6.3
damages, 10
flexible standards, 1.8.2.3
good faith obligation, 11.3, 15.8.5
liberal construction, 1.8.2
limited remedy clauses, application, 9.7.2
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, no preemption, 2.9.1
manufactured homes, application, 17.2.1
mixed goods and services transactions, application, 19.3
modular homes, application, 17.2.1, 18.1
new home sales, application, 18.1
Official Comments, 1.4.2
selected comments, Appx. E
state adoption, 1.1.6
parol evidence rule, see PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
plain language interpretation, 1.4.2
remedies under, see UCC REMEDIES
selected provisions, listing, Appx. E.1
service transactions, application, 19.2.2, 19.2.3
state legislative history, 1.4.3
state variations, 1.4.1
statute of limitations, 7.6.1
tort claims, effect, 5.15.1
treatises, 1.4.4
unconscionability concept, 11.2
warranties, policies favor, 5.1.2
warranties under, see WARRANTIES (UCC)
warranty provisions, Appx. E
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE REPORTING SERVICE
research aid, 1.4.1
UNIFORM COMMON INTEREST OWNERSHIP ACT
express warranty creation, 18.6.1
overview, 18.5.1
state adoption, 18.5.2
UNIFORM CONDOMINIUM ACT
see UNIFORM COMMON INTEREST OWNERSHIP ACT
UNIFORM CONSUMER SALES PRACTICES ACT
unconscionability standards, 11.2.5.1
UNIFORM ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ACT (UETA)
disclosure requirements, 5.8.11
USAGE OF TRADE
see also COURSE OF DEALING
“as is” disclaimers, 5.11.2
consumer transactions, applicability, 5.11.2
defined, 3.7.4.4
evidence, notice requirements, 3.7.4.4
parol evidence, 3.7.4
USE
acceptance, as, 8.2.3.3, 8.2.4
consumer use, 2.2.1.2
improper use, see MISUSE OF PRODUCT
lemon law remedies
continued use of lemon, 14.2.4.7
post-cancellation accidents, responsibility, 14.2.8.10
refunds, reasonable deduction for use, 14.2.8.8
replacement of lemon, no allowance, 14.2.8.6
misuse, see MISUSE OF PRODUCT
normal use, definition, 2.2.1.2
ordinary purposes, see FITNESS FOR ORDINARY PURPOSES
particular purpose, see FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
proper use and maintenance, supporting evidence, 7.5.2
refused goods
after cancellation, 8.4.6, 10.3.6, 13.2.4
effect, generally, 8.4.1, 8.4.2, 8.4.6.1, 8.4.6.5
manufactured homes, 8.4.6.2, 17.6.5
motor vehicles, 8.4.6.3, 14.2.4.7
notice of intention, 8.4.6.5
offsets for buyer’s use, 10.3.6
other consumer products, 8.4.6.4
precancellation use, 10.3.6
secured by third party, 8.4.5.4
seller’s set-off, 8.4.6.6, 10.3.1
strategies to protect buyer, 8.4.6.5, 13.2.4
strict liability claims, normal or foreseeable, 12.3.8
time to inspect, effect, 8.2.2.2
unreasonable use, see MISUSE OF PRODUCT
USED CAR BUYERS GUIDE (FTC)
see also USED CAR RULE (FTC)
amendments as terms change, 15.6.4
“as is” disclaimers
ambiguities, 5.10.3
conspicuousness, 5.8.8, 5.8.9, 15.4.5
express warranties, effect on, 5.2, 15.6.5
failure to examine, effect on validity, 5.9
form, 5.10.3
post-sale receipt, effect, 5.7
disclosure requirements
disclaimers, 5.8.8, 5.8.9, 15.4.5
express warranties, 15.3.9
repetition in other documents, 15.6.5
service contract availability, 15.6.3.2
Spanish disclosures, 15.6.6
warranty coverage, 15.4.5, 15.6.3.2
failure to provide, 15.4.5, 15.6.9
proving, 15.6.3.3
incorporation into agreement, 5.8.8, 15.6.5
language requirements, 5.8.9, 5.9, 15.6.6
oral warranties, exclusion, effect, 15.3.9
overview, 15.6.3.1
service contracts, requirements, 15.4.5, 15.6.3.2
USED CAR DEALERS
see also USED CAR SALES
bankruptcy, 15.9.4
bonding, 15.9.2
claims against, creditor liability, 15.9.1
compensation funds, 15.9.3
“curbside” dealers, 15.7.2
defined, 15.5.2.2
disclosure requirements, 15.8.3, 15.8.5
duty to inspect and repair defects, 5.15.1, 12.4.1.4
express warranties, 15.3.3
implied warranties, 15.4
insolvency, 15.9
right to cure, lemon laws, 15.5.2.6
service contracts, effect on disclaimers, 15.4.3
USED CAR RULE (FTC)
Buyers Guide requirement, see USED CAR BUYERS GUIDE (FTC)
deceptive practice prohibitions, 15.6.7
disclosure requirements
amendments as terms change, 15.6.4
disclaimers, 5.2, 5.8.7, 15.4.5, 15.6.3.2
repetition in other documents, 15.6.5
Spanish disclosures, 15.6.6
warranty coverage, 15.6.3.2
overview, 15.6.1
scope, 15.6.2
covered buyers and sellers, 15.6.2.3, 15.7.2
covered vehicles, 15.6.2.1
leased vehicles, 15.6.2.2
territorial applicability, 15.6.2.4
state exemptions, 14.8.2.5
text, Appx. D
violations
effect on disclaimers, 15.4.5
remedies, 15.6.9
UDAP violation, as, 11.1.9, 15.6.9.1
USED CAR SALES
see also USED GOODS
“as is” disclaimers, avoiding, 15.3, 15.4
bad title, 15.2
Buyers Guide, see USED CAR BUYERS GUIDE (FTC)
cancellation, 15.7
other grounds, 15.7.2
UCC revocation, 15.7.1
“certified” used cars, 15.3.4
condition standards, 15.5.4–15.5.7
failure to meet, cancellation, 15.7.2
dealers, see USED CAR DEALERS
definition of used vehicle, 15.5.2.2, 15.6.2.1
description of vehicle, 15.3.5
disclaimers
conspicuousness, 5.8.1
disclosure, 5.2, 5.8.7, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
express warranties still apply, 15.3
implied warranties, 15.4.3–15.4.5, 15.5.5
oral disclaimers, 5.8.1
state law restrictions, 5.4.2, 15.5.5, 15.5.7
statutory warranties, 15.5.2.5
disclosures
known defects, 15.8.3.2, 15.8.3.3, 15.8.5
odometer reading, 15.3.6
warranty disclaimers, 5.2, 5.8.7, 15.4.4, 15.4.5
emissions control equipment warranty, 19.9.5.2
express warranties, 15.3
dealer warranties, 15.3.3–15.3.6, 15.3.9
manufacturer warranties, 15.3.2, 15.3.7
odometer reading, 15.3.6
title documents, 15.3.8
fraud claims, 15.8.4
FTC cooling-off period rule, application, 15.7.2
FTC rule, see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
implied warranties, 15.4
disclaimers, 15.4.3–15.4.5, 15.5.5
merchantability, 15.4.2
lemon laundering, 15.3.7, 15.8.7
lemon laws, 15.5.2, 15.5.7
litigation issues, 15.9
low-mileage used cars, 14.2.3.3
Magnuson-Moss claims, 15.8.1
manufacturer warranties, application, 15.3.2
lemon buybacks and “certified” used cars, 15.3.2.2
unexpired original warranties, 15.3.2.1
minimum standards or warranties, 15.5.4, 15.5.7
inspection laws, 15.5.6
lemon laws, 15.5.2
negligence claims, 15.8.4
odometer readings, 15.3.6, 15.8.6
revocation of acceptance, 15.7.1
safety inspections
negligence, 12.4.1.4
state law, 15.5.6
sticker as express warranty, 5.2
safety standards, 15.5.4–15.5.7
salvage vehicles, 15.3.8, 15.8.8
security interests, effect, 8.4.5.2.3
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
state law requirements, 15.6.8
causes of action, 15.8.2
inspection laws, 15.5.6
statutory warranties, 5.4.2, 15.5, 15.8.2
disclaimer or omission, 15.5.2.5, 15.5.5
lemon laws, 15.5.2, 15.5.3
strict liability, 15.8.4
title warranty, 15.2
UDAP claims, 15.8.3
warranty law overview, 1.2.5, 15.1
USED GOODS
see also CONSUMER PRODUCTS; CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS
classified ad sales, 1.5.9
garage sales, see GARAGE SALES
implied warranties, 1.5.3
inspection by seller, 12.4.1.4
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 1.5.3
manufactured homes
HUD warranty, 17.4.1
NMHCSSA application, 17.3.1
state warranty law application, 17.4.2
merchantability standards, 1.5.3, 4.2.3.2.5
motor vehicles, see USED CAR SALES
scope issues, 1.5.3, 1.5.9
strict liability doctrine, application, 12.3.3.2
UCC Article 2, application, 1.5.3
written warranties, 2.2.3.4
USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE (FTC)
see USED CAR RULE (FTC)
UTILITY SERVICES
telephone, see TELEPHONE SERVICES
warranty laws, application, 1.5.7
VALUE
proof
buyer’s testimony, 10.4.6, 17.8.5.1
difficulties, 10.4.3
expert testimony, 10.4.7
manufactured homes, 17.8.5.1
reasonable use value, 10.3.6.2
repair costs as measure of reduced value, 10.4.4
resale price as measure of reduced value, 10.4.5
special circumstance exception, 10.4.3, 10.4.10
subjective value, 10.4.10
statements of, creation of express warranty, 3.2.2.8
VAN CONVERTERS
lemon laws, application, 14.2.3.7.1
VEHICLE (“ETCH”) PROTECTION PRODUCTS
insurance status, 20.3.2
tie-in restrictions, 2.4.1.3
VENDORS
see SELLERS
VERTICAL PRIVITY
see also PRIVITY OF CONTRACT
liability of indirect sellers, 6.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 2.3.6
VETERINARY MEDICINES
federal preemption of state law claims, 1.7.3
WAGES
lost wages as consequential damages, 10.5.3.1.2
WAIVER
see also DISCLAIMERS; LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
breach of warranty, buyer’s continued performance as, 7.2.1
cancellation of sale, use of goods after as, 8.4.6
home improvement completion certificate as, 19.8.7.4
leases, assignor defenses, 21.6.1.2
lemon law rights, enforceability, 14.2.10.7
limited remedy clauses, of, 9.8
manufactured home warranties, validity, 17.4.2, 17.8.5.4
new home warranties, 18.3.7
pre-sale inspection, effect as, 4.4
security interests to enable resales, 8.4.5.2.3
Statute of Frauds, 3.6.3.2.3
tie-in prohibition, FTC grants, 2.4.1.2
warranty conditions, application, 7.7.3
WARNINGS
see also LABELING
assumption of risk, 7.7.2.3
inadequate
negligence claims, 12.4.1.5
strict liability, 12.3.6, 12.3.7
latent defects, effect, 7.7.2.3
misuse of product, effect, 7.7.2.4, 7.7.2.5
product safety, 1.7.6
WARRANTIES
see also GUARANTEES; WARRANTY LAW
ambiguous, 7.3.5.3
assignment, 6.3.4
assistive technology devices, see ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICE WARRANTY LAWS
breach, see BREACH OF WARRANTY
buyer’s conduct putting to intended test, 7.7.2.2
characterization, most favorable, 13.1.5
claims under, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
common law, see COMMON LAW WARRANTIES
conditions precedent, see CONDITIONS PRECEDENT
condominiums, see NEW HOME WARRANTIES
consistent warranties, 3.9.2
conspicuousness, definition, 2.5.5
contractual limitations, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
cumulation, see CUMULATIVE WARRANTIES
deceptive advertising, 11.1.6
deceptive warranties, 6.3.8, 9.11
disclaimers, see DISCLAIMERS
disclosure requirements, see DISCLOSURE (WARRANTIES)
disputes, final judge, 2.4.2
duration, see WARRANTY PERIOD
existence and terms, pleading, 13.3.6
expiry, see WARRANTY PERIOD
express, see EXPRESS WARRANTIES
extended warranties, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
extensions for repair time, 2.4.4
50/50, see FIFTY/FIFTY (50/50) WARRANTIES
full warranties, see FULL WARRANTIES
gray market, 4.5.1, 14.7
implied, see IMPLIED WARRANTIES
inconsistent warranties, 3.9.3
interpretation, 7.3.5.3
leases, 21
lessors, 21.3
manufacturers, 21.4
raising warranty defenses, 21.6
retailers, 21.5
sources of law, 21.2
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
limited warranties, see LIMITED WARRANTIES
Magnuson-Moss, see MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
manufactured homes, see HUD WARRANTY; MANUFACTURED HOME WARRANTY LAWS (STATE)
manufacturers, see MANUFACTURER WARRANTIES
misrepresentations about, 11.1.6, 11.1.7
modification, see DISCLAIMERS
multiple, see MULTIPLE WARRANTIES
new cars, see LEMON LAWS (STATE); NEW CARS
new homes, see NEW HOME WARRANTIES
nonconformity, see BREACH OF WARRANTY
obligations, designation of representative, effect, 2.4.5
oral, see ORAL WARRANTIES
overview, 1.2, 1.9
parol evidence, see PAROL EVIDENCE
pre-sale availability, 2.6.5
promise, determination, 7.3.2
registration cards, see WARRANTY REGISTRATION CARDS
secret auto warranties, see SECRET WARRANTIES
service contracts, distinction, 2.2.4.1, 20.2
standards, nonconformity, 7.3
state warranties, see STATUTORY WARRANTIES
third party beneficiaries, 6.2.5.1, 6.3.6
UCC, see WARRANTIES (UCC)
UDAP violations, 11.1
used cars, see USED CAR SALES
written warranties, see WRITTEN WARRANTIES
WARRANTIES (UCC)
see also ARTICLE 2 (UCC); ARTICLE 2A (UCC); WARRANTIES
affirmations of fact or promises, see AFFIRMATIONS OF FACT OR PROMISES (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
breach, see BREACH OF WARRANTY; WARRANTY CLAIMS
characterization
future performance warranties, 7.3.3, 7.3.4, 7.6.3.2
general or specific, 7.3.4
most favorable, 13.1.5
present characteristic warranties, 7.3.3, 7.3.4
conflicts, see CONFLICT OF WARRANTIES
consistent, see CUMULATIVE WARRANTIES
description of goods, see DESCRIPTION OF GOODS (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
disclaimers
see also DISCLAIMERS
restrictions, 5.2, 5.13
disclosure requirements, see DISCLOSURE (WARRANTIES)
express warranties, see EXPRESS WARRANTIES
fitness for particular purpose, see FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
implied warranties, see IMPLIED WARRANTIES
inconsistent, see INCONSISTENT WARRANTIES
leases, 21.2.1
merchantability, see MERCHANTABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
multiple warranties, see MULTIPLE WARRANTIES
new home sales, application, 18.1
nonconformity, see BREACH OF WARRANTY
promise, determination, 7.3.2
sample or model, see SAMPLE OR MODEL (EXPRESS WARRANTY)
selected provisions, Appx. E
WARRANTORS
defined, 1.5.9, 2.2.5.1
delegation of obligations, 2.4.5
individuals, status as, 2.2.5.5
informal dispute resolution mechanisms, obligations, 2.8.3
Magnuson-Moss liability, 1.5.9, 2.2.5.1
name and address, disclosure requirements, 2.6.4.6
warranty disclosures, see DISCLOSURE (WARRANTIES)
warranty disputes, determination, 2.4.2
WARRANTY ACTIONS
see WARRANTY CLAIMS
WARRANTY ADJUSTMENT POLICIES
see SECRET WARRANTIES
WARRANTY CARDS
see WARRANTY REGISTRATION CARDS
WARRANTY CLAIMS
see also BREACH OF WARRANTY
arbitration, 13.4
see also ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
AT devices, 16.7.1, 16.7.4
attorney fees, 2.7.8, 10.7, 13.9
cancellation comparison, 10.4.1
common law, 19.4
conditions precedent, 7.7.3
contributory negligence, applicability, 7.7.2.1
cumulation of remedies, 1.6.2, 1.6.3
cumulation of warranties, 3.9
damages, 10.4.1
see also DAMAGES
defects yet to malfunction, 7.3.8
defenses, see DEFENSES
disclaimers, see DISCLAIMERS
discovery, 13.5
see also DISCOVERY
effective presentation, 13.8
emissions control equipment, 19.9.5.2
evaluating the case, 13.1
evidence, see EVIDENCE
eyewitness testimony of performance, 7.5.1
federal preemption, 1.7
final judge, 2.4.2
framing the case, 13.1
fraud, 11.4
informal resolution mechanisms, see INFORMAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISMS
jury selection, 13.8.2
leases, raising against assignees, 21.6.1.3
limitations
statute of limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
warranty period, see WARRANTY PERIOD
limited remedy clauses, see LIMITED REMEDY CLAUSES
Magnuson-Moss, see MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
manufactured homes, 17.8
manufacturers, against, 6.2
misrepresentation, 11.4
motor homes, 14.8
new cars, 14
General Motors and Chrysler, 14.9.3
new homes, 18.7
nonbuyers, 6.3
pleadings, 13.3
see also PLEADINGS
practice tips, 13
see also PRACTICE TIPS
sample documents, Appx. I, Appx. J
pre-suit demands, 13.2.6
privity considerations, overview, 6.1
publicity efforts, 13.2.7
punitive damages, 10.6
questions of fact, 13.8.1
see also QUESTIONS OF FACT
questions of law, 13.8.1.6
see also QUESTIONS OF LAW
settlement, 13.7
see also SETTLEMENT
similar claims by others, evidential value, 7.5.6
strategic decisions, 13.2
strict liability advantages over, 12.1
substandard repairs, 7.7.4.3
substantial impairment not necessary, 14.2.4.6.1
third party beneficiaries, 6.2.5.1, 6.3.6
trial issues, 13.8
UCC claims, see UCC CLAIMS
UDAP claims, see UDAP CLAIMS
used cars, 15.9
WARRANTY CONDITIONS
see CONDITIONS PRECEDENT
WARRANTY LAW
assistive technology devices, 16
auto repair, 19.9
common law, 1.2.8, 19.4
fraud claims, 1.2.7
cumulation of rights and remedies, 1.6
federal law, 1.2.1
see also MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
home improvement contracts, 19.8
leases, 21
see also ARTICLE 2A (UCC)
lemon laws, see LEMON LAWS (STATE)
liberal construction, 1.8
Magnuson-Moss, 1.2.1, 2
see also MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
preemption of other laws, 1.6.1, 2.9
manufactured homes, 1.2.5, 17
NCLC treatise, 1.1
conventions and caveats, 1.1.6
online version, 1.1.2, 1.1.5
overview, 1.1.1
practice tools, 1.1.5
print version, 1.1.2
structure, 1.1.3, 1.1.4
used car warranties, 15.1
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE
new cars, 14
see also LEMON LAWS (STATE)
new developments, 1.1
new homes, 1.2.5, 18
overview, 1.2, 1.9
practice tips, see PRACTICE TIPS
primary sources, 1.1.5
privity requirements, 6
repairs, 19, 20
resource aids, 1.4
see also RESEARCH AIDS
useful websites, Appx. K
scope issues, 1.5
service contracts, 1.2.9, 20
service transactions, 19
state warranty laws, 1.2.2–1.2.9
see also STATUTORY WARRANTIES
broadly applicable laws, 1.2.6
UCC, see ARTICLE 2 (UCC); WARRANTIES (UCC)
UDAP, 1.2.7, 11
see also UDAP STATUTES (STATE)
unreported cases, 1.1.6
used cars, 1.2.5, 15
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
WARRANTY PERIOD
defects discovered after, 7.7.4.4
new cars, 14.5
defects discovered during but reported after, 7.7.4.3
defects reported but not repaired during, 7.7.4.2
disclosure, 2.6.4.4, 2.6.4.8
emissions control equipment, 14.5.8, 19.9.5.2
expiration, 7.7.4
determining, 7.7.4.1
unfairly short periods, 7.7.4.6
extension for repair time, 2.4.4, 7.7.4.1, 7.7.4.3
full warranties
duration, 2.5.4
specification, 2.6.3
future performance warranties, 7.3.5.2.4
implied warranties
disclosure, 2.6.4.8
limitations, 2.3.2.3, 2.5.4, 5.3.2
new cars, 14.5.4
new homes, 18.3.9
lemon laws, 14.2.7
used car lemon laws, 15.5.2.3
limiting to immediate purchaser, 6.3.2
manifestly unreasonable, 7.7.4.6.2
new cars, 14.2.7, 14.5
new homes
condominiums, 18.5.1
implied warranties, 18.3.9
statutory warranties, 18.4.6
unconscionability, 7.7.4.6.1
written warranties, limitations, 2.5.2
WARRANTY REGISTRATION CARDS
disclaimers appearing in, validity, 5.8.6
disclosure requirements, 2.6.4.11
return requirements, restrictions, 2.4.3
WASTE DOCTRINE
new home warranty damages, application, 18.7.3.4
WATER HEATERS
personal property status, 2.2.1.5
WEB RESOURCES
car defects, 14.9.1
discovery, 1.1.5
motor vehicle recall notices, 14.5.7
NCLC, 1.1.2, 1.1.5
pleadings, 1.1.5
practice tools, 1.1.5
primary sources, 1.1.5
unreported cases, 1.1.6
useful websites, Appx. K
warranty litigation, parties, 13.3.9.4
WEB TRANSACTIONS
see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
WHEELCHAIRS
see ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGICAL (AT) DEVICE WARRANTY LAWS; MEDICAL DEVICES
WHOLESALERS
see SUPPLIERS
WINDOWS
see also BUILDING MATERIALS; HOME IMPROVEMENTS
manufactured home defects, 17.1.3.3
WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
preemption issues, 1.7.8.3
“WITH ALL FAULTS” DISCLAIMERS
see “AS IS” DISCLAIMERS
WITHHOLDING PAYMENTS
see DEDUCTIONS FROM OUTSTANDING BALANCE
WITHOUT CHARGE
definition, 2.5.3.2
full warranty remedies, 2.5.3.2
tie-in exception, 2.4.1.2
warranty dispute resolution mechanisms, 2.8.5.1
WITNESS FEES
expert witnesses
lemon law claims, 14.2.10.10.5
sources of free testimony, 7.5.8
WITNESSES
see also EVIDENCE
expert, see EXPERT EVIDENCE
eyewitness testimony of performance, 7.5.1
fees, see WITNESS FEES
foreign witnesses, service of process, 13.3.10
home improvement cases, 19.8.8.1.2, 19.8.8.1.3
WORKMANLIKE MANNER
see also HABITABILITY (IMPLIED WARRANTY)
common law warranty
breach of warranty, 18.3.6.3, 19.4.4
duration, 18.3.9
generally, 18.3.2, 19.4.3
liberal construction, 18.3.6.1
new homes, 18.3
service transactions, 19.4.3
defined, 19.4.3
professional malpractice, 19.5.1
statutory warranties, 18.4.4
condominiums, 18.5.1
WRECKS
see SALVAGE VEHICLES
WRITTEN DISCLAIMERS
see also DISCLAIMERS
conspicuousness, 5.8
electronic disclaimers, 5.8.11
requirement, 5.8.1, 5.8.11
WRITTEN WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES
affirmations of fact or promise, status, 3.2.1
arbitration clauses, validity, 2.7.2.6, 2.8.1.4, 13.4.4–13.4.6
auto repairs, parts and labor, 19.9.2
basis of the bargain, 2.2.3.5
consistent additional terms, 3.7.3
customer satisfaction policies, 2.2.3.3
dealer adoption, 2.2.5.3
definition, 2.2.3.1, 2.2.3.7
derivative liability, 2.2.5.4
designation as full or limited, 2.5.1
disclaimer of implied warranties, 2.3.2, 5.3, 5.8.1, 15.4.3
disclosure requirements, 2.6, 9.7
arbitration clauses, application, 13.4.4
noncompliance, effect on disclaimers, 5.3.3
disputes, final judge, 2.4.2
duration, limitations, 2.5.2
electronic text, status, 2.2.3.7
50/50 warranties, 2.2.3.4
form, 2.2.3.6
four corners test, 3.7.2.3
implied warranties, necessity, 2.3.1.3
leases, 2.2.6.8, 21.4
limited remedy clauses, 9.7.1
Magnuson-Moss definition, 2.2.3, 6.2.2
basis of the bargain test, 2.2.3.5
examples not meeting definition, 2.2.3.2
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 2.4
manufactured homes purchased with HUD-insured loans, 17.4.4
parol evidence rule, application, 3.7
pre-delivery inspection forms, 2.2.3.1
privity requirements, 2.3.5, 2.3.6, 6.2.2, 6.3.2
remedies for breach, 2.3.4
service contract distinguished, 2.2.3.1, 2.2.4.1
single document, necessity, 2.2.3.6
subsequent owner enforcement, 15.3.2.1
tie-ins, prohibition, 2.4.1
used car sales
Buyers Guide, 15.6.3.2
dealer, 15.3.3
disclaimer, 15.4.3
manufacturer, 15.3.2
used goods, 2.2.3.4, 2.2.6.3