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ACCOMMODATION PARTIES
see CO-SIGNERS; GUARANTORS
ACCOUNTS
see CREDIT ACCOUNTS
ACTIONS
see CAUSES OF ACTION; CLASS ACTIONS; LITIGATION
ACTUAL DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
generally, 11.8.2.1
intangible damages, 11.8.2.3
punitive damages, relationship, 11.8.2.1, 11.8.4.3.1, 11.8.4.3.3.2
tangible injury, 11.8.2.2
ADMINISTRATIVE DETERMINATIONS
see also GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
FHA complaints, 11.5.2, 12.3.1
advantages and disadvantages, 11.5.2.2
federal court election, 12.3.1
HUD enforcement, 12.3.1
judicial alternative, 11.5.2.2
private complaints, 11.5.2
procedures, 11.5.2.3, 12.3.1
punitive damages not available, 11.8.4.2
referral to DOJ, 12.3.2
simultaneous court action, 11.5.2.1
statute of limitations, 11.9.2.1.1.1
state law complaints, limitations, 11.9.2.1.3
ADVERSE ACTION
automatic-denial factor, 10.5.4.2.2
business credit, 10.9.2
counteroffers, status as, 10.4.2, 10.5.3
credit report, FCRA requirements, 4.4.1
defined, 10.4.2, 10.5.1, 10.5.3, 10.10
ECOA notice requirements, 10.5
see also NOTICE OF ACTION TAKEN
actual receipt, necessity, 10.6.3.3
application, necessity, 10.7.1
combining with counteroffers, 10.4.3
content, 10.5.4
counteroffer situations, 10.4.1, 10.4.2, 10.5.3
credit arrangers, application, 10.8.1
creditors, application, 10.8.1
electronic notification, 10.6.2.2
exceptions, 10.9
existing accounts, 10.5.2
FCRA notice insufficient, 10.5.4.2.1
form, 10.6.2
inadvertent error, 10.9.3, 11.9.4.2
legislative purpose, 10.1
multiple credit applications, 10.8.2
new accounts, 10.5.1, 10.7
reasons, 10.5.4.2
right to, 10.6.3
sample forms, 10.5.4.1, 10.5.4.2.1, 10.6.2.1
scope, 10.8
timing, 10.6.1
written notification, 10.6.2.1
FCRA notice requirements, 10.10
risk-based pricing notice, 10.4.2, 10.10
FRB model notice forms, 10.10
multiple creditors, 10.8.2
reasons, 10.5.4.2
accuracy, 10.5.4.2.2
credit scoring systems, 10.5.4.2.3
disclosure of right to request, 10.5.4.2.4
real reasons, 10.5.4.2.2
request for reasons, time, 10.5.4.2.4
specificity, 10.5.4.2.1
records, preservation, 10.12.1
sample interrogatories, Appx. H.1
ADVERTISING
see MARKETING DISCRIMINATION
AGE DISCRIMINATION
see also OLDER PERSONS
allowable, 6.6.2
change in status, creditor action limited, 9.5
credit insurance, unavailability, 6.5.6
ECOA history, 1.3.2.2
prohibited base, 3.4.2
income source, 6.5.2.5
remedies, 1.1.4
state laws, preemption, 6.6.2.3
AGE OF MAJORITY
see LEGAL CAPACITY
AGENTS
liability for acts of, 11.2.2
AGRICULTURAL CREDIT
ECOA, application, 2.2.2.1.1
AIDS OR HIV INFECTION
handicap status, 3.5.2.2
ALIENAGE DISCRIMINATION
see CITIZENSHIP STATUS; IMMIGRATION STATUS; NATIONAL ORIGIN
ALIMONY
see SUPPORT INCOME
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
application to credit discrimination, 3.5.2.3
disability, definition, 3.5.2.2
overview, 1.6
reasonable accommodation requirement, 3.5.2.4
APPLICANTS
see under CREDIT APPLICATIONS
APPLICATIONS FOR CREDIT
see CREDIT APPLICATIONS
APPRAISAL REPORTS
see also HOME MORTGAGES; REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
copy, right to, 10.11
defined, 10.11
discriminatory practices, 6.2.2.3
sample complaint, Appx. G.1
FHA, application, 2.3.2.3.4
Home Valuation Code of Conduct, 6.2.2.3
source of evidence, 4.4.1
ARBITRATION CLAUSES
applicability, 11.5.3.4
classwide arbitration, 11.5.3.7
conflicts with statutory remedies, 11.5.3.5.1
class arbitration bans, 11.5.3.7
costs, 11.5.3.5.3
punitive damages, 11.5.3.5.2
delegation clauses, 11.5.3.6, 11.5.3.5.3
enforceability, 11.5.3.4
agreement required, 11.5.3.3
challenges to, who decides, 11.5.3.6, 11.5.3.5.3
NAF as service provider, 11.5.3.4
waiver of right to classwide arbitration, 11.5.3.5.4
federal law limitations, 11.5.3.2
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), 11.5.3.2.3 [proposed rule]
Military Lending Act (MLA), 11.5.3.2.2
Truth in Lending Act (TILA), 11.5.3.2.1
high fees, 11.5.3.5.3 mortgages, 11.5.3.2.1
home mortgages, 11.5.3.2.1
manufactured homes, 11.5.3.2.1
overview, 11.5.3.1
punitive damages, 11.5.3.8
ARRANGERS OF CREDIT
see CREDIT ARRANGERS
ASSIGNEES
see also LOAN PURCHASERS
actions against, 11.2.2.1
ECOA application, 2.2.5.4
mark-ups, 8.6.2
yo-yo sales, 2.2.5.3
FHA application, 2.3.2.3.3
ASSISTED LIVING UNITS
FHA application, 2.3.2.2.1
ASSOCIATIONAL PROTECTION RULE
associational standing, 11.3.3
CCPA rights, exercise, application, 3.9.2
Civil Rights Acts, under, 3.9.3
ECOA, under
application, 3.9.2
general rule, 3.9.1
FHA, under, 3.9.3
public assistance recipients, application, 3.9.2
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
appeals, 11.8.6.9
apportionment among defendants, 11.8.6.11
arbitration clauses limiting, 11.5.3.5.3
calculating award, 11.8.6.4
costs, 11.8.6.6
fee applications, 11.8.6.5
general standards, 11.8.6.1
interim fees, 11.8.6.10
legal services attorneys, 11.8.6.3
litigation of fee award, time spent, 11.8.6.7
lodestar approach, 11.8.6.4
prevailing parties, 11.8.6.2
pro se litigants, 11.8.6.3
successful actions, 11.8.6.2
witness fees, 11.8.6.6
ATTORNEY GENERAL
see UNITED STATES ATTORNEY GENERAL
AUTHORIZED USERS
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS; CREDIT CARDS
applicant status, 10.6.3.1
discrimination, 5.6.7
liability for debt, 5.6.7
AUTOMATED TELLER CARDS
ECOA application, 2.2.2.4
AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
credit discrimination remedies, 1.1.4
credit scoring models, 6.4.5.7
ECOA application, 2.2.5.3
notice requirements, 10.8.1
AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE REDLINING
credit scores, use, 6.4.6.2.1
BANKRUPTCY
prohibited discrimination, 3.7.1
BANKS
see also FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL (FFIEC); FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS; SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) applicability, 1.9
ECOA enforcement agencies, 12.2.2, 12.2.5
FHA enforcement agencies, 12.2.2
national bank preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
regulatory authority, 12.2.2
BINDING ARBITRATION
see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
BROKERS
see CREDIT ARRANGERS; REAL ESTATE BROKERS
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE; PROOF OF DISCRIMINATION
disparate impact, 4.3.2, 8.6.3, 8.6.5
disparate treatment, circumstantial evidence, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.3.2
inadvertent error defense, 11.9.4.2
mark-ups, discrimination, 8.6.2, 8.6.5
reverse redlining, 8.5.2, 8.5.3
BUSINESS CREDIT
see also CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
consumer credit, distinction, 2.2.6.4, 10.9.2.1
ECOA application, 2.2.2.1.1, 2.2.6.4
ECOA exemptions
co-signer rule, 5.6.1
credit reporting, 9.4.1.2
generally, 2.2.6.1, 2.2.6.4
notification requirements, 10.9.2
generally, 10.9.2.1
other businesses, 10.9.2.3
small businesses, 10.9.2.2
record retention, 10.12.4
spouse’s signature, 5.6.1, 5.6.8
BUSINESS JUSTIFICATION DEFENSE
credit scoring systems, 6.4.3
discretionary mark-ups, 8.6.6
disparate impact
alternatives, 4.3.2.6
burden of proof, 4.3.2.5
discretionary mark-ups, 8.6.6
ECOA standard, 4.3.2.2
FHA standard, 4.3.2.3, 4.3.2.5
generally, 11.9.3
disparate treatment, 4.2.1, 11.9.3
generally, 11.9.3
insurance scoring, 6.4.3
loan purchasers, 11.9.5
CAPACITY TO CONTRACT
see LEGAL CAPACITY
CAR DEALERS
see AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
CASE LAW
CCPA, using, 11.8.1
ECOA precedent, 1.3.3.3
employment discrimination law, 1.10.2
housing law in non-credit context, 1.10.1
unreported, obtaining, 1.2.6
CAUSES OF ACTION
see also LITIGATION
advantages of various claims, 11.6.1
forum, 11.5, 11.6.1.2
generally, 11.6.1.1
limitations period, 11.6.1.2
remedies, 11.6.1.2, 11.8
state law generally not preempted, 11.6.1.3
CHECK-CASHING CARDS
ECOA application, 2.2.2.4
CHILD SUPPORT
see SUPPORT INCOME
CHILDBEARING STATUS
see also FAMILIAL STATUS
credit evaluation, prohibition, 6.5.5
information requests, prohibition, 5.5.2.2.3
CITIZENSHIP STATUS
see also IMMIGRATION STATUS; NATIONAL ORIGIN
civil rights application, 3.6.2
CIVIL ACTIONS
see LITIGATION; REMEDIES
CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS (FEDERAL)
account status changes, application, 9.2.3
associational protection rule, 3.9.3
standing, 11.3.3
class actions, 11.4
credit terms, application, 8.3
damages under, see DAMAGES
default treatment, challenging, 9.2.4
defenses, 11.9.5
disparate impact claims, 2.4, 4.3.1.1
disparate treatment, proof, 4.2.3.1
general standards, 5.2
application, 5.2.3
discriminate, definition, 5.2.2
insurance discrimination, application, 7.3.4.3
leases, application, 2.4
NCLC treatise, using, 1.2.5
overview, 1.5
post-sale discrimination, application, 9.2.2
price discrimination, application, 8.7.1
prohibited bases for discrimination
citizenship status, 3.6.2
race and ethnicity, 3.6.1
property and services, application, 8.7.1
punitive damages, 11.8.4.2
redlining, challenging, 7.2.1
insurance redlining, 7.3.4.3
reverse redlining, challenging, 8.5.1
scope, 2.4
standing, 11.3.1
statute of limitations, 1.5, 11.9.2.1.2
text, Appx. A.3
unfair lending, challenging, 8.2
violations
election of remedies, 11.6.2
remedies, see REMEDIES
sample complaint, Appx. G.1
CLASS ACTIONS
arbitration on classwide basis, 11.5.3.7
certification, 11.4
commonality, 11.4
damages, 11.4
punitive damages, 11.8.4.3.3.5
disparate impact claims, 11.3.1, 11.4
predatory lending claims, 8.4
reverse redlining, 8.4
sample pleading, co-signer rule violation, Appx. G.4
standing, 11.4
disparate impact cases, 11.3.1
unfair pricing claims, 8.4
CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
see also SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
ordering information, 1.2.6
COLLECTION PRACTICES
application of ECOA, 2.2.3
upon default, 9.2.4
COLLATERAL
see also SECURITY INTERESTS
discriminatory practices, 5.8.1
injury caused by discrimination, 5.8.2
COLOR
see MINORITIES; PROTECTED GROUPS; RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
COMMERCIAL CREDIT
see BUSINESS CREDIT
COMMUNITY PROPERTY
see also JOINT PROPERTY
marital status, allowable consideration, 6.6.4
reliance to establish credit, 5.6.4
COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT (CRA)
overview, 1.9
COMPLAINTS
see LITIGATION; PLEADINGS
COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY
see OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY
COMPUTER RECORDS
see ELECTRONIC RECORDS
CONCILIATION
FHA complaints, 11.5.2.2, 12.3.1
CONSUMER CREDIT
business credit, distinction, 2.2.6.4, 10.9.2.1
discrimination, see CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
incidental consumer credit, see INCIDENTAL CONSUMER CREDIT
information guide, Appx. I
CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
discrimination law advantages over, 8.2
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
umbrella act, 3.4.4.2
CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
banks and credit unions, supervision, 12.2.2
ECOA authority, 1.3.2.8, 1.3.3.1, 1.3.3.3
enforcement authority, 12.2.2
ECOA violations, referrals to DOJ, 12.2.5
HMDA authority, 4.4.5.1
CONSUMER LEASING ACT
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
leases covered by, ECOA scope, 2.2.2.2.3
CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
consequential credit discrimination
applicant, 3.4.4.4
associational protection, 3.9.2
CCPA, 3.4.4.2
credit insurance refusal, 6.2.2.7
credit reporting, 9.4.2
good faith exercise, 3.4.4.3
prohibited base, 1.1.4, 3.4.4.1
state statute, 3.4.4.2
CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
see CREDIT REPORTING
CONSUMERS
disabled, see DISABLED PERSONS
guide on credit discrimination laws, Appx. I
low-income, see LOW-INCOME PERSONS
married, see SPOUSES
older, see OLDER PERSONS
CONTRACTS
capacity, see LEGAL CAPACITY
discrimination, see CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
make and enforce contracts, defined, 5.2.3
CONTRACTUALLY LIABLE
defined, 2.2.4.1, 10.6.3.1
CORPORATIONS
piercing corporate veil, 11.2.2.2
CO-SIGNERS
see also GUARANTORS; SPOUSES
applicant status, 5.5.1.2, 10.6.3.1
authorized users, 5.6.7
community property reliance, 5.6.4
creditor’s restrictions, 5.6.2
discriminatory practices, 5.6, 5.8.1
injury caused by, 5.8.2
ECOA application, 2.2.4.1, 2.2.4.2
ECOA restrictions, 5.6.1
ECOA violations
remedies, 1.1.4
sample interrogatories, Appx. H.2
sample pleadings, Appx. G.3, Appx. G.4
guarantor’s spouse, 5.6.8
individual credit, 5.6.2–5.6.5
information requests, 5.5.1.2
joint accounts, voluntary, 5.6.6
joint property reliance, 5.6.3
joint property security, 5.6.5
renewal of credit, reevaluation, 9.6
voiding obligation, 11.8.5.3
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
COUNTERCLAIMS
compulsory counterclaims, 11.5.1.2.3
defensive counterclaims, 11.9.2.2
forum considerations, 11.5.1.2.3
statute of limitations, 11.9.2.2
COUNTEROFFERS
adverse action notice, combining with, 10.4.3
adverse action status, 10.4.2, 10.5.3
ECOA notice requirements, 10.4, 10.5.3
timing of notices, 10.6.1
home mortgages or refinancings, 10.4.4
COURTESY TITLES
see also NAMES
optional designation, 5.5.2.2.2
CREDIT
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS; CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
applications, see CREDIT APPLICATIONS
arrangers of credit, see CREDIT ARRANGERS
defined, 2.2.2.1
denial, see ADVERSE ACTION
discrimination, see CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
extension of credit, defined, 2.2.4.1
open-end credit, defined, 9.5.2.1
participant in decision, defined, 2.2.5.4
regularly extends credit, defined, 2.2.5.2
CREDIT ACCOUNTS
see also CREDIT CARDS; CREDIT LIMITS; CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
adverse action
see also ADVERSE ACTION
existing accounts, 10.5.2
new accounts, 10.5.1
applications for, see CREDIT APPLICATIONS
approval, notice requirements, 10.3
authorized users, see AUTHORIZED USERS
change in status
creditor action, rules limiting, 9.5
discrimination, 9.2.3
individual credit rights, 5.6.2
joint, see JOINT ACCOUNTS
mandatory arbitration, see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
name on
see also NAMES
courtesy titles, use, 5.5.2.2.2
credit reporting, 9.4.2.1
designation, 5.7
joint accounts, 5.7
reapplications, status during, 9.5.3
refinancing, joint to individual, 5.6.6
renewal, co-signer reevaluation, 9.6
spouses
co-signatory requirements, 5.6
credit reporting, 9.4.2.1
individual accounts, 5.5.2.3.1, 5.6.2–5.6.5
updated information requests, 9.5.4
use not credit application, 10.3
CREDIT APPLICATIONS
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS; CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
applicants
application, necessity, 2.2.4.3
associational protection, 3.9
authorized users, status, 10.6.3.1
coaching, 6.4.5.4
co-signers, status, 10.6.3.1
courtesy titles, 5.5.2.2.2
defined, 2.2.4.1, 5.5.1.2, 9.2.4, 10.6.3.1, 11.3.1
guarantors and sureties as, 2.2.4.2
individual credit rights, 5.6.2
information guide, Appx. I
multiple applicants, 10.6.3.2
name designation, 5.7
notice requirements, 10.6.3
previous exercise of CCPA rights, 3.4.4.4
seeking credit, necessity, 2.2.4.4
approved applications, notice, 10.3
completed application, defined, 10.7.2
counteroffers, 10.4
defined, 2.2.4.3, 10.7.1
discouraging
pre-application discrimination, 5.3
procedures, 5.4
encouraging from minorities, 5.3.2.1, 5.3.2.4
evaluation, see CREDIT EVALUATION
fat file phenomenon, 5.4.3
HMDA data requirements, 4.4.5
home mortgages or refinancings, 5.4.2.2, 10.4.4
incomplete applications, 10.7.3
information requests, see INFORMATION REQUESTS
information requirements, 5.4.4
inquiries as, 10.7.1
insurance redlining, 7.3.3
investigation procedures, 5.4.4, 6.2.2.2
joint applications
income aggregation, 6.2.2.4
name designation, 5.7
voluntariness, 5.6.6
multiple creditors, 10.8.2
notification requirements, see NOTICE OF ACTION TAKEN
oral applications, 5.4.2
generally, 5.4.2.1
home mortgage exception, 5.4.2.2, 10.4.4
notification requirements, 10.7.1
pre-application discrimination, 5.3
marketing, 5.3.2
pre-screening, 5.3.2.6
steering, 5.3.3.1
testers, 4.4.4, 5.3.3.2
treatment of applicant, 5.3.3
preapproved applications, 10.7.1
procedures, 5.4
disparate levels of assistance, 5.4.3
establishment by creditor, 10.7.1
general rule, 5.4.1
information requests, 5.4.4
oral applications, 5.4.2
reasonable diligence, 10.7.2
reapplications, status during, 9.5.3
record retention, 10.12.1
scores, see CREDIT SCORING SYSTEMS
withdrawn applications, 10.7.4
CREDIT ARRANGERS
civil liability, 11.2.2.1
definition, 2.2.5.3
ECOA application, 2.2.5.3
notice requirements, 10.8.1
ECOA liability, 2.2.5.3
FHA application, 2.3.2.3.1, 2.3.2.3.4
yield-spread premiums, 8.6.1, 8.6.4
CREDIT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see SPECIAL PURPOSE CREDIT PROGRAMS
CREDIT BUREAUS
see CREDIT REPORTING
CREDIT CARDS
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS
authorized users, see AUTHORIZED USERS
honoring or accepting, creditor status, 2.2.5.5
CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
see also EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA); FAIR HOUSING ACT (FHA)
ADA overview, 1.6
administrative determinations, see ADMINISTRATIVE DETERMINATIONS
allowable discrimination, 6.6
age, 6.6.2
immigration status, 3.3.3.4.2
marital status, 6.6.4
public assistance status, 6.6.3
public utilities, 2.2.6.2
arbitration of claims, see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
bibliography, Appx. J
business justification, see BUSINESS JUSTIFICATION DEFENSE
civil rights overview, 1.5
consumer’s guide, Appx. I
damages, see DAMAGES
defenses, see DEFENSES
disparate impact, see DISPARATE IMPACT
disparate treatment, see DISPARATE TREATMENT
ECOA overview, 1.3.1
ECOA rights, notification, 10.5.4.1
FHA overview, 1.4.1
fraudulent concealment, 11.9.2.1.1.4
general rule against, 5.2
application to all stages of transaction, 5.2.3
discrimination, defined, 5.2.2
government regulation and enforcement, see GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
HMDA data, 4.4.5
insurance credit scores, 6.4.6.2
internet-only offers, 3.7.2
Joint Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending, 12.2.6
leases, see LEASES
litigating, see LITIGATION
marketing discrimination, see MARKETING DISCRIMINATION
McDonnell-Douglas test, application, 4.2.3.2
medical treatment, 2.2.2.6, 3.4.3
national banks, 12.4.2
NCLC treatise, using, 1.2
abbreviations, 1.2.1
general versus specific prohibitions, 1.2.4
online version, 1.2.2
overview, 1.2.3
source materials, 1.2.6
stages of a transaction, 5.1.2
statutes treated, 1.2.5
overview, 1.1.1
precedent, see also CASE LAW
ECOA, 1.3.3
non-credit precedent, use, 1.10
prohibited bases
age, 3.4.2, 6.6.2
associational protection, 3.9
cause of action, selecting, 11.6
circumstances, 3.2
citizenship status, 3.6.2
digital divide, 3.7.2
ECOA, 3.3, 3.4
ethnicity, 3.3.1, 3.6.1
exceptions, 6.6
familial status, 3.5.1
FHA, 3.3, 3.5
generally, 3.1
handicap status, 3.5.2
immigration status, 3.3.3.4
legal rights, exercise, 3.4.4, 6.2.2.7
marital status, 3.4.1, 6.6.4
national origin, 3.3.3, 3.6.2
other bases, 3.7
public assistance status, 3.4.3, 6.6.3
race, 3.3.1, 3.6.1
religion, creed, political affiliation, 3.3.2
sex, 3.3.4
sexual orientation, 3.3.4.3
special purpose credit exception, 3.8
prohibited types
account status changes, 9.2.3
age increase, 9.5
application procedures, 5.4
applications, discouraging, 5.3
authorized users, 5.6.7
childbearing likelihood, 6.5.5
collateral and sureties, 5.8
co-signers, 5.6
credit evaluation, 6.2.2
credit history, 6.5.3
credit insurance refusal, 6.2.2.7
credit limits, 6.2.2.6
credit reporting, 9.4
creditor protection, 5.8
default treatment, 9.2.4
immediate payment, 6.2.2.5
income sources, 6.5.2
information requests, 5.5
insurance, 6.5.6
insurance redlining, 7.3.4
loan servicing, 9.2.1
marital status change, 9.5
marketing, 5.3.2
name designation, 5.7
non-obligated spouse, collections, 9.3
pre-application stage, 5.3
predatory lending, 8.2
redlining, 7.2.1
reverse redlining, 8.5.1
steering, 5.3.3.1
telephone listing, 6.5.4
warranties, 9.2.2
proof, see PROOF OF DISCRIMINATION
redlining, see REDLINING
remedies, see REMEDIES
reverse redlining, see REVERSE REDLINING
sample complaints, Appx. G.1, Appx. G.2
scope issues
Civil Rights Acts, 2.4
ECOA, 2.2
FHA, 2.3
state credit laws, 2.5
UDAP, 2.6
state discrimination laws, see under STATE LAW
testers, use, 4.4.4, 5.3.3.2
UDAP violations, 12.4.1.3
web links, Appx. K
CREDIT EVALUATION
adverse, see ADVERSE ACTION
allowable discrimination
age, 6.6.2
immigration status, 3.3.3.4.2
marital status, 6.6.4
public assistance status, 6.6.3
credit history, use, 6.3.1
discriminatory practices violating general rule, 6.2.2
appraisal practices, 6.2.2.3
different investigation procedures, 6.2.2.2
different standards, 6.2.2.1
immediate payment requirements, 6.2.2.5
non-married joint applicants, 6.2.2.4
ECOA standards, 6.2.1
FHA standards, 6.2.1
pertinent element of creditworthiness, 6.6.2.5, 6.6.3.2
specifically prohibited discrimination
childbearing likelihood, 6.5.5
credit history, 6.5.3
credit insurance, 6.5.6
income sources, 6.5.2
telephone listing, 6.5.4
systems
combination systems, 6.3.4, 6.6.2.6
credit scoring systems, see CREDIT SCORING SYSTEMS
judgmental systems, see JUDGMENTAL SYSTEMS
types, 6.3.1
CREDIT HISTORY
see also CREDIT INFORMATION; CREDIT REPORTING
“alternative” profiles, 6.4.2.2
background, 6.5.3.1
credit evaluation, use, 6.3.1
file, right to inspect, 4.4.3
minimal, supplementing, 6.5.3.2
piggybacking, 9.4.1.5
proof of discrimination, source, 4.4.3
review, inadvertent errors, 11.9.4.2
spousal credit history, 6.5.3
avoiding spouse’s bad history, 6.5.3.3
minimal history, supplementing, 6.5.3.2
CREDIT INFORMATION
history, see CREDIT HISTORY
monitoring data, see MONITORING DATA
prohibited information obtained
retention, 10.12.3
unsolicited information, 5.5.1.3
reporting, see CREDIT REPORTING
requests for, see INFORMATION REQUESTS
retention, see RECORD RETENTION
CREDIT INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE REDLINING
refusal by applicant, effect, 6.2.2.7
unavailability, prohibited discrimination, 6.5.6, 9.5.1
CREDIT LIMITS
adverse action, 10.5.2
discriminatory practices, 6.2.2.6
change in account status, 9.2.3
CREDIT MARK-UPS
see MARK-UP POLICIES
CREDIT OFFERS
see PRESCREENED SOLICITATIONS
CREDIT PROFILE
see CREDIT HISTORY
CREDIT RECORD
see CREDIT HISTORY; RECORD RETENTION
CREDIT REPORTING
see also CREDIT HISTORY
adverse action re, FCRA requirements, 4.4.1
authorized users, 9.4.1.3, 9.4.1.5
CCPA rights, exercise, 9.4.2
conflicts between Regulation B and FCRA, 9.4.1.4
default reports, 9.2.4
inadvertent error, 11.9.4.2
source of evidence, 4.4.3
spouses, 5.5.2.4, 9.4.1, 9.4.2.1
CREDIT SCORING SYSTEMS
see also CREDIT EVALUATION
adverse action, notice requirements, 10.5.4.2.3
age discrimination
rules, 6.6.2.4
state law preemption, 6.6.2.3
allowable discrimination, 6.6
combination systems, 6.6.2.6
defined, 6.3.2.2
denial of credit, reasons, 10.5.4.2.3
description, 6.3.2.1
discrimination issues raised by, 6.4
general bias, 6.4.2.2, 6.4.2.3
industry’s response, 6.4.2.4
specific factors, 6.4.2
discrimination’s legacy, 6.4.2.2discriminatory uses, 6.4.5
coaching, 6.4.5.4
data manipulation, 6.4.5.7
different systems for different groups, 6.4.5.6, 6.4.5.7
mark-ups, 6.4.5.5
overrides, 6.4.5.3
score thresholds, 6.4.5.2
weblining, 6.4.5.6
disparate impact, 6.4.3
litigation challenging, 6.4.4
home owners favored, 6.4.2.3
insurance scores, see INSURANCE CREDIT SCORES
judgmental system, different requirements, 6.3.5
litigation challenging, 6.4.4
non-credit related use, 6.4.6
obtaining credit score, 6.3.2.1, 10.5.4.2.3, 10.10
overrides as discriminatory, 6.4.5.3
public assistance income, 6.6.3.1
risk-based pricing, 6.4.5.5
types of credit scores, 6.3.2.1
CREDIT TERMS
change in borrower’s status, 9.5
discrimination law challenges, 8.3
existing accounts
adverse action, 10.5.2
discrimination, 9.2.3
internet-only terms, 3.7.2
mark-ups, see MARK-UP POLICIES
older persons, favorable, 6.6.2.3
predatory lending, see PREDATORY LENDING PRACTICES
reverse redlining, see REVERSE REDLINING
tiered-pricing, 6.4.5.5
unfair pricing, see PRICE DISCRIMINATION
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
see also CREDIT; CREDIT ACCOUNTS
ADA, application, 3.5.2.3
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
applications, see CREDIT APPLICATIONS
business credit, ECOA exemptions, 2.2.6.4
civil rights scope, 2.4
definition, 2.2.2.1, 2.2.3
discrimination, see CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
ECOA scope, 2.2
applicants, 2.2.4, 9.2.4
application, 2.2.2
creditors, 2.2.5
exemptions, 2.2.6
preliminary issues, 2.2.1
stages of transaction, 2.2.3
evaluation of application, see CREDIT EVALUATION
FHA scope, 2.3
aggrieved persons, 2.3.5
credit actors, 2.3.2.3, 2.3.3.2
general rule against discrimination, application, 5.2.3
incidental consumer credit, ECOA exemptions, 2.2.6.3
leases as, 2.2.2.2
mandatory arbitration, see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
Medicare and Medicaid as, 2.2.2.6
notice requirements, see NOTICE OF ACTION TAKEN
public utilities, ECOA exemptions, 2.2.6.2
records, 4.4.2, 10.12
exemptions, 10.12.4
inadvertent error, 10.12.5, 11.9.4.2
oral applications, 5.4.2.1
preservation, 10.12.1, 10.12.2
written records, requirements, 4.4.2, 10.12.1
renewals
co-signers, reevaluation, 9.6
joint to individual account, 5.6.6
securities credit, see SECURITIES CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
stages, 5.1
subsequent procedures, 9
terms, see CREDIT TERMS
TILA, application, 2.2.2.1.1
CREDIT UNIONS
regulatory supervision, 12.2.2, 12.2.5
CREDITORS
see also CREDIT; CREDIT APPLICATIONS; CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
actions triggered by change in borrower status, 9.5
rules limiting, 9.5.1
scope of rules, 9.5.2
status of account, 9.5.3
updated information requests, 9.5.4
arrangers of credit, status, 2.2.5.3
civil liability, 11.2.1
civil rights scope, 11.2.1
collateral and other protection, 5.8
discriminatory practices, 5.8.1
defenses, see under DEFENSES
defined, 2.2.5.1, 2.2.5.5, 10.8.1
discrimination by, see CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
ECOA scope, 2.2.5, 11.2.1
notice requirements, 10.8.1
FFIEC disclosure statements, 4.4.5.1, 4.4.5.3
FHA scope, 2.3.2.3, 2.3.3.2, 11.2.1
government as, 2.2.5.6
HMDA data requirements, 4.4.5
application, 4.4.5.2.1
inadvertent error, see INADVERTENT ERROR
incomplete applications, responsibilities, 10.7.3
information requests, see INFORMATION REQUESTS
monitoring data, see MONITORING DATA
multiple creditors, 10.8.2, 11.9.4.3
notification requirements, see NOTICE OF ACTION TAKEN
punitive damage factors
frequent noncompliance, 11.8.4.3.3.3
intentional noncompliance, 11.8.4.3.3.6
resources, 11.8.4.3.3.4
records, 10.12
see also RECORD RETENTION
exempt transactions, 10.12.4
HMDA data, 4.4.5
home mortgages, 5.4.2.2
inadvertent error, 10.12.5, 11.9.4.2
loan register, access, 4.4.5
oral applications, 5.4.2.1
preservation, 4.4.2, 10.12.1, 10.12.2
prohibited information, 10.12.3
source of evidence, 4.4.2
reporting of information, see CREDIT REPORTING
CREDITWORTHINESS
see CREDIT EVALUATION
CREED
see also RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION
credit discrimination, prohibited base, 3.3.2
DAMAGES
see also REMEDIES
actual damages, 11.8.2
generally, 11.8.2.1
intangible damages, 11.8.2.3
punitive damages, relationship, 11.8.2.1, 11.8.4.3.1, 11.8.4.3.3.2
tangible injury, 11.8.2.2
class actions, 11.4
election of remedies, 11.6.2
FHA administrative complaints, 11.5.2.2
overview, 11.8.1
punitive damages, see PUNITIVE DAMAGES
statutory damages, 11.8.3
DATA COLLECTION
see INFORMATION REQUESTS; MONITORING DATA
DEALERS
credit discrimination remedies, 1.1.4
credit scoring models, 6.4.5.7
ECOA application, 2.2.5.3
notice requirements, 10.8.1
DECLARATORY RELIEF
availability, 11.8.5.1
DEFAULT PRACTICES
discriminatory treatment, 9.2.4
reporting defaults, 9.4
DEFENSES
creditors, 11.9
business justification, see BUSINESS JUSTIFICATION DEFENSE
civil rights claims, 11.9.5
common law defenses, 11.9.1
ECOA special defenses, 11.9.4
FDIC special defenses, 11.9.4.4
FHA claims, 11.9.5
good faith compliance, 11.9.4.1
inadvertent error, 11.9.4.2
market forces defense, 8.6.4
multiple creditors, 11.9.4.3
punitive damages, good faith, 11.8.4.2
risk defense, 8.5.3
RTC special defenses, 11.9.4.4
statute of limitations, 11.9.2
unclean hands, 11.9.1
debtors, recoupment or setoff, 11.9.2.2
discretionary mark-ups, 8.6.4, 8.6.6
reverse redlining, 8.5.3
DEFERRED PAYMENT PURCHASES
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS; INCIDENTAL CONSUMER CREDIT
ECOA application, 2.2.2.1
leases as, 2.2.2.2.3–2.2.2.2.5
refusal as discrimination, 6.2.2.5
TILA application, 2.2.2.1.1
DEFINITIONS
adverse action, 10.4.2, 10.5.1, 10.5.3, 10.10
aggrieved person, 2.3.5
applicant, 2.2.4.1, 5.5.1.2, 9.2.4, 10.6.3.1, 11.3.1
application, 2.2.4.3, 10.7.1
appraisal report, 10.11
completed application, 10.7.2
contractually liable, 2.2.4.1, 10.6.3.1
credit, 2.2.2.1
credit scoring system, 6.3.2.2
creditor, 2.2.5.1, 2.2.5.5, 10.8.1
disability, 3.5.2.2
discriminate, 5.2.2
dwelling, 2.3.2.2.1
elderly, 3.4.2
extension of credit, 2.2.4.1
familial status, 3.5.1
handicap, 3.5.2.2
home improvement loan, 4.4.5.2.2
home purchase loan, 4.4.5.2.2
inadvertent error, 11.9.4.2
incidental consumer credit, 2.2.6.3.1, 10.9.1
judgmental system, 6.3.3
make and enforce contracts, 5.2.3
older consumer, 3.4.2
open-end credit, 9.5.2.1
pertinent element of creditworthiness, 6.6.2.5, 6.6.3.2
public accommodation, 3.5.2.3
race, 3.6.1
reasonable accommodation, 3.5.2.4
redlining, 7.1
refinancing, 4.4.5.2.2
residential real estate-related transaction, 2.3.2.1
reverse redlining, 8.5.1
unfair practice, 3.7.1
valuation, 10.11
DENIAL
see ADVERSE ACTION
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
see also FAIR HOUSING ACT (FHA)
FHA administrative complaints, 11.5.2
procedures, 11.5.2.3, 12.3.1
FHA enforcement, 12.3.1
FHA regulations, Appx. D
FHA violations
ECOA violations constituting, notification, 12.2.5
request to DOJ for civil enforcement, 12.3.2
FHEFSSA enforcement mandate, 12.3.1
referrals to state enforcement agencies, 12.4.2.3.7
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ)
see also UNITED STATES ATTORNEY GENERAL
agency referrals of ECOA cases, 12.2.1, 12.2.5
enforcement authority
ECOA, 1.3.3.3, 12.2.1
FHA, 12.3.2
policy on fair lending enforcement, 12.2.6
proceedings, reporting, 1.3.3.3
DIGITAL DIVIDE
defined, 3.7.2, 7.3.1
disparate impact, 3.7.2
weblining, 3.7.2, 7.3.1
DISABLED PERSONS
see also HANDICAP STATUS
credit discrimination, 3.5.2
ADA, application, 3.5.2.3
defined, 3.5.2.2
digital divide, 3.7.2
FHA, application, 2.3.3.1.1
reasonable accommodation, 3.5.2.4
DISCOVERY
see also LITIGATION
plaintiff’s financial information, 11.7
sample interrogatories
co-signer rule violation, Appx. H.2
ECOA notice violation, Appx. H.1
FHA case, Appx. H.4
zip code redlining, Appx. H.3
sample notice of deposition, Appx. H.9
sample request for production
ECOA case, Appx. H.1
FHA case, Appx. H.5
loan modification case, Appx. H.8
DISCRETIONARY PRICING
see MARK-UP POLICIES
DISCRIMINATION
civil rights scope, 2.4
credit, see CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
ECOA scope, 2.2
FHA scope, 2.3.3.1.1
state law scope, 2.5, 2.6
DISCRIMINATION LAWS
advantages over other consumer laws, 8.2
Civil Rights Acts, see CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS (FEDERAL)
continuing violations, 11.9.2.1.1.3
credit terms, application, 8.3
ECOA, see EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
FHA, see FAIR HOUSING ACT (FHA)
predatory lending and unfair pricing, use to challenge, 8.1
property and services, application, 8.7.1
state law, see under STATE LAW
DISCRIMINATORY EFFECT
see DISPARATE IMPACT
DISGORGEMENT
equitable relief, 11.8.5.2
DISPARATE EFFECT
see DISPARATE IMPACT
DISPARATE IMPACT
see also CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
application of theory, 4.3.1.1–4.3.1.3
burdens of proof, 4.3.2
alternative practices, 4.3.2.6
business justification, 4.3.2.5
ECOA violations, 4.3.2.2
FHA violations, 4.3.2.3
generally, 4.3.2.1
prima facie burden, 4.3.2.4
business justification, 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.5, 4.3.4.3, 11.9.3
civil rights cases, 2.4, 4.3.1.1
class actions, 11.3.1, 11.4
credit evaluation standards, 6.2.2.1
credit scoring systems, 6.4.3
litigation challenging, 6.4.4
described, 3.2
discovery issues, 11.7
ECOA standards, 4.3.1.1–4.3.1.3, 4.3.2.2
employment law standards, 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.4.1, 4.3.2.6
FHA standard, 4.3.1.1–4.3.1.3, 4.3.2.3, 4.3.2.4.1, 4.3.2.5, 4.3.2.6
history prior to Supreme Court ruling, 4.3.1.2
insurance credit scores, 6.4.6.2.2
internet-only credit terms, 3.7.2
mark-ups, 8.6
prima facie case, 4.3.2.4
causation, 4.3.2.4.4
disparate impact, 4.3.2.4.3
specific policy identification, 4.3.2.4.2
prohibited bases, utilizing to show, 3.7.1
proving, 4.3
burden, 4.3.2
ECOA standard, 4.3.2.2
FHA standard, 4.3.2.3
generally, 4.3.1.1–4.3.1.3
redlining, see REDLINING
reverse redlining, 8.5.3
sample complaint, Appx. G.2
subjective discriminatory practices, 4.3.2.4.2
DISPARATE TREATMENT
see also CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
business justification defense, 4.2.1, 11.9.3
circumstantial evidence, 4.2.3
generally, 4.2.3.1
McDonnell-Douglas test, 4.2.3.2
described, 3.2
direct evidence, 4.2.2
levels of assistance, 5.4.3
marketing, 5.3.2.3
mark-ups, 8.6.3
proving, generally, 4.2.1
sample complaint, Appx. G.2
DODD-FRANK ACT
UDAP standards, 1.2.5, 1.8, 2.6
D’OENCH, DUHME DOCTRINE
federal receiver defense, 11.9.4.4
DWELLINGS
appraisals, see APPRAISAL REPORTS
defined, 2.3.2.2.1
discrimination in sale or rental, 2.3.3.1.1
loans re, see RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE-RELATED TRANSACTIONS
mortgages on, see HOME MORTGAGES
EFFECTS TEST
see DISPARATE IMPACT
ELDERLY PERSONS
see OLDER PERSONS
ELECTION OF REMEDIES
see also REMEDIES
requirement, 11.6.2
ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER ACT
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
ELECTRONIC NOTICES
ECOA notices, 10.6.2.2
FCRA notices, 10.10
ELECTRONIC RECORDS
retention of records, 4.4.2, 10.12.1
ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES IN GLOBAL AND NATIONAL COMMERCE ACT (E-SIGN ACT)
ECOA application, 10.6.2.2
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
damages for, 11.8.2.3
punitive damages, relationship, 11.8.4.3.1
EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION LAW
applicability as precedent, 1.10.2
disparate impact, 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.4.1, 4.3.2.6
good faith punitive damages defense, 11.8.4.2
ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS
see GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
see also CREDIT DISCRIMINATION; REGULATION B (ECOA)
application, 1.3.1
arbitration of claims under, 11.5.3
arrangers of credit, application, 2.2.5.3
assignees, application, 2.2.5.4
associational protection rule, 3.9
application, 3.9.2
generally, 3.9.1
standing, 11.3.3
business credit, application, 2.2.6.4
CFPB authority, 1.3.2.8, 1.3.3.1, 1.3.3.3
check-cashing and ATM cards, application, 2.2.2.4
class actions, 11.4
consumer’s guide, Appx. I.2
credit terms, application, 8.3
damages under, see DAMAGES
defenses, 11.9
business justification, 11.9.3
common law defenses, 11.9.1
FDIC special defenses, 11.9.4.4
good faith compliance, 11.9.4.1
inadvertent error, 11.9.4.2
notice of violation, reasonable, 11.9.4.3
RTC special defenses, 11.9.4.4
statute of limitations, 11.9.2
unclean hands, 11.9.1
disparate impact, 4.3
application, 4.3.1.1–4.3.1.3
burden of proof, 4.3.2.2
disparate treatment, proof, 4.2.3.1
election of remedies, 11.6.2
electronic notices, 10.6.2.2
enforcement authority, 1.3.3.3, 12.2.2, 12.4.1.2
exercise of rights, 3.4.4.2
federal enforcement agencies, 12.2
policies and statements, 12.2.6
FHA, simultaneous claims, 2.3.3.1.3, 2.7
general standards, 5.2
application, 5.2.3
discrimination, defined, 5.2.2
government, credit to, application, 2.2.6.6
government as creditor, application, 2.2.5.6
government enforcement
federal agencies, 12.2
state enforcement, 12.4.1.2
incidental consumer credit, application, 2.2.6.3
leases, application, 2.2.2.2
legislative history, 1.3.2, 1.3.3.2
liberal construction, 1.3.3.4
medical treatment, application, 2.2.2.6
monitoring data, 4.4.7, 5.5.3.1, 5.5.3.2, 5.5.1.4
NCLC treatise, using, 1.2
specific violations versus general prohibition, 1.2.4
notice requirements
see also NOTICE OF ACTION TAKEN
adverse action, see under ADVERSE ACTION
approved applications, 10.3
counteroffers, 10.4
credit arrangers, application, 10.8.1
general requirements, 10.6
legislative purpose, 10.1
multiple credit applications, 10.8.2
new accounts, 10.7
overview, 10.2
scope, 10.8
overview, 1.3.1
partial exemptions, 2.2.6
participants in credit decision, application, 2.2.5.4
pay as you go, application, 2.2.2.5
precedent and authority, 1.3.3
enforcement proceedings, 1.3.3.3
procedural requirements, 10
prohibited bases for discrimination
age, 3.4.2
consumer protection rights, exercise, 3.4.4
immigration status, 3.3.3.4.2
marital status, 3.4.1
national origin, 3.3.3
public assistance status, 3.4.3
race and color, 3.3.1
religion, 3.3.2
sex, 3.3.4.2
sexual orientation, 3.3.4.3, 3.4.1
special purpose credit exception, 3.8
property and services, application, 8.7.1
punitive damages, 11.8.4.3
record retention requirements, 4.4.2, 10.2
regulatory authority, 1.3.2.8, 1.3.3.1, 1.3.3.3
see also REGULATION B (ECOA)
rights notification, 10.5.4.1
scope, 2.2
applicants, 2.2.4, 9.2.4
coverage by agreement, 2.2.2.7
credit terms, 8.3
credit transactions, 2.2.2
creditors, 2.2.5
exemptions, 2.2.6
preliminary issues, 2.2.1
stages of transaction, 2.2.3
securities credit, application, 2.2.6.5
special requirements, 5.1.1
application procedures, 5
credit evaluation, 6.5
granting of credit, 7
information requests, 5.5
notification of action taken, 10.3
procedures subsequent to credit, 9
record retention, 10.12
signature requirements, 5.6
standing, 11.3.1
state and local authorities, 12.4.1.5
state law preemption, 6.6.2.3, 11.6.1.3
statute of limitations
affirmative actions, 11.6.1.2, 11.9.2.1.1
recoupment or setoff, 11.9.2.2
summary of key provisions, 2.7
text, Appx. A.1
types of prohibited discrimination
application procedures, 5.4
authorized users, 5.6.7
changes in account status, 9.2.3
credit evaluation, 6.2
credit limits, 6.2.2.6, 9.2.3
credit reporting, 9.4
creditor protection, 5.8
family expense laws, 9.3
immediate payment requirements, 6.2.2.5
insurance redlining, 7.3.4.1
loan servicing, 9.2.1
marketing, 5.3.2.1
post-default, 9.2.4
post-sale service, 9.2.2
price discrimination, 8.7.1
redlining, 7.2.1
reverse redlining, 8.5.1
unfair lending, challenging using, 8.2
utilities, application, 2.2.2.3, 2.2.6.2
violations
circumstantial evidence, 4.2.3
compliance statistics, 12.2.5
continuing violations, 11.9.2.1.1.3
federal agency enforcement, 12.2
frequent and persistent, 11.8.4.3.3.3
notice to HUD, 12.2.5
procedural provisions, 10.1
referral to DOJ, 12.2.1, 12.2.5
remedies, see REMEDIES
sample complaints, Appx. G
sample interrogatories, Appx. H
sample request for production, Appx. H.1
statute of limitations, 11.6.1.2, 11.9.2.1.1
EQUITABLE RELIEF
availability, 11.8.5.1
disgorgement, 11.8.5.2
election of remedies, necessity, 11.6.2
outcome-based injunctive relief, 11.8.5.4
prospective relief, 11.8.5.1
restitution, 11.8.5.2
voiding of obligation, 11.8.5.3
ERROR
see INADVERTENT ERROR
ETHNICITY
see NATIONAL ORIGIN; RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF; PROOF OF DISCRIMINATION
consumer’s own records, 4.4.1
credit reporting agencies, 4.4.3
creditor’s files, 4.4.2
disparate impact, 4.3.2.4.3, 8.6.5
disparate treatment
circumstantial, 4.2.3
direct evidence, 4.2.2
statistical proof, 8.6.5
ECOA noncompliance, frequency, 11.8.4.3.3.3
intangible damages, 11.8.2.3
mark-ups, discrimination, 8.6.5
monitoring data
census data, 4.4.6.1
ECOA data, 4.4.7
GSE data, 4.4.6.2
HMDA data, 4.4.5
non-mortgage data, 4.4.9
other data, 4.4.6
non-monitoring data, 4.4.8
plaintiff’s records, 4.4.1
reverse redlining
target class, 8.5.2
unfair credit terms, 8.5.3
sources of evidence, 4.4
statistical evidence, 8.6.5
testers, 4.4.4
unfair pricing, 8.5.3
FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
interaction with Regulation B, 9.4.1.4
notice requirements, 10.10
insufficient for ECOA purposes, 10.5.4.2.1
multiple applicants, 10.6.3.2
risk-based pricing notice, 10.4.2, 10.10
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
family expense laws, debt collection based solely on, 9.3
FAIR HOUSING ACT (FHA)
see also DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
administrative complaints, see ADMINISTRATIVE DETERMINATIONS
arbitration of claims under, 11.5.3
associational protection rule, 3.9.3
standing, 11.3.2.3
class actions, 11.4
credit terms, application, 8.3
damages under, see DAMAGES
defenses, 11.9
generally, 11.9.1
no statutory defenses, 11.9.5
regulations, under, 11.9.5
statute of limitations, 11.9.2.1.1
discriminatory effects standard, 1.4.2
disparate impact
application, 4.3.1.1–4.3.1.3
business justification, 4.3.2.5, 4.3.2.6
standards, proving, 4.3.2.3, 4.3.2.4.1
disparate treatment, proof, 4.2.3.1
ECOA, simultaneous claims, 2.3.3.1.3, 2.7
election of remedies, 11.6.2
federal enforcement agencies, 12.2.2, 12.3
general standards, 5.2
application, 5.2.3
discriminate, definition, 5.2.2
government enforcement, 12.3
banking regulatory agencies, 12.2.2
HUD regulations, Appx. D
insurance
application, 7.3.4.2.1
state preemption, 7.3.4.2.2
interference with FHA rights, 2.3.4
leases, application, 2.3.3
legislative history, 1.4.2
NCLC treatise, using, 1.2.5
non-credit precedent, using, 1.10.1
overview, 1.4.1
prohibited bases for discrimination, 3.3, 3.5
familial status, 3.5.1
handicap status, 3.5.2.1
immigration status, 3.3.3.4.3
national origin, 3.3.3
race and color, 3.3.1
religion, 3.3.2
sex, 3.3.4.1
sexual orientation, 3.3.4.3
property and services, application, 8.7.1
punitive damages, 11.8.4.2
reasonable accommodation requirement, 3.5.2.4
regulations, Appx. D
scope, 2.3
creditors, 2.3.2.3, 2.3.3.2
disabled persons, 2.3.3.1.1
home equity loans, 2.3.2.2.2, 2.3.3.1.2
interference with FHA rights, 2.3.4
overview, 2.3.1
predatory lending, 2.3.3.1.2, 2.3.3.1.3
rental of housing, 2.3.3
residential real estate-related transactions, 2.3.2
sales of housing, 2.3.3
section 3604 versus section 3605, 2.3.3.1.3
senior’s housing, application, 2.3.2.2.1
standing, 2.3.5, 11.3.1
state and local authorities, 12.4.1.5
testers, 11.3.2.2
state enforcement, 12.4.1.2
statute of limitations, 11.6.1.2, 11.9.2.1.1
summary of key provisions, 2.7
text, Appx. A.2
types of prohibited discrimination
application procedures, 5.4
changes in account status, 9.2.3
credit evaluation, 6.2
insurance redlining, 7.3.4.2
loan servicing, 9.2.1
marketing, 5.3.2.2
post-default, 9.2.4
price discrimination, 8.7.1
redlining, 7.2.1
reverse redlining, 8.5.1
unfair lending, challenging, 8.2
violations
continuing violations, 11.9.2.1.1.3
notice to HUD, 12.2.5
referral to state agency, 12.4.2.3.7
remedies, see REMEDIES
sample complaint, Appx. G.1
sample discovery, Appx. H.4, Appx. H.5
statute of limitations, 11.6.1.2, 11.9.2.1.1
POLICY STATEMENTS
Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, 12.2.6
FAMILIAL STATUS
see also MARITAL STATUS
credit discrimination, prohibited base, 3.5.1
childbearing likelihood, 5.5.2.2.3, 6.5.5
defined, 3.5.1
housing for older persons, allowable restrictions, 3.5.1
information requests, 5.5.2.2.3
marital status, relationship, 3.4.1
sex discrimination, relationship, 3.3.4.3, 3.4.1
FAMILY EXPENSE LAWS
ECOA preemption, 9.3
FDCPA violations, 9.3
FANNIE MAE
see GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ENTERPRISES (GSEs)
FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policy, 12.2.6
FAT FILE PHENOMENON
application procedures, 5.4.3
FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC)
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policies, 12.2.6
ECOA violations, referrals to DOJ, 12.2.5
FHA violations, notice to HUD, 12.2.5
marketing guide, 5.3.2.3
special defenses, 11.9.4.4
FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL (FFIEC)
ECOA enforcement policy statement, 12.2.6
HMDA disclosure statements, 4.4.5.1, 4.4.5.3
Interagency Procedures on Fair Lending Examination, 12.2.6
marketing guidance, 5.3.2.3
pre-screening, 5.3.2.6
steering, 5.3.3.1
FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (“FREDDIE MAC”)
see GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ENTERPRISES (GSEs)
FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISES FINANCIAL SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS ACT (FHEFSSA)
HUD fair lending enforcement mandate, 12.3.1
FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (“FANNIE MAE”)
see GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ENTERPRISES (GSEs)
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
FHA administrative complaints, 11.5.2.3
state insurance laws
Civil Rights Acts, 7.3.4.3
FHA, 7.3.4.2.2
state laws by ECOA, 11.6.1.3
age discrimination laws, 6.6.2.3
laws providing greater protection, 3.7.1
state laws by federal banking laws, 12.4.2
National Bank Act, 12.4.2.2
OCC regulations, 12.4.2.2
visitorial powers, 12.4.2.3
FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD (FRB)
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.4, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policy, 12.2.5
ECOA partial exemptions, 2.2.6.1
ECOA regulatory authority, 1.3.2.8, 1.3.3.1, 12.2.4
ECOA violations, referrals to DOJ, 12.2.5
FHA violations, notice to HUD, 12.2.5
HMDA regulatory authority, 4.4.5.1
home mortgage fair lending guide, Appx. I.3
model notice forms, 10.10
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.3, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policies, 12.2.6
ECOA guide, Appx. I.3
proceedings, reporting, 1.3.3.3
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE
see CREDIT
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
see also BANKS; FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL; SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) applicability, 1.9
ECOA enforcement agencies, 12.2.5
FORUM
credit discrimination case, 11.5
administrative or judicial, 11.5.2
arbitration clauses, 11.5.3.4
abstention, 11.5.1.2.5
federal or state, 11.5.1
land, actions involving, 11.5.1.2.1
removal to federal, 11.5.1.2.2
FREDDIE MAC
see GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ENTERPRISES (GSEs)
GARNISHMENT ACT (FEDERAL)
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
GENDER DISCRIMINATION
see SEX DISCRIMINATION
GEOGRAPHIC DISCRIMINATION
see REDLINING
GOODS AND SERVICES
price discrimination, 8.7
challenging, 8.7.1
types of discrimination, 8.7.2
GOVERNMENT
see also STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES
credit extended by
ECOA, application, 2.2.5.6, 11.2.1, 11.9.4.4
FDIC and RTC special defenses, 11.9.4.4
credit to, ECOA exemptions
generally, 2.2.6.1, 2.2.6.6
record retention, 10.12.4
enforcement agencies, see GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
sovereign immunity, 11.8.5.1
GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
see also ADMINISTRATIVE DETERMINATIONS; DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ); REGULATORY AGENCIES
ECOA enforcement
FRB, 12.2.4, 12.2.5
FTC, 12.2.3, 12.2.5
other federal agencies, 12.2.5
policies, 12.2.6
state and local enforcement, 12.4
U.S. Attorney General, 12.2.1, 12.2.5
violations, notice to HUD, 12.2.5
FHA enforcement
HUD enforcement, 11.5.2.3, 12.3.1
state and local enforcement, 12.4
U.S. Attorney General, 12.3.2
violations, notice to HUD, 12.2.5
policy
examination procedures, 12.2.6
generally, 12.2.6
joint policy statement, 12.2.6
records preservation, 10.12.2
state and local agencies, 12.4
examples, 12.4.3
federal statutes, 12.4.1
national bank preemption, 12.4.2
GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ENTERPRISES (GSEs)
HUD enforcement of fair lending laws, 12.3.1
mortgage data, 4.4.6.2
GUARANTORS
see also CO-SIGNERS
applicant, status as, 5.5.1.2
discriminatory practices
co-signatures, 5.6
type of security, 5.8.1
ECOA application, 2.2.4.2
ECOA restrictions, 5.6.1
information requests, 5.5.1.2
injury caused by discrimination, 5.8.2
obligation, voiding, 11.8.5.3
spouse’s signature, restrictions, 5.6.8
HANDICAP STATUS
see also DISABLED PERSONS
credit discrimination
prohibited base, 3.5.2
remedies, 1.1.4
disability, defined, 3.5.2.2
HMDA DATA
see HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE ACT (HMDA)
HOME EQUITY LOANS
see also HOME MORTGAGES
appraisal report, right to copy, 10.11
FHA, application, 2.3.2.2.2, 2.3.3.1.2
monitoring information, collection, 4.4.5, 5.5.3.2, 10.13
HOME IMPROVEMENT CREDIT
see also RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE-RELATED TRANSACTIONS
discrimination
FHA overview, 1.4.1
remedies, 1.1.4
ECOA application
arrangers of credit, 2.2.5.3
pay as you go, 2.2.2.5
FHA scope, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.2.2.1, 2.3.2.3
HMDA data requirements, 4.4.5.2.2
HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE ACT (HMDA)
monitoring data, 4.4.5
access to, 4.4.5.3
analysis, 4.4.5.5
exception to information restrictions, 5.5.3.1
limits to, 4.4.5.4
policy responses, 4.4.5.6
requirements, 4.4.5.1, 4.4.5.2.2, 5.5.3.2
purpose, 4.4.5.1
Regulation C
official interpretations, Appx. E.3
text, Appx. E.2
various versions, 4.4.5.1
scope, 4.4.5.2
data, 4.4.5.2.2
lenders, 4.4.5.2.1
text, Appx. E.1
HOME MORTGAGES
see also HOME EQUITY LOANS; RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE-RELATED TRANSACTIONS
applications, written requirement, 5.4.2.2, 10.4.4
appraisals, see APPRAISAL REPORTS
arbitration clauses, 11.5.3
manufactured homes, 11.5.3.2.1
consumer’s guide, Appx. I.3
discriminatory practices
credit scoring overrides, 4.3.2.4.3
discretionary mark-ups, 8.6.1
FHA overview, 1.4.1
FHA scope, 2.3.2, 2.3.3.1.2
HMDA data, 4.4.5
HUD administrative enforcement, 12.3.1
redlining, see REDLINING
reverse redlining, see REVERSE REDLINING
GSE data, 4.4.6.2
HMDA data requirements, 4.4.5.2.2
monitoring information, collection, 4.4.5–4.4.7, 5.5.3, 10.13
sale of property, adverse mortgagee action, 10.5.2
HOME PURCHASES AND SALES
see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
HOSPITAL SERVICES
see MEDICAL SERVICES
HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
see DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
HOUSING LAW
see also FAIR HOUSING ACT (FHA)
non-credit context, use in discrimination cases, 1.10.1
HOUSING LOANS
discrimination, see CREDIT DISCRIMINATION
generally, see RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE-RELATED TRANSACTIONS
home improvements, see HOME IMPROVEMENT CREDIT
leases, see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
mortgages, see HOME MORTGAGES
HOUSING ORGANIZATIONS
FHA suits by, 1.1.4, 2.3.5
HOUSING RENTAL
see RESIDENTIAL LEASES
IMMEDIATE PAYMENT
discriminatory practices, 6.2.2.5
IMMIGRATION STATUS
credit discrimination
allowable, 3.3.3.4.2
civil rights standard, 3.6.2
ECOA standard, 3.3.3.4.2
FHA standard, 3.3.3.4.3
remedies, 1.1.4
information requests, 5.5.2.1
INADVERTENT ERROR
credit history review, 11.9.4.2
credit reporting, 9.4.2, 11.9.4.2
creditor defense, as, 11.9.4.2
creditor’s records, 10.12.5
defined, 11.9.4.2
monitoring data, 11.9.4.2
notice violations, 10.9.3, 11.9.4.2
INCIDENTAL CONSUMER CREDIT
see also CONSUMER CREDIT
defined, 2.2.6.3.1, 10.9.1
ECOA partial exemption, 2.2.6.3
applicable exemptions, 2.2.6.3.2
co-signer rule, 5.6.1
credit reporting, 9.4.1.2
definition, 2.2.6.3.1
generally, 2.2.6.1
notice exemption, 10.9.1
record retention, 10.12.4
immediate payment deferral as, 6.2.2.5
medical services, status as, 2.2.2.6
INCOME SOURCES
credit evaluation
appropriate methods, 6.5.2.2
individual evaluation, 6.5.2.3
multiple sources, 6.5.2.4
older applicants, 6.5.2.5
protected income, 6.5.2.1
public assistance recipients, 6.5.2.7
women applicants, 6.5.2.6
INDEPENDENT LIVING UNITS
FHA application, 2.3.2.2.1
INFORMATION REQUESTS
co-signers, 5.5.1.2
ECOA special requirements, 5.5.1.1, 5.5.1.2, 5.5.1.4
exceptions to restrictions
gender inquiries, 5.5.2.2.1
legally required for monitoring, 5.5.3.1–5.5.3.3
self-testing, 4.4.9, 5.5.1.4, 5.5.3.5
special purpose credit programs, 5.5.3.4
guarantors and sureties, 5.5.1.2
investigation procedures, 5.4.4, 6.2.2.2
monitoring data, see MONITORING DATA
prohibited information obtained
retention, 10.12.3
unsolicited information, 5.5.1.3
prohibited requests, 5.5
additional information, 5.4.4
color, 5.5.2.1
courtesy titles, 5.5.2.2.2
familial status, 5.5.2.2.3
lifting of prohibition, 5.5.1.4
marital status, 5.5.2.3
national origin, 5.5.2.1
public assistance status, 5.5.2.5
race, 5.5.2.1
religion, 5.5.2.1
sex, 5.5.2.2
spouse or former spouse, 5.5.2.4
support income, 5.5.2.3.1
self-testing purposes, 4.4.9, 5.5.3.5, 10.14
update requests, 9.5.4
voluntary data collection, 5.5.1.4
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
see also EQUITABLE RELIEF
availability, 11.8.5.1
outcome-based relief, 11.8.5.4
standing, 11.8.5.1
INSURANCE
credit, see CREDIT INSURANCE
credit scores, see INSURANCE CREDIT SCORES
FHA, application, 7.3.4.2.1
housing, see PROPERTY AND CASUALTY INSURANCE
redlining, see INSURANCE REDLINING
INSURANCE CREDIT SCORES
see also CREDIT SCORING SYSTEMS
business justification, 6.4.3
challenges to, 6.4.6.2.1
disparate impact, 6.4.6.2.2
redlining and, 7.3.1
INSURANCE REDLINING
see also CREDIT INSURANCE; PROPERTY AND CASUALTY INSURANCE; REDLINING
described, 7.3.1
detecting, 7.3.3
FHA applicability, 2.3.4, 7.3.4.2.1
impact, 7.3.2
legal claims challenging, 7.3.4
civil rights violations, 7.3.4.3
ECOA violations, 7.3.4.1
FHA violations, 7.3.4.2
state law, 7.3.4.4
UNIP application, 7.3.4.4
INTANGIBLE DAMAGES
actual damages, 11.8.2.3
punitive damages, relationship, 11.8.4.3.1
INTERAGENCY PROCEDURES ON FAIR LENDING EXAMINATION
Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, 12.2.6
INTEREST RATES
see also CREDIT TERMS
mark-ups, see MARK-UP POLICIES
risk-based pricing, 6.4.5.5, 8.5.3, 8.6.1
INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
disparate impact, 3.7.2
weblining, 3.7.2, 6.4.5.6, 7.3.1
INTERROGATORIES
see DISCOVERY
INVESTIGATIONS
see GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
INVESTMENTS
ECOA, application, 2.2.2.1.1
JOINT ACCOUNTS
see also CREDIT ACCOUNTS
refinancing to individual account, 5.6.6
termination, allowable grounds, 9.5.1
voluntary, 5.6.6
JOINT APPLICANTS
marital status discrimination, 6.2.2.4
marital status requests, 5.5.2.3.1
voluntary, 5.6.6
JOINT POLICY STATEMENT ON DISCRIMINATION IN LENDING
regulatory agencies, 12.2.6
JOINT PROPERTY
see also COMMUNITY PROPERTY
reliance to establish credit, 5.6.3
security for individual account, 5.6.5
JUDGMENTAL SYSTEMS
see also CREDIT EVALUATION
age discrimination, 6.6.2.5
state law preemption, 6.6.2.3
allowable discrimination, 6.6
combination systems, 6.3.4, 6.6.2.6
credit scoring systems, different requirements, 6.3.5
defined, 6.3.3
denial of credit, reasons, 10.5.4.2.3
generally, 6.3.3
public assistance exemption, 6.6.3.2
JURISDICTION
see also FORUM
“artful pleading doctrine,” 11.5.1.2.2
credit discrimination cases, 11.5.1
parens patriae, 12.4.1.4
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, 11.5.1.2.4
JURY INSTRUCTIONS
sample instructions
agreed pre-trial order including, Appx. G.8
proposed instructions, Appx. G.9, Appx. G.10
JUSTICE DEPARTMENT
see DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ)
LANGUAGE
discrimination re, 3.3.3.3
information requests re, 5.5.2.1
loan documents, 3.3.3.3
LEASES
see also RESIDENTIAL LEASES
civil rights scope, 2.4
discrimination, remedies, 1.1.4
ECOA scope
disguised credit sales, 2.2.2.2.2, 2.2.2.2.5
overview, 2.2.2.2.1
personal property leases, 2.2.2.2.3
rent-to-own, 2.2.2.2.5
residential leases, 2.2.2.2.4
terminable leases, 2.2.2.2.5
FHA scope, 2.3.3.1
LEGAL CAPACITY
age discrimination, exception, 6.6.2.2
state law validity, 6.6.2.3
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
see LITIGATION
LENDERS
see CREDITORS
LIABILITY
assignees and brokers, 11.2.2.1
direct creditor liability, 11.2.1
vicarious liability, 11.2.2.2
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
LITIGATION
see also CASE LAW; DISCOVERY; PLEADINGS; PRACTICE TIPS
arbitration alternative, 11.5.3
“artful pleading doctrine,” 11.5.1.2.2
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
causes of action, selecting, 11.6
advantages, 11.6.1
election of remedies, 11.6.2
class actions, 11.4
continuing violation doctrine, 11.9.2.1.1.3
costs, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
court-ordered consent decree, 11.8.6.2
creditor defenses, 11.9
business justification, 11.9.3
civil rights claims, 11.9.5
common law defenses, 11.9.1
ECOA special defenses, 11.9.4
FHA claims, 11.9.5
statute of limitations, 11.9.2
damage awards, see DAMAGES
defendant, 11.2
deep pockets, 11.2.2
direct creditor liability, 11.2.1
discovery, see DISCOVERY
forum
administrative or judicial, 11.5.2
arbitration clauses, 11.5.3.4
federal or state, 11.5.1
removal to federal, 11.5.1.2.2
jury instructions, Appx. G.8, Appx. G.9, Appx. G.10
pattern and practice claims, 11.9.2.1.1.3
plaintiff, 11.3
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
pre-trial order, agreed, Appx. G.8
prevailing party, 11.8.6.2
proof issues, see PROOF OF DISCRIMINATION
record retention, 10.12.2
remedies available, 11.8
actual damages, 11.8.2
declaratory relief, 11.8.5
election of remedies, 11.6.2
equitable relief, 11.8.5
overview, 11.8.1
punitive damages, 11.8.4
statutory damages, 11.8.3
voiding obligation, 11.8.5.3
sample discovery, Appx. H
sample pleadings, Appx. G
standing, see STANDING
statute of limitations
affirmative actions, 11.9.2.1
recoupment or setoff, 11.9.2.2
successful actions, 11.8.6.2
LOAN BROKERS
see CREDIT ARRANGERS
LOAN MAKERS
see CREDITORS
LOAN MODIFICATION
adverse action, 10.5.2
sample complaint alleging notice violation, Appx. G.7
sample discovery, Appx. H.8
LOAN PURCHASERS
see also ASSIGNEES
civil liability, 11.2.2.1
discrimination, violations, 1.1.4
FHA application, 2.3.2.3.3
FHA special defense, 11.9.5
LOAN SERVICING
discrimination, 9.2.1
sample complaint, Appx. G.7
LOANS
see CREDIT
LOCAL AUTHORITIES
see MUNICIPALITIES; STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES
LOW-INCOME PERSONS
see also OLDER PERSONS; PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
credit discrimination, remedies, 1.1.4
MANDATORY ARBITRATION
see ARBITRATION CLAUSES
MANUFACTURED HOMES
FHA scope, 2.3.2.2
HMDA data requirements, 4.4.5.2.2
mortgages, 11.5.3.2.1
arbitration clauses, 11.5.3.2.1
Truth in Lending Act (TILA), 11.5.3.2.1
MARITAL STATUS
see also FAMILIAL STATUS; SEXUAL ORIENTATION; SPOUSES
change, creditor action, rules limiting, 9.5
credit discrimination
allowable, 6.6.4
co-signing requirements, 5.6
exemptions, 3.4.1
family expense laws, 9.3
joint applications, 6.2.2.4
prohibited base, 3.4.1, 6.6.4
state law consideration, 6.6.4
familial status, relationship, 3.4.1
information requests, restrictions, 5.5.2.3
categories, 5.5.2.3.2, 6.6.4
names, use, rights, 5.7
sex discrimination, relationship, 3.3.4.1, 3.3.4.3, 3.4.1
MARKETING DISCRIMINATION
ECOA standard, 5.3.2.1
example, 5.3.2.5
FFIEC and FDIC guidance, 5.3.2.3
FHA standard, 5.3.2.2
market segmentation, 5.3.2.6
predatory lending and, 5.3.2.4
pre-screened marketing, 5.3.2.6
MARK-UP POLICIES
business necessity, 8.6.6
causation, 8.6.4
credit scores and, 6.4.5.5
discriminatory practices described, 8.6.1
disparate impact versus treatment, 8.6.3
identification of specific policy, 8.6.4
less discriminatory alternatives, 8.6.6
proof of discrimination, 8.6.2
statistical proof, 8.6.5
recent litigation, 8.6.2
MCCARRAN-FERGUSON ACT
federal preemption of state insurance laws
Civil Rights Acts, 7.3.4.3
FHA, 7.3.4.2.2
MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS TEST
credit discrimination, application
disparate treatment, 4.2.3.2
generally, 4.2.3.2
reverse redlining, 4.2.3.3
MEDICAL SERVICES
discrimination
immediate payment requirements, 6.2.2.5
public assistance recipients, 2.2.2.6, 3.4.3
remedies, 3.4.3
ECOA, application, 2.2.2.6
MERCHANTS
credit card acceptance, creditor status, 2.2.5.5
credit discrimination, remedies, 1.1.4
MILITARY PERSONNEL
arbitration clauses, 11.5.3.2.2
Military Lending Act (MLA), 11.5.3.2.2
MINORITIES
see also PROTECTED GROUPS; RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
credit applications, encouraging from, 5.3.2.1, 5.3.2.4
credit discrimination
credit scoring systems, 6.4
history, 1.3.2.2
marketing discrimination, 5.3.2
prohibited bases, 3.3, 3.6
remedies, 1.1.4
steering, 5.3.3.1
credit scoring systems
general bias, 6.4.1
overrides, 6.4.5.3
score thresholds, 6.4.5.2
specific factors disfavoring, 6.4.2
predatory lending targets, 5.3.2.4, 8.4
prohibited requests for information, 5.5.2.1
MOBILE HOMES
see also MANUFACTURED HOMES
FHA, application, 2.3.2.2.2, 2.3.3.1.1
MONITORING DATA
see also STATISTICS
ECOA requirements, 4.4.7, 5.5.3.1, 5.5.3.2, 5.5.1.4
home mortgage applications, 10.13
HMDA, see HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE ACT (HMDA)
inadvertent error, 11.9.4.2
information requests, 5.5.1.4, 5.5.3.1–5.5.3.3
record retention, 4.4.2, 10.12.1
self-testing, 4.4.9, 5.5.1.4, 5.5.3.5, 10.14
source of evidence
census data, 4.4.6.1
ECOA data, 4.4.7
GSE data, 4.4.6.2
HMDA data, 4.4.5
non-mortgage data, 4.4.8, 4.4.9
other sources, 4.4.6
MORTGAGE BROKERS
see CREDIT ARRANGERS
MORTGAGE SERVICERS
see LOAN SERVICING
MORTGAGES
see HOME MORTGAGES
MUNICIPALITIES
see also STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES
FHA standing, 2.3.5, 11.3.2.1
NAMES
change, creditor action, rules limiting, 9.5
designation on account, 5.7
joint accounts, 5.7
optional courtesy titles, 5.5.2.2.2
NATIONAL BANKS
see also BANKS
preemption of state discrimination laws, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR LEGAL SERVICES
see SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policies, 12.2.6
ECOA violations, referrals to DOJ, 12.2.5
FHA violations, notice to HUD, 12.2.5
NATIONAL ORIGIN
credit discrimination
citizenship status, 3.6.2
country of birth or ancestry, 3.3.3.2, 3.6.1
English fluency, 3.3.3.3
immigration status, 3.3.3.4
prohibited base, generally, 3.3.3.1
digital divide, 3.7.2
information requests, prohibition, 5.5.2.1
NATIVE AMERICANS
differential treatment, remedies, 1.1.4
discrimination protection, 3.3.1, 3.3.3.2
NECESSITIES STATUTES
see FAMILY EXPENSE LAWS
NONPROFIT HOUSING ORGANIZATIONS
FHA suits by, 1.1.4, 2.3.5
standing, 11.3.2.3
standing, generally, 11.3.2.1
NOTES
see PROMISSORY NOTES
NOTICE OF ACTION TAKEN
actual receipt, necessity, 10.6.3.3
additional to ECOA requirements, 10.2
adverse action, see ADVERSE ACTION
applicants, right to, 10.6.3.1
multiple applicants, 10.6.3.2
application required, 10.7.1
completed applications, 10.7.2
incomplete applications, 10.7.3
withdrawn applications, 10.7.4
appraisal, right to copy, 10.11
approved applications, 10.3
business credit, 10.9.2
generally, 10.9.2.1
other businesses, 10.9.2.3
small businesses, 10.9.2.2
combined notices, 10.4.3
counteroffers, 10.4
adverse action status, 10.4.2
general rule, 10.4.1
home mortgages or refinancings, 10.4.4
non-adverse action situations, 10.4.3
timing issues, 10.4.3, 10.6.1
written notice, 10.4.3
credit arrangers, 10.8.1
creditors, requirement, 10.8
ECOA actions re
agreed pre-trial order and jury instructions, Appx. G.8
proposed jury instructions, Appx. G.9, Appx. G.10
sample complaints, Appx. G.5, Appx. G.6, Appx. G.7
sample interrogatories, Appx. H.1
sample production request, Appx. H.1
ECOA requirements
general requirements, 10.6
legislative purpose, 10.1
overview, 10.2
scope, 10.8
electronic notification, 10.6.2.2
exceptions, 10.9
FCRA requirements, 10.10
form, 10.6.2
FRB model forms, 10.10
inadvertent error, 10.9.3, 11.9.4.2
incidental consumer credit exemption, 10.9.1
incomplete applications, 10.7.3
multiple applicants, 10.6.3.2
multiple creditors, 10.8.2
new accounts, 10.7
oral notice, 10.4.3, 10.6.2.1
overview, 10.2
records, preservation, 10.12.1
risk-based pricing, 10.4.2
source of evidence, 4.4.1
timing of notices, 10.6.1
NURSING HOMES
FHA application, 2.3.2.2.1
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policies, 12.2.6
ECOA violations, referrals to DOJ, 12.2.5
FHA violations, notice to HUD, 12.2.5
state law preemption, 12.4.2.2
visitorial powers, 12.4.2.3
OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION
abolition, 11.6.1.3
OFFICIAL STAFF COMMENTARY
disparate impact, 4.3.2.2
good faith compliance, 11.9.4.1
precedent and authority, 1.3.3.1
Regulation B
interpretations, 1.3.3.1
text, Appx. C
2003 revisions, 1.3.2.7
Regulation C, text, Appx. E.3
OLDER PERSONS
see also LOW-INCOME PERSONS; RETIREMENT INCOME
credit discrimination, see AGE DISCRIMINATION
credit evaluation, 6.5.2.5, 6.6.2
defined, 3.4.2
digital divide, 3.7.2
favorable treatment, 6.6.2.2
housing developments restricting children, 3.5.1
housing for, FHA application, 2.3.2.2.1
income associated with, 3.4.2, 6.5.2.5
predatory lending targets, 8.4
ON-LINE COMMUNICATIONS
see INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
ORAL APPLICATIONS
generally, 5.4.2.1
home mortgage exception, 5.4.2.2
notification requirements, 10.7.1
ORAL NOTIFICATION
adverse action, 10.6.2.1, 10.10
counteroffers, 10.4.1, 10.4.3
OVERAGES
see MARK-UP POLICIES
PARTIES
defendant, 11.2
plaintiff, 11.3
prevailing party, 11.8.6.2
PATRIOT ACT
see USA PATRIOT ACT
PAY-AS-YOU-GO TRANSACTIONS
see also CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
ECOA, application, 2.2.2.5
PENSION INCOME
see RETIREMENT INCOME
PERSONAL PROPERTY
see GOODS AND SERVICES
PERSONAL PROPERTY LEASES
ECOA scope, 2.2.2.2.3
PLEADINGS
see also LITIGATION
“artful pleading doctrine,” 11.5.1.2.2
credit discrimination complaints, 4.1.2
creditor resources, considerations, 11.8.4.3.3.4
election of remedies, 11.6.2
fraudulent concealment, 11.9.2.1.1.4
sample pleadings, Appx. G
discriminatory mortgage lending, Appx. G.2
ECOA class action co-signer violation, Appx. G.4
ECOA co-signer violation, Appx. G.3
ECOA notice violations, Appx. G.5, Appx. G.6, Appx. G.7
home mortgage discrimination, Appx. G.1
jury instructions in ECOA notice case, Appx. G.8, Appx. G.9, Appx. G.10
POINT-OF-SALE ACTIVITY
adverse action, 10.5.2
pre-application discrimination, 5.3.1
POLITICAL AFFILIATION
credit discrimination, prohibited base, 3.3.2
POST-SALE SERVICE
discrimination, 9.2.2
PRACTICE TIPS
see also LITIGATION; RESEARCH AIDS
consumer’s guide to credit discrimination laws, Appx. I
dealers, establishing creditor status, 2.2.5.3
ECOA precedent and authority, 1.3.3
NCLC treatise, using, 1.2
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
selecting causes of action, 11.6
PREAPPROVAL PROGRAMS
see PREQUALIFICATION PROGRAMS
PRECEDENT
see CASE LAW; RESEARCH AIDS
PREDATORY LENDING PRACTICES
discrimination law challenges, 8
advantages, 8.2
class actions, 8.4
mark-up policies, 8.6
property pricing, 8.7
reverse redlining, 8.5
scope, 8.1, 8.3
FHA application, 2.3.3.1.2, 2.3.3.1.3
HMDA data, 4.4.5
analysis, 4.4.5.5
policy responses, 4.4.5.6
requirements, 4.4.5.2.2
marketing discrimination as a force in, 5.3.2.4
reverse redlining, see REVERSE REDLINING
risk-based pricing, 6.4.5.5, 8.5.3
steering, 5.3.3.1
PREEMPTION
see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
PREQUALIFICATION PROGRAMS
notice of adverse action, 10.7.1
PRESCREENED SOLICITATIONS
record retention, 4.4.2, 10.12.1
PRICE DISCRIMINATION
class actions, 8.4
discretionary pricing, 8.6.1, 8.6.2
mark-ups, 6.4.5.5, 8.6
property and services, 8.7
remedies, 8.1
reverse redlining, see REVERSE REDLINING
risk-based tiered-pricing, 6.4.5.5
PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
see DISCOVERY
PROMISSORY NOTES
obligations, voiding, 11.8.5.3
PROOF OF DISCRIMINATION
see also EVIDENCE
disparate impact, 4.3
burdens of proof, 4.3.2
ECOA standards, 4.3.2.2
FHA standards, 4.3.2.3
generally, 4.3.1.1–4.3.1.3
mark-ups, 8.6.3, 8.6.5
prima facie case, 4.3.2.4
disparate treatment, 4.2
burden of proof, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.3.2
circumstantial evidence, 4.2.3
direct evidence, 4.2.2
generally, 4.2.1
McDonnell-Douglas test, 4.2.3.2
overview, 4.1.1
pleading requirements, 4.1.2
reverse redlining, 4.2.3.3, 8.5.2, 8.5.3
sources of evidence, 4.4
consumer’s records, 4.4.1
credit reporting agencies, 4.4.3
creditor’s files, 4.4.2
ECOA monitoring data, 4.4.7
GSE data, 4.4.6.2
HMDA data, 4.4.5
non-mortgage data, 4.4.8, 4.4.9
other mortgage data, 4.4.6
testers, 4.4.4
PROPERTY AND CASUALTY INSURANCE
see also INSURANCE REDLINING
credit scores, use, 6.4.6.2.1
FHA, application, 7.3.4.2.1
PROPERTY SALES
personal property, see GOODS AND SERVICES
real property, see REAL PROPERTY TRANSACTIONS
PROSPECTIVE RELIEF
see INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
PROTECTED GROUPS
see also MINORITIES
credit applications
encouraging from, 5.3.2.1, 5.3.2.4
requesting greater information from, 5.4.4
credit score disadvantage
data indicating, 6.4.1.1
disparate impact, 6.4.3
factors, 6.4.2
legacy of, 6.4.2.2
marketing discrimination, 5.3.2
monitoring data, see MONITORING DATA
reverse redlining, see REVERSE REDLINING
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
see also LOW-INCOME PERSONS
credit discrimination
allowable, 6.6.3
associational protection, 3.9.2
prohibited base, 3.4.3, 6.5.2.7
remedies, 1.1.4
credit evaluation, 6.5.2.7
digital divide, 3.7.2
information requests, restrictions, 5.5.2.5
Medicare and Medicaid recipients, status as, 2.2.2.6
PUBLIC UTILITIES
see also UTILITIES
ECOA partial exemption
applicable exemptions, 2.2.6.2
generally, 2.2.6.1
record retention, 10.12.4
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
actual damages, relationship, 11.8.2.1, 11.8.4.3.1, 11.8.4.3.3.2
administrative hearings, 11.8.4.2
arbitration clauses limiting, 11.5.3.5.2
civil rights cases, 11.8.4.2
class actions, 11.4
ECOA violations, 11.8.4.3
factors in determining size, 11.8.4.3.3
generally, 11.8.4.3.1
size limits, 11.8.4.3.2
FHA cases, 11.8.4.2
generally, 11.8.4.1
good faith defense, 11.8.4.2
jury awards, evaluation criteria, 11.8.3
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
see also MINORITIES; NATIONAL ORIGIN
definition of race, 3.6.1
encouraging applications from protected groups, 5.3.2.1, 5.3.2.4
home mortgage, sample complaint, Appx. G.1
information requests, prohibited, 5.5.2.1
marketing discrimination, 5.3.2
prohibited bases, 3.3.1, 3.6.1
REAL ESTATE APPRAISALS
see APPRAISAL REPORTS
REAL ESTATE BROKERS
ECOA, application, 2.2.5.3
FHA, application, 2.3.2.3.4
vicarious liability, 11.2.2.2
REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
see also RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE-RELATED TRANSACTIONS
Civil Rights Acts, scope, 2.4
discrimination
FHA overview, 1.4.1
FHA scope, 2.3.3
price discrimination, 8.7
leases, ECOA scope, 2.2.2.2.4
RECORD RETENTION
see also CREDITORS, records; CREDIT HISTORY
adverse action, 10.12.1
business credit, 10.12.4
computer records, 4.4.2, 10.12.1
ECOA requirements, 4.4.2, 4.4.7, 10.12
exempt transactions, 10.12.4
HMDA data, 4.4.5
home mortgages, 5.4.2.2
inadvertent error, 10.12.5, 11.9.4.2
loan registers, access, 4.4.5
monitoring data, 4.4.7, 10.12.1
non-mortgage data, 4.4.8, 4.4.9
oral applications, 5.4.2.1
prescreened solicitations, 4.4.2, 10.12.1
preservation, 4.4.2, 10.12.1, 10.12.2
prohibited information, 10.12.3
self-testing data, 4.4.9, 10.12.1
source of evidence, 4.4.2
withdrawn applications, 10.7.4
RECOUPMENT CLAIMS
co-signers and sureties, 5.6.1
statute of limitations, after expiry, 11.9.2.2
REDLINING
challenging, 7.2
federal credit and civil rights statutes, 7.2.1
government enforcement actions, 7.2.2
other federal and state statutes, 7.2.3
described, 7.1
digital divide, 3.7.2
FHA application, 2.3.2.3.3, 2.3.3.1.1
history of, 7.1
insurance, see INSURANCE REDLINING
reverse redlining, see REVERSE REDLINING
sample interrogatories, Appx. H.3
statutory remedies, 1.1.4
weblining, 7.3.1
REFINANCINGS
HMDA data requirements, 4.4.5.2.2
joint to individual accounts, 5.6.6
written application requirements, 5.4.2.2, 10.4.4
REGULATION B (ECOA)
see also EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
CFPB authority, 1.3.2.8, 1.3.3.1, 1.3.3.3, 12.2.2
compliance statistics, 12.2.5
credit reporting requirements, 9.4.1
disparate impact, 4.3.2.2, 4.3.2.5
electronic notification rule, 10.6.2.2
enforcement, 1.3.3.3, 12.2.2
FRB authority, 1.3.2.8, 1.3.3.1
good faith compliance, 11.9.4.1
history, 1.3.2.3, 1.3.2.4
model notice forms, 10.10
official staff commentary
interpretations, 1.3.3.1
issuance, 1.3.2.8
text and redlined versions, Appx. C
2003 revisions, 1.3.2.7
partial exemptions
business credit, 2.2.6.4
generally, 2.2.6.1
government, credit to, 2.2.6.6
immigration status, 3.3.3.4.2
incidental consumer credit, 2.2.6.3
marital status, 3.4.1
public utilities, 2.2.6.2
securities credit, 2.2.6.5
precedent and authority, 1.3.2.8, 1.3.3.1, 1.3.3.3
text and redlined versions, Appx. B
2003 revisions, 1.3.2.7, 2.2.4.3
violations as ECOA violations, 1.3.3.1
REGULATION C (HMDA)
see also HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE ACT (HMDA)
official staff commentary, Appx. E.3
text, Appx. E.2
various versions, 4.4.5.1
REGULATIONS
ECOA, see REGULATION B (ECOA)
FHA, see under FAIR HOUSING ACT
HMDA, see REGULATION C (HMDA)
REGULATORY AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.2–12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policies, 12.2.6
RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION
information requests, prohibited, 5.5.2.1
prohibited base, 3.3.2
REMEDIES
arbitration clauses limiting, 11.5.3.7, 11.5.3.5.3
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
available, 11.6.1.2
damages, see DAMAGES
discrimination laws, advantages, 8.2
election of remedies, 11.6.2
equitable relief, see EQUITABLE RELIEF
FHA administrative complaint procedure, 11.5.2.2
government enforcement, see GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
overview of private remedies, 11.8.1
predatory lending, 8.1
private actions, see LITIGATION
recoupment claims, 11.9.2.2
selecting
causes of action, 11.6
private remedies, 11.8
setoff, 11.9.2.2
statutory remedies
damages, 11.8
effective uses, 1.1.4
generally, 1.1.2
utilization, 1.1.3, 8.1
unfair pricing, 8.1
RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
ECOA scope, 2.2.2.2.5
RESEARCH AIDS
see also CASE LAW; PRACTICE TIPS
bibliography, Appx. J
ECOA precedent and authority, 1.3.3.3
HMDA data, 4.4.5.3
unreported cases, 1.2.6
weblinks, Appx. K
RESIDENTIAL LEASES
see also LEASES
Civil Rights Acts, scope, 2.4
discrimination, FHA overview, 1.4.1
ECOA scope, 2.2.2.2.4
FHA scope, 2.3.3.1.1, 2.3.3.2
RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE-RELATED TRANSACTIONS
see also HOME EQUITY LOANS; HOME IMPROVEMENT CREDIT; HOME MORTGAGES; REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
appraisal report, right to copy, 10.11
defined, 2.3.2.1
FHA overview, 1.4.1
FHA scope, 2.3.2
arrangers and financial assisters, 2.3.2.3.1
brokers and appraisers, 2.3.2.3.4
creditors, 2.3.2.3
dwelling purchase or improvement, 2.3.2.2.1
generally, 2.3.2.1
home equity loans, 2.3.2.2.2
home improvement loans, 2.3.2.2.1
home purchase loans, 2.3.2.2.1
makers of loans, 2.3.2.3.2
purchasers of loans, 2.3.2.3.3
RESOLUTION TRUST CORPORATION (RTC)
special defenses, 11.9.4.4
RESTITUTION
equitable relief, 11.8.5.2
RETIREMENT COMMUNITIES
see also AGE DISCRIMINATION; OLDER PERSONS
FHA, application, 2.3.2.2.1
RETIREMENT INCOME
see also AGE DISCRIMINATION; OLDER PERSONS
credit evaluation, 6.5.2.5
REVERSE REDLINING
see also REDLINING
class actions, 8.4
defined, 8.5.1
elements of claim, 8.5.1, 8.5.4
HMDA data, use to challenge, 4.4.5.6
proof, 4.2.3.3, 8.5.2, 8.5.3
qualification for loan, necessity to show, 8.5.4
remedies, 1.1.4
targeting of protected class, 8.5.2
unfair credit terms, 8.5.3
RISK-BASED PRICING
mark-up policies, 8.6.1
notice requirements, 10.4.2
predatory lender defense, 8.5.3
ROOKER-FELDMAN DOCTRINE
federal review of state court proceedings, 11.5.1.2.4
SALES
goods and services, see GOODS AND SERVICES
point of sale activity, see POINT OF SALE ACTIVITY
post-sale service, see POST-SALE SERVICE
real estate, see REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
see also CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
document ordering information, 1.2.6
SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS
see also BANKS; FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) applicability, 1.9
federal institutions, state law preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
prohibited discrimination, 3.7.1
SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policy, 12.2.6
SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policy, 12.2.6
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policy, 12.2.6
SECURITIES CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
ECOA partial exemptions
co-signer rule, 5.6.1
credit reporting, 9.4.1.2
generally, 2.2.6.1, 2.2.6.5
name exemption, 5.7
record retention, 10.12.4
SECURITY DEPOSITS
discriminatory practices, 5.8.1
injury caused by discrimination, 5.8.2
SECURITY INTERESTS
see also COLLATERAL
discriminatory practices, 5.8
joint property, signature restrictions, 5.6.5
voiding co-signer’s or guarantor’s obligation, 11.8.5.3
SELF-TESTING
monitoring data for, 4.4.9, 5.5.3.5
privileged information, 10.14
record retention, 10.12.1
statutory history, 1.3.2.6, 1.4.2
SELLERS
see also MERCHANTS
dwellings, FHA application, 2.3.3
SENIORS
see OLDER PERSONS
SERVICERS
see LOAN SERVICING
SETTLEMENT
consent decree distinguished, 11.8.6.2
preserving entitlement to fees, 11.8.6.2
SEX DISCRIMINATION
see also SEXUAL ORIENTATION
courtesy titles, use, 5.5.2.2.2
familial status, relationship, 3.3.4.3, 3.4.1
history, 1.3.2.1, 1.3.2.4
income sources, 6.5.2.6
information requests, restrictions, 5.5.2.2.1
marital status, relationship, 3.3.4.1, 3.3.4.3, 3.4.1
names, use, 5.7
prohibited base, 3.3.4
remedies, 1.1.4
state law, 3.3.4.3
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
see also SEX DISCRIMINATION
credit discrimination, 3.3.4.3
remedies, 1.1.4
marital status discrimination, relationship, 3.3.4.3, 3.4.1
SIGNATORIES
see CO-SIGNERS
SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
ECOA enforcement authority, 12.2.5
ECOA enforcement policy, 12.2.6
SPECIAL PURPOSE CREDIT PROGRAMS
ECOA compliance, 3.8.3
ECOA exception
co-signer rule, 5.6.1
generally, 3.8.1
information requests, 5.5.3.4
qualifications, 3.8.2
SPOT DELIVERY
assignees and dealers, ECOA liability, 2.2.5.3
ECOA notice violations, 10.4.2, 10.8.1
SPOUSES
see also COMMUNITY PROPERTY; CO-SIGNERS; JOINT PROPERTY; MARITAL STATUS
co-signatory requirements, restrictions, 5.6
obligation, voiding, 11.8.5.3
credit history, 6.5.3
avoiding spouse’s bad history, 6.5.3.3
minimal, supplementing, 6.5.3.2
credit reporting, 9.4.1, 9.4.2.1
family expense laws, 9.3
guarantors, of, signature restrictions, 5.6.8
individual credit rights, 5.6.2–5.6.5
information requests, restrictions, 5.5.2.3, 5.5.2.4
name, use, 5.7
STANDING
associational standing, 11.3.3
class actions, 11.4
ECOA, 11.3.1
state or local authorities, 12.4.1.5
FHA, 2.3.5, 11.3.1
non-profit organizations, 11.3.2.3
state or local authorities, 12.4.1.5
testers, 11.3.2.2
generally, 11.3.1
non-profit organizations, 11.3.2
prospective relief, 11.8.5.1
state and local authorities, 12.4.1.5
testers, 11.3.2
STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES
see also GOVERNMENT; MUNICIPALITIES
enforcement authority, 12.4
see also GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
federal statutes, 12.4.1
national bank preemption, 12.4.2
parens patriae, 12.4.1.4
UDAP, 12.4.1.3
visitorial powers, 12.4.2.3
enforcement examples, 12.4.3
referrals from HUD, 12.4.2.3.7
relief against, 11.8.5.1
standing, 12.4.1.5
STATE LAW
actions, limitations, 11.9.2.1.3
credit discrimination laws
enforcement, 12.4
federal preemption, 3.7.1, 6.6.2.3, 11.6.1.3, 12.4.2
insurance, 7.3.4.4
overview, 1.7
redlining, 7.2.3
scope, 2.5, 2.6
statute of limitations, 11.9.2.1.3
summary, Appx. F
utilizing, 3.7.1
violation as UDAP violation, 1.8
damages, see DAMAGES
ECOA preemption of, 11.6.1.3
age laws, 6.6.2.3
family expense laws, 9.3
enforcement agencies, see STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES
federal preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
language of loan documents, 3.3.3.3
NCLC treatise, using, 1.2.5
overview, 1.7
prohibited bases for discrimination
age, 3.4.2
familial status, 3.5.1
geographic location, 7.2.3
greater protections, 3.7.1
handicap status, 3.5.2.1
marital status, 3.4.1
national origin, 3.3.3
other bases, 3.7.1
public assistance status, 3.4.3
race and color, 3.3.1
religion, creed, political affiliation, 3.3.2
sex, 3.3.4.1
sexual orientation, 3.3.4.3
property laws affecting creditworthiness, 6.6.4, 9.3
redlining, challenging, 7.2.3
insurance redlining, 7.3.4.4
remedies
advantages of discrimination laws, 8.2
election of remedies, 11.6.2
sample complaint, Appx. G.5
statutory damages, 11.8.3
UDAP, see UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
UNIP, see UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP)
STATISTICS
see also MONITORING DATA
ECOA compliance, 12.2.5
use as evidence
census data, 4.4.6.1
disparate impact, 4.3.2.4.3, 8.6.5
GSE data, 4.4.6.2
HMDA data, 4.4.5
non-mortgage data, 4.4.8
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
affirmative actions
advantages of various claims, 11.6.1.2
civil rights claims, 1.5, 11.9.2.1.2
ECOA claims, 11.9.2.1.1
FHA claims, 11.9.2.1.1
state law claims, 11.9.2.1.3
Americans with Disabilities Act, 1.6
Civil Rights Acts, 1.5, 11.9.2.1.2
continuing violation doctrine, 11.9.2.1.1.3
defensive counterclaims, 11.9.2.2
discovery rule, 11.9.2.1.1.2
ECOA, 2.7, 11.9.2.1.1
FHA, 2.7, 11.9.2.1.1
recoupment or setoff claims, 11.9.2.2
state law claims, 11.9.2.1.3
tolling
equitable tolling, 11.9.2.1.1.4
fraudulent concealment, 11.9.2.1.1.4
pending government actions, 11.9.2.1.1.1
STEERING
pre-application discrimination, 5.3.3.1
SUBPRIME LENDING
see PREDATORY LENDING PRACTICES
SUPPORT INCOME
credit evaluation, 6.5.2.6
disclosure, optional, 5.5.2.3.1
SURETIES
see GUARANTORS
TELEPHONE COMPANIES
see UTILITIES
TELEPHONE INQUIRIES
application status, 10.7.1
TELEPHONE LISTING
prohibited discrimination, 6.5.4
TESTERS
insurance redlining, 7.3.3
pre-application discrimination, 5.3.3.2
source of evidence, 4.4.4
standing, 11.3.2
FHA, 2.3.5, 11.3.2.2
TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
arbitration clauses, 11.5.3.2.1
credit transactions, application, 2.2.2.1.1
discrimination law advantages over, 8.2
exercise of rights, see CONSUMER PROTECTION RIGHTS
UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
credit discrimination as, 3.7.1, 12.4.1.3
overview, 1.8
defined, 3.7.1
discrimination law advantages over, 8.2
federal standard, 1.2.5, 1.8, 2.6
incidental consumer credit, denial, failure to notify, 10.9.1
insurance redlining, 7.3.4.4
NCLC treatise, using, 1.2.5
scope, 2.6
statute of limitations, 11.9.2.1.3
UNFAIR, DECEPTIVE, OR ABUSIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (UDAAP)
state enforcement, 12.4.1.3
UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP)
insurance redlining, challenging, 7.3.4.4
UNFAIR LOANS
see PREDATORY LENDING PRACTICES; PRICE DISCRIMINATION
UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES ACTS (UTPA)
see UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP); UNFAIR INSURANCE PRACTICES (UNIP)
UNITED STATES ATTORNEY GENERAL
see also DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ)
ECOA enforcement, 12.2.1
referrals to, 12.2.1, 12.2.5
FHA enforcement, 12.3.2
USA PATRIOT ACT
information requests under, 5.5.3.3
UTILITIES
discrimination remedies, 1.1.4
ECOA scope, 2.2.2.3, 2.2.6.2
public utilities, see PUBLIC UTILITIES
VALUATIONS
see APPRAISAL REPORTS
WARRANTIES
discrimination, 9.2.2
WEBLINING
see also INTERNET TRANSACTIONS
challenging, 3.7.2
credit scoring systems, 6.4.5.6
described, 3.7.2, 7.3.1
digital divide, 3.7.2
insurance redlining, 7.3.1
WEB RESOURCES
credit discrimination weblinks, Appx. K
WOMEN
see MARITAL STATUS; SEX DISCRIMINATION; SPOUSES; SUPPORT INCOME
WOMEN’S BUSINESS OWNERSHIP ACT (1988)
history, 1.3.2.4
YIELD-SPREAD PREMIUMS
see also MARK-UP POLICIES
described, 8.6.1
YO-YO SALES
see SPOT DELIVERY
ZIP CODE REDLINING
see REDLINING