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ABUSE OF PROCESS
see also LITIGATION MISCONDUCT
bad check prosecutions, 8.4
elements of claim for, 17.4.5.3
FDCPA counterclaims regarding, 5.7.2
FDCPA venue abuse provision, 13.3.8.5
systematic abuse, 2.1.2
tort claim, 17.4.5.1
ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
see also UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
affirmative actions, see FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA); HARASSMENT ACTIONS
bad check collectors, 8.4
counterclaims, 5.7
criminal justice debt, 11.2.3
federal debt collectors, 10.2.14
IRS, 10.2.14.110
medical debts
FDCPA application, 9.2
state remedies, 9.4.1
requests for admissions, 4.2.2.5
state or local officials, 10.2.14.10
stopping, 2.3.1
ACCOUNT STATED CLAIMS
attachments, 3.5.4, 4.8.4
attorney fees, 6.3.2
generally, 4.8.1
medical debts, 9.5.2
proof issues
adequate statement of account, 4.8.4
implied consent, 4.8.6
receipt of account statement, 4.8.5
underlying obligation, 4.8.3
state law, 4.8.2
attorney fees, 6.3.2
ACTIONS
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
abusive, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
affirmative consumer actions, 2.1.7
attorney fees, to recover, 17.1.6
litigation misconduct, 12.6, 17.4
postjudgment, 12.6, 17.4
timing considerations, 12.6, 17.4.2.4
appeals, see APPEALS
arbitration alternative, see ARBITRATION
attorney fees
right to, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
to recover, 17.1.6
civil rights, see CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
counterclaims, see COUNTERCLAIMS
debt collection, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
debt collection harassment, see HARASSMENT ACTIONS
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
FDCPA, see FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
federal agencies, against, 10.2.14
FTCA, 10.2.14.5
garnishment
excessive orders, remedies, 14.2.7
wrongful discharge for, 14.2.1.6
Internal Revenue Code violations, 10.2.14.11
plaintiffs, unqualified, 3.3
public record reporting, 17.2.1.2
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act violations, 7.3, 7.8
state law, see STATE REMEDIES
tort, see TORT CLAIMS
UDAP, see UDAP REMEDIES
ACTIONS ON THE DEBT
see COLLECTION ACTIONS
ACTUAL DAMAGES
see DAMAGES
ADDRESSES
see LOCATION INFORMATION
ADHESION CONTRACTS
see also CREDIT AGREEMENTS
collection expenses, recovery, 6.1
ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES
see also FEDERAL AGENCIES; STATE AGENCIES
federal debt collection, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET
see also FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
calculations, 10.2.9.3
CCPA, application, 14.2.1.3
defenses, 10.2.9.5
exempt property, 13.4.2
federal benefits and other payments, 10.2.9, 14.3.3.1
Black Lung benefits, 10.2.9.2, 10.2.9.3
Railroad Retirement benefits, 10.2.9.2, 10.2.9.3
Social Security benefits, 10.2.9.2, 10.2.9.3
federal employee’s salary, 10.2.7, Appx. B.2
fees, 10.2.9.1
food stamp overpayments, 10.2.13.6
hearings, 10.2.7, 10.2.9.4
HHS debts, 10.2.13.3
HUD debts, 10.2.13.4
illegal offsets, challenging, 10.2.14
installment plans, 10.2.11
notice, 10.2.2, 10.2.7, 10.2.9.4, 10.2.13.5
procedures, 10.2.9.4
regulations, 10.2.1.2
state debts, 10.1.2, 10.2.9.1
statute of limitations, 10.2.9.1
student loan debt, 10.2.9.2, 10.2.13.2
tax refund interception, 10.2.8
VA debts, 10.2.9.2, 10.2.13.5
ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ACT
judicial review of federal agencies, 10.2.14.4
ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS
see LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
ADMISSIONS
see REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS
AFFIDAVITS
business record certification, 4.2.4.2
assignment document, 4.3.4.2.5
attachment of records, 4.2.4.1.4
challenging affidavit, 4.2.4.2, 4.2.4.5
debt buyers, by, 4.2.4.3, 4.3.4.2.5
false affidavits, 12.3.10.4
use as evidence, 4.2.3
admissibility, 4.2.3.1
affiant’s personal knowledge, 4.2.3.3
attorney affirmations, 4.2.3.3.3
conclusory affidavits, 4.2.3.4
counter-affidavits, 4.2.3.7
false information, 4.2.3.5
inconsistent or sloppy information, 4.2.3.5
missing attachments, 4.2.3.4
notarization and signature, 4.2.3.6
robo-signed affidavits, 4.2.3.3.2
trial, use at, 4.2.3.2
AFFORDABLE CARE ACT
see also PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT
AGREEMENTS
adhesive, see ADHESION CONTRACTS
arbitration, see ARBITRATION
credit, see CREDIT AGREEMENTS
workouts, see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
AID TO FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN (AFDC)
see PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BENEFITS
ALIMONY
see also DIVORCE
exempt benefits income, treatment regarding, 14.3.8
garnishment for
exempt funds, 13.4.2.4
maximum amount, 14.2.1.5.4
garnishment of
exempt status, 14.3.7
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
homesteads, enforcement against, 15.2.6
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE MECHANISMS (ADR)
see ARBITRATION
AMERICAN RULE
attorney fees, 6.2.1, 17.1.1
state law overrule, 6.3.3
ANNUITIES
exemptions from seizure, 14.4.2
structured settlements, 14.4.3
APPEALS
attorney fee recovery, 6.2.4.3
collection suits, 12.1
ARBITRATION
affirmative challenges to collection practices
compelling arbitration of, 17.4.2.5
FDCPA, 17.4.2.5
collection actions via, 3.2.3
counterclaims, 5.7.1, 5.7.3
debtor initiated, 3.2.4, 9.4.6
resisting or setting aside confirmation, 12.4
ASSIGNEES
see DEBT BUYERS; SALE OF DEBTS
ASSIGNMENTS
debts, see DEBT BUYERS; SALE OF DEBTS
judgments, 13.6.1
wages, see WAGE ASSIGNMENTS
ATTACHMENT
see also GARNISHMENT; SEIZURE AND SALE
exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
joint property, 14.5.6
marital property, 15.2.9
ATTACHMENTS
affidavits
business records, 4.2.4.1.4
inconsistencies, 4.2.3.5
missing attachments, 4.2.3.4
pleadings
account stated claims, 3.5.4
actual attachment, 3.5.2
required, 3.5.1
state variations, 3.4.2.2, 3.5.1
sufficiency, 3.5.3
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
see also ATTORNEYS
accurate records, keeping, 2.9
actions to recover, 17.1.6
American Rule, 6.2.1, 17.1.1
state law overrule, 6.3.3
appeals, 6.2.4
consumer recovery, 2.1.8, 2.9.3, 17.1
counterclaims, 5.7.2, 17.1.5
contractual, 6.2, 6.6, 17.1.2
“costs,” 6.2.4.4
interpreting scope, 6.2.4.2
postjudgment work, 6.2.4.3
reasonableness, requirement, 6.5.2
strict construction, 6.2.4.1, 6.2.4.2
creditor recovery, 6
amount, 6.5
contractual fees, 6.2
prevailing creditor, 6.4
state law rights, 6.3
FCRA remedies, 8.6.6
groundless litigation, 17.1.8
percentage of debt recovery, 6.5.3
prevailing party
consumer, 2.1.8, 2.9.3, 17.1
creditor, 6.4
determination of prevailing, 6.4
state statutes, 6.3, 17.1.4, 17.1.8
reciprocal fee statutes, 6.2.3, 17.1.3
SCRA actions, 7.8
statutory caps, 6.5.1
statutory rights, 6.1, 6.2.2, 6.3, 17.1.3, 17.1.4
“account stated” suits, 6.3.2
contract claims, 6.3.3
fee-shifting statutes, 6.3.1, 6.3.4
open account suits, 6.3.2
ATTORNEYS
see also LEGAL REPRESENTATION
client intake checklist, 2.3.9
collection attorneys
affidavits by, 4.2.3.3.3
communication with consumer, 2.6
federal debt collection, 10.2.4
litigation misconduct, 5.7.2, 12.3.10
litigation tactics, evaluating, 2.3.6
precondition to suit, 3.3.8
requirements, 3.3.9
defense practice, setting up, 2.2
client intake checklist, 2.3.9
obtaining clients, 2.2.1, 2.3.8.5
office resources, 2.2.2
development of expertise, 2.1.9
fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
military attorneys, 7.1
practice aids, see PRACTICE AIDS
purchase of debts, restrictions, 3.3.7
AUTOMATIC STAY
bankruptcy stay, see BANKRUPTCY
military personnel, 7.5.3.1
AUTOMOBILE LEASES
military personnel, special protections, 7.6.7
BAD CHECKS
abusive collection practices, 8.4
bankruptcy discharge, 8.2.8
civil collection, 8.3
fees, 8.3.2
state statutes, 8.3.1
statute of limitations, 3.6.4.4, 8.3.3
criminal penalties, 8.2
application, 8.2.3, 8.2.4
bankruptcy stay, application, 8.2.8
constitutional defenses, 8.2.2
other limitations and defenses, 8.2.6
overview, 8.2.1
defenses, 8.2.1
diversion programs, 8.2.9
FDCPA, application, 8.4
imprisonment, 16.3
larceny, 8.2.7
overview of problem, 8.1
post-dated checks, 8.2.3, 8.3.1
preexisting debts, 8.2.4
BANK ACCOUNTS
see also BANKS
account agreement, effect on third parties, 14.5.6.2
electronic transfer accounts, 14.5.5.3, Appx. D
exempt funds, 14.5.3
bankers’ setoff, 14.3.3.4, 14.5.4.10
commingling, 14.5.3.2, 14.5.4.5
deposit in, effect, 14.2.6, 14.5.3.1
federal benefits, 14.5.4, Appx. D
government benefits, 14.5.3.1
protecting exempt funds, 2.4.2, 14.5.5
state deposit exemptions, 14.5.2, 14.5.4.9
wrongful seizure, 14.5.7
freezes, 2.4.2, 13.5.7
remedies, 14.5.7
garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
joint accounts
attachment or garnishment, 14.5.6
debtor’s equitable interest, 14.5.6.3
exempt funds, 14.5.4.5, 14.5.5.1
BANKRUPTCY
alternative to defending collection action, 2.5
automatic stay of debt collection
dishonored checks, 8.2.8
federal debt collection, 10.2.14.8
judgments, 12.5
CCPA garnishment provisions, application, 14.2.1.3
criminal justice debt, 11.6
discharge as defense, 5.2.9
exempt property, 13.3.1
homestead exemption, 15.2.5
judgments, discharging, 12.5
tax refund intercepts, application, 10.2.8
tolling of limitations period, 3.6.8.2.2
BANKS
see also BANK ACCOUNTS
credit cards, see CREDIT CARD DEBTS
real party in interest, issues, 4.3.2
records, trustworthiness, 4.2.4.3.4
standing of national banks, 3.3.2.1
BENEFITS
see GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
BILLING ERRORS
see also ERRORS
FCBA, application, 4.8.6.4
failure to dispute, effect, 4.8.6.4
medical debts, 9.5.6.3
BIVENS SUITS
federal debt collection, 10.2.14.2
tax collections, 10.2.14.11
FTCA claims, joinder, 10.2.14.5
BLACK LUNG BENEFITS
see FEDERAL BENEFITS
BREACH OF CONTRACT
see also CREDIT AGREEMENTS
complaints, required attachments, 3.5.3
medical debts, 9.4.6
charitable status hospitals, 9.4.5.2
defenses, 9.5.4
proof, 4.5
actual contract necessary, 4.5.3
applicable law, 4.5.2
consumer assent, 4.5.3.4
elements, 4.5.1
impact if contract not proven, 4.5.4
statute of limitations, 3.6.4.2, 3.6.6.3.2
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
account stated claims, 4.8.6.2
admissions, withdrawal, 4.2.2.3
balance due on open-end accounts, 4.6.2–4.6.4
credit cards
authorized charges, 4.6.2–4.6.4, 4.8.6.2, 4.8.6.4.1, 5.3.2.2
authorized user liability, 5.3.3.2
joint accounts, debtor’s interest, 14.5.6.3
medical debt collections, 9.5.1
reasonable value, 9.5.6.1
merits of claim, 4.1
necessaries, 5.3.4.3
standing, 4.3.4.1
tolling limitations period, 3.6.8.2.3
BUSINESS DEBTS
garnishment, CCPA protections, 14.2.1.3
BUSINESS RECORDS
litigation documents, status, 4.2.4.1.2
exception, 4.2.4.1.3
use as evidence, 4.2.4
assignment document, 4.3.4.2.5
certification, 4.2.4.2, 4.2.4.3
challenging, 4.2.4.5
computer records, 4.2.4.1.5
consumer authentication, 4.2.4.6
debt buyers, 4.2.4.3, 4.3.4.2
electronic records, 4.2.4.4
hearsay exception, 4.2.4.1
incorporation rule, 4.2.4.3.2–4.2.4.3.4
New Jersey rule, 4.2.4.3.6
operative documents, 4.2.4.1.5
trustworthiness, 4.2.4.1.4, 4.2.4.3.4
CANCELLATION OF DEBT
see DEBT SETTLEMENT; DISCHARGE OF DEBTS
CAPACITY
defense of lack of, 5.5.1
intoxication, 5.5.1.4
medical debts, 9.5.4.1
mental incapacity, 5.5.1.3
minority, 5.5.1.2
CASE LAW
see RESOURCE AIDS
CAUSES OF ACTION
“account stated” balance, 4.8
medical debts, 9.5.2
required attachments, 3.5.4
breach of contract, proof issues, 4.5
legal theory in pleadings controls case, 4.4
“on account” balances, 4.6, 9.5.3
open account, 9.5.3
other causes of action, 4.10
quantum meruit, 4.9
“sworn account” theory, 4.10
unjust enrichment, 4.9
CELL PHONE DEBT
see TELEPHONE CHARGES
CHARGE-OFFS
status of, 5.2.6.4
CHARGES
see COLLECTION FEES
CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS
hospitals, claims regarding, 9.4.5
CHECK DIVERSION PROGRAMS
see also BAD CHECKS
operating in name of district attorney, 8.2.9
CHECKLISTS
see PRACTICE AIDS
CHECKS
see BAD CHECKS; POST-DATED CHECKS
CHILD SUPPORT
exempt benefits income, treatment regarding, 14.3.8
garnishment for
due process considerations, 13.5.2
exempt funds, 14.3.4, 13.4.2.4, 14.5.4.3
maximum amount, 14.2.1.5.4
priority, 14.2.1.5.5
provisions authorizing, Appx. E.3
garnishment of
exempt status, 14.3.7
IRS exemption, 13.4.2
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
homesteads, enforcement against, 15.2.6
CHILDREN
see RELATIVES
CIVIL ACTIONS
see ACTIONS
CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
criminal justice debt, 11.7.2
wrongful discharge for garnishment, 14.2.1.6.4
CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT
see FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT
CLASS ACTIONS
counterclaims, 2.1.10, 5.7.3
removal to federal court, 2.1.10, 5.7.3
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act violations, 7.8
COERCION
see DURESS; THREATS
COLLATERAL
see SECURITY INTERESTS
COLLECTION ACTIONS
see also DEBT COLLECTION
“account stated” actions
medical debts, 9.5.2
proof issues, 4.8
required attachments, 3.5.4
appeals, 12.1
arbitration alternative, see ARBITRATION
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
attorney representation
necessity, 3.3.8
qualifications, 3.3.9
bankruptcy, effect, 3.6.8.2.2, 5.2.9
causes of action, see CAUSES OF ACTION
counterclaims, see COUNTERCLAIMS
credit record, cleaning up after, 2.9, 17.2
criminal justice debt, 11.4
debt buyers
characteristics of lawsuits, 1.5.5
explosion of lawsuits, 1.5.4
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
default judgments, see DEFAULT JUDGMENTS
defending, see DEFENDING COLLECTION ACTIONS
defenses, see DEFENSES
deficiency actions, see DEFICIENCY ACTIONS
emotional distress, cause of, 2.1.5
evidence, see EVIDENCE
FDCPA, application, 17.4.3
federal agencies, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
jurisdiction, 3.2.1
legal theory, 4.4
medical debts
see also MEDICAL DEBTS
hospital collection actions, 9.5
military personnel, see MILITARY PERSONNEL
misconduct involving, 12.3.10, 12.6, 17.4
NCLC treatise
online resources, 1.1.1, 1.2.6
organization, 1.2.2, 5.1
topics in other treatises, 1.3, 5.1.2
open-end accounts, see OPEN-END ACCOUNTS
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
prior collection actions, effect, 5.2.8
procedural status, effect, 2.3.8.1
proof issues, see EVIDENCE
settlement, see SETTLEMENT
standing, see STANDING
statute of limitations, 3.6
voluntary dismissal, effect, 3.6.8.2.5
stipulated judgments, see STIPULATED JUDGMENTS
sufficiency of evidence, 4.2
unqualified plaintiffs, 3.3
venue, 3.2.2
see also VENUE
abuse of process, 13.3.8.5, 17.4.5.3
state court, limitations on, 3.2.2.1
violations, 3.2.2.2
voluntary dismissal, 3.6.8.2.5, 5.7.1
COLLECTION AGENCIES
see DEBT COLLECTORS
COLLECTION CONTACTS
stopping, 2.3.1, 2.3.5
COLLECTION FEES
recovery, 6
amount, 6.5
attorney fees, 6.2–6.5
collection agency fees, 6.6
contractual fees, 6.2
overview, 6.1
percentage of debt, 6.5.3
state law rights, 6.3
statutory caps, 6.5.1
COLLECTION LETTERS
see COLLECTION CONTACTS; DEMAND LETTERS
COLLECTION-PROOF DEBTORS
see JUDGMENT-PROOF DEBTORS
COLLECTORS
see DEBT COLLECTORS
COMMERCIAL CREDIT
see BUSINESS DEBTS
COMPLAINTS
see PLEADINGS
COMPUTER RECORDS
see ELECTRONIC RECORDS
CONSENT
account stated, implied consent, 4.8.6
federal dispute rights, effect, 4.8.6.4
lien on exempt property, 15.2.7
CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
see also DUE PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
bad check laws, 8.2.2
bias based on financial interests, 11.7.1.3
excessive fines, 11.7.1.4
exemption statutes, 13.2
bifurcated schemes, 13.2.4
due process, 11.2.4, 11.7.1.1, 13.2.2
equal protection, 11.7.1.2, 13.2.3
impairment of contracts, 13.2.1
state issues, 13.2.5
garnishment and execution, 13.5
imprisonment of judgment debtors, 11.2.2, 16.3.4
necessaries statutes, 9.6
prejudgment garnishment, 13.5.1
state constitutional limits, 11.4.7
CONSUMER CREDIT PROTECTION ACT (CCPA)
wage garnishment restrictions
calculation of exemption, 14.2.1.5
discharge protections, 14.2.1.6
earnings subject to protection, 14.2.1.4
excessive court orders, 14.2.7
paid or deposited earnings, application, 14.2.6
purpose, 14.2.1.1
scope, 14.2.1.2, 14.2.1.3
state law relationship, 14.2.4
CONSUMER DEBTS
acknowledgment of debt, 3.6.8.3.2
cancellation, see DEBT SETTLEMENT; DISCHARGE OF DEBTS
collection, see DEBT COLLECTION
credit card debts, see CREDIT CARD DEBTS
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
decedents, 5.3.5
extinguished, resale, 17.3
federal agencies, owing to, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
federal dispute rights, 4.8.6.4
imprisonment for, 16.3
installment payments, see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
lawsuits over, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
liability, see LIABILITY
medical debts, see MEDICAL DEBTS
misapplication of payments, 5.2.2
one indebtedness, defined, 14.2.1.6.1
part payments, reviving limitations period, 3.6.8.3.1
payment in full, evidence, 5.2.2
preexisting debts, bad check laws, application, 8.2.4
reinvestigations, 10.2.3, 17.2.3
settlement, see DEBT SETTLEMENT
statute of limitations, see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
transfer, see DEBT BUYERS; SALE OF DEBTS
CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
medical debt collection, limited oversight, 9.2.3
Office of Servicemember Affairs, 7.8
CONSUMER PROTECTION AGENCIES
see ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES; CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB); FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC); STATE AGENCIES
CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
see also CREDIT RECORD
federal debt collections
HUD disclosures, 10.2.13.4
information reporting, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.3
VA disclosures, 10.2.13.5
fraud alerts, 5.3.2.4
overview of system, 17.2.1.1
reinvestigations, 10.2.3, 17.2.3
failure to correct inaccuracies, 17.2.4
reporting debts
consumer favorable outcomes, 17.2.1.2
government agencies, 10.2.3
medical debts, 9.3.5
CONSUMER REPORTS
see CREDIT RECORD
CONSUMERS
see also DEBTORS
debts, see CONSUMER DEBTS
harassment, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
judgment-proof, see JUDGMENT-PROOF DEBTORS
legal representation, see LEGAL REPRESENTATION
low income, see LOW INCOME CONSUMERS
mistaken identity, 5.3.1
identity theft, see IDENTITY THEFT
prevailing in collection action, see PREVAILING CONSUMERS
CONTEMPT
judgment debtors
examination, failure to appear, 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3, 16.2.4
imprisonment for, 16.3.3, 16.3.4
non-payment of debt as, 16.3.3
punishment for, constitutional limits, 16.3.4
CONTRACTS
see ADHESION CONTRACTS; BREACH OF CONTRACT; CREDIT AGREEMENTS
COOPERATIVES
homestead exemptions, 15.2.2.4
CORPORATIONS
state court standing, 3.3.2
COSIGNERS
military personnel, protections, 7.4
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS; COLLECTION FEES
COUNTERCLAIMS
advantages and disadvantages, 2.1.3, 5.7.1
arbitration proceedings, 5.7.1, 5.7.3
attorney fees, 17.1.5
cell phone charges, 5.7.4.3
class counterclaims, 2.1.10, 5.7.3
compulsory counterclaims, 17.4.2.2
credit card add-ons, 5.7.4.3
FDCPA counterclaims
compulsory counterclaims, 17.4.2.2
litigation misconduct, 5.7.2
pre-litigation collection conduct, 5.7.4.4
federal debt counterclaims, 10.2.14.12
medical debt collections, 9.5.7
UDAP, 9.4.2.4
other counterclaims, 5.1.2
tactical considerations, 2.1.3, 5.7.1
TILA counterclaims, 5.7.3.2
COURT DEBT
see CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
COURT PROCEEDINGS
see LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
CREDIT
see CONSUMER DEBTS
CREDIT AGREEMENTS
adhesive, see ADHESION CONTRACTS
ambiguity, construction against drafter, 6.2.4.1
applicable law, 3.6.3, 4.5.2
arbitration clauses, see ARBITRATION
attorney fee authorization
consumer, 17.1.2
creditor, 6.2
breach of contract claims, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
capacity to contract, 5.5.1
collection expenses, recovery authorization
attorney fees, 6.2
collector’s fees, 6.6
exemption statutes, impairment of contract claims, 13.2.1
new payment schedules, see WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
proof issues, 4.5
applicable law, 4.5.2
contract and terms, 4.5.3
generally, 4.5.1
implications if contract not proven, 4.5.4, 4.7.2
open-end accounts, 4.6
statute of limitations
applicable law, 3.6.3
bank-issued credit cards, 3.6.6.3
lengthening, 3.6.5
triggering date, 3.6.7
UCC override, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.6.2
waiver of exemptions, prohibition, 13.3.9.2
CREDIT BUREAUS
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
CREDIT CARD DEBTS
authorized users, liability, 5.3.3
balance due protection products, 5.3.6
counterclaims regarding
add-on charges, 5.7.4.3
sales, 5.2.3
TILA counterclaims, 5.7.4.3
disclosure requirements, 5.7.4.3
implied consent, 4.8.6
failure to dispute, effect, 4.8.6.4
special considerations, 4.8.6.3
joint account holders, 5.3.3.1
medical bills, 9.1.4, 9.4.4.1
proof issues
authorized charges, 4.6.2–4.6.4, 4.8.6.2
balance due, 4.6
contract terms, 4.5.3
implied consent, 4.8.6.3
stated balance, 4.8
securitization, 4.3.2.2
statute of limitations, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.6.2, 3.6.6.3
unauthorized use, 4.6.2–4.6.4, 4.8.6.2, 5.3.2.2
CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
see also FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
text, Appx. F
wage assignments, restrictions, 14.2.1.2
waiver of exemptions, restrictions, 13.3.9.2
CREDIT RECORD
see also CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
cleaning up, 2.9, 17.2
after favorable judgment, 2.9.1, 17.2
after settlement, 2.9.2.2, 2.9.2.3, 17.2.2.2
steps after cleaning up, 17.2.5
disputing information, 17.2.3, 17.2.4
medical debts, 9.3.5.3
FCRA violations, 17.2.4
FDCPA violations, 17.2.4
free annual report, 2.3.3, 17.2.3.1
identity theft, 5.3.2.4
improving rating by defending actions, 2.1.4
inaccurate information, correcting, 17.2.2
historical data, 17.2.2.2
medical debt information, 9.3.5
mistaken identity, 5.3.1
overview of reporting system, 17.2.1.1
review prior to representation, 2.3.3
CREDIT REPORTING AGENCIES
see CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES
CREDIT REPORTS
see CREDIT RECORD
CREDITORS
alternative dispute mechanisms, see ARBITRATION
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
collection expense recovery
amount, 6.5
attorney fees, 6.2–6.5
collection agency fees, 6.6
contractual right, 6.2
overview, 6.1
prevailing party, 6.4
state law right, 6.3
debt collection, see DEBT COLLECTION
government agencies as, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
medical debts, state law, application, 9.4
CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
bankruptcy, 11.6
bail bonds, 11.6.3.11
chapter 7, 11.6.3
chapter 13, 11.6.4
civil penalties, 11.6.3.3
collection costs, 11.6.3.12
criminal costs, 11.6.3.6, 11.6.3.7, 11.6.3.8, 11.6.3.9
criminal fines, 11.6.3.2
interest, 11.6.3.12
juvenile debts, 11.6.3.5
surcharges, 11.6.3.10
victim restitution, 11.6.2, 11.6.3.4
constitutional limits, 11.2, 11.4.7, 11.7.1
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
exemptions, 11.5
at imposition stage, 11.5.2
due process, 11.5.6
equal protection, 11.5.6
federal debt, 11.5.3
federal exemptions, 11.5.3, 11.5.4
municipal debt, 11.5.4, 11.5.5
state debt, 11.5.4, 11.5.5
state exemptions, 11.5.5
incarceration, 11.2.2, 11.4.4
legal representation, 11.1.1, 11.4.5
litigation, 11.7
abstention, 11.7.6.3
civil rights claims, 11.7.2
constitutional claims, 11.7.1
ECOA claims, 11.7.3
FCRA claims, 11.7.5
FDCPA claims, 11.7.4
immunity as bar to litigation, 11.7.6.1, 11.7.6.2
minimizing imposition, 11.3
ability-to-pay determination, 11.3.4, 11.3.5
community service alternative, 11.3.7
fines, 11.3.4.2
mandatory vs. non-mandatory debt, 11.3.3
plea bargaining, 11.3.6
remission, 11.3.4.3, 11.4.6
overview, 11.1.2
statute of limitations, 11.4.8
types, 11.1.3
CRIMINAL PENALTIES
see also CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT, RESTITUTION ORDERS
collection procedures, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
exempt property, 13.4.2
homestead exemption, 15.2.6
CRIMINAL PROSECUTION
see also MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
bad checks, 8.2
imprisonment, 16.3
larceny, 8.2.7
debt resulting from, see CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
wrongful discharge, 14.2.1.6.2
DAMAGES
attorney fees as, 6.2.1, 17.1.6
FDCPA, 17.4.2.1
non-payment of debt, 6.1
DEBT BUYERS
see also DEBT COLLECTORS; SALE OF DEBTS
abuse of justice system, 2.1.2
affidavit evidence, use, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.4.2.5
assignment documents, defects, 4.3.4.2.3
attorneys as, restrictions, 3.3.7
characteristics of lawsuits, 1.5.5
collection agencies as, restrictions, 3.3.6
counterclaims against
FDCPA, 5.7.4.1, 5.7.4.2
FTC Holder Notice, effect, 5.7.4.4
TILA, 5.7.4.3
debt collector status, 3.3.5.2
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
dramatic growth, 1.5.1
extinguished debts, 17.3
licensing requirements, 3.3.5
litigation explosion, 1.5.4
consumer defenses, 2.1.1, 2.1.2
nature of sales to, 1.5.3
proof of assignment, 3.4.2.1, 3.4.2.2, 4.3.4.2, 4.3.4.3
“forward flow” agreement, 3.4.2.2, 4.3.4.2.1
standing, 3.3, 4.3.4
partnerships, 3.3.4
proof of standing, 4.3.4.2, 4.3.4.3
purchases from unregistered foreign corporations, 3.3.2.2
statute of limitations, applicable, 3.6.2.2.4
top debt buyers, 1.5.2
DEBT COLLECTION
see also DEBT COLLECTORS; FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
abusive conduct, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
actions, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
arbitration, by, see ARBITRATION
attorneys, see ATTORNEYS, collection attorneys
contacts, stopping, 2.3.1
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
deceptive practices, see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
dishonored checks, 8.3, 8.4
expenses, see COLLECTION FEES
extinguished debts, 17.3
federal agencies, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
IRS, see TAX ARREARS
medical bills, see MEDICAL DEBTS
military personnel, see MILITARY PERSONNEL
renewed collection postjudgment, 17.3
state restrictions, see STATE LAW
unfair practices, see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
DEBT COLLECTION ACT
federal debt collection, toughening, 10.2.1.1
DEBT COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT ACT (DCIA)
federal debt collection, further strengthening, 10.2.1.1
selected text, Appx. B.1
wage garnishment provisions, 14.2.2.1
DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES ACT (DCPA)
application, 10.3.1
exempt property, 10.3.5
nationwide service of process, 10.3.7
overview, 10.3.1
postjudgment remedies, 10.3.4
prejudgment remedies, 10.3.3
selected provisions, Appx. B.3
surcharge under, 10.3.6
DEBT COLLECTORS
see also DEBT BUYERS; DEBT COLLECTION
abusive conduct, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
amount due errors, 5.2.1
attorney fee recovery, 6.2.2
attorneys as, 3.3.9
case selection, effect, 2.3.8.3
collection contacts, stopping, 2.3.1, 2.3.5
collection suits, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
debt buyers as, 3.3.5.2
federal debt collections
HUD contracts, 10.2.13.4
referrals, 10.2.4
fees
see also COLLECTION FEES
recovery, 6.6
licensing requirements, 3.3.5.1
litigation misconduct
affirmative actions over, 12.6, 17.4
counterclaims re, 5.7.2, 5.7.4.1
grounds to set aside judgment, 12.3.10
litigation tendencies, evaluating, 2.3.6
medical debts
billing service providers, 9.2.2.2
FDCPA, application, 9.2.2
in-house or affiliated collection entities, 9.2.2.3
state law, application, 9.4
military, assistance from, 14.2.2.3
pre-litigation misconduct, 5.7.4.2
purchase of debts, restrictions, 3.3.6
seizure of third-party money, see GARNISHMENT
standing, 3.3.6, 4.3.3
DEBT ELIMINATION
scams, 2.7
DEBT HARASSMENT
see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; HARASSMENT ACTIONS
DEBT SELLING
see DEBT BUYERS; SALE OF DEBTS
DEBT SETTLEMENT
see also DISCHARGE OF DEBTS
evidence of, 5.2.6
IRS Form 1099-C, 2.9.2, 5.2.6.3
New York rules, 2.9.2.4
scams, 2.7
DEBTOR’S EXAMINATIONS
failure to appear, 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3, 16.2.4
DEBTORS
see also CONSUMER DEBTS; CONSUMERS
federal debtors, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
harassment, see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
judgment debtors, see JUDGMENT DEBTORS
judgment-proof, see JUDGMENT-PROOF DEBTORS
location information, see LOCATION INFORMATION
low income, see LOW INCOME CONSUMERS
DEBTS
see BUSINESS DEBTS; CONSUMER DEBTS; CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBTS
DECEASED PERSONS
debts, liability, 5.3.5
DECEPTION
see FRAUD
DECEPTIVE COLLECTION PRACTICES
see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
DECLARATORY RELIEF
discharge for wage garnishment, 14.2.1.6.2
DEFAULT
see also INTEREST
date of default
determination, 3.6.7.3
triggering of limitations period, 3.6.7.2
DEFAULT JUDGMENTS
see also JUDGMENTS
litigation misconduct, affirmative actions, 12.6
military personnel, special protections, 7.5.2, 12.2
motion for judgment, notice, 12.3.11.1.4
proof standards, 12.3.13
setting aside, 12.3
excusable neglect, 12.3.8
improper notice of hearing, 12.3.11.1.4
improper service, 12.3.11.1
inadvertence, 12.3.8
jurisdictional challenges, 12.3.11.2
law favors, 12.3.2
mass vacatur, 12.3.14
meritorious defense, 12.3.6, 12.3.13
military personnel, 7.5.2, 12.2
misconduct or fraud, 12.3.10
mistake, 12.3.8
prejudice to prevailing party, 12.3.7
reason justifying relief, 12.3.12
state standards, 12.3.2, 12.3.4, 12.3.13
surprise, 12.3.8
timing considerations, 12.3.5
uncontested setting aside, 12.3.1
void judgments, 12.3.11
systematic abuse of system, 2.1.2
DEFENDANTS
service, see SERVICE
time out-of-state, tolling limitations period, 3.6.8.2.3
DEFENDING COLLECTION ACTIONS
see also DEFENSES; LEGAL REPRESENTATION
arbitration, forcing by defendant. 3.2.4
bankruptcy alternative, 2.5
counterclaims, bringing, 2.1.3
debt buyers, 2.1.1
dismissal before reaching merits, 3
federal agency misconduct, 10.2.14.1
first steps, 2.8.2
medical debt collections, 9.5
military personnel, see MILITARY PERSONNEL
practice aids, see PRACTICE AIDS
pro se representation, 2.6
reasons to defend, 2.1
setting up a practice, 2.2
steps prior to, 2.3
tactical considerations, 2.8.1
DEFENSES
see also DEFENDING COLLECTION ACTIONS
accord and satisfaction, 5.2.7
amount due error, 5.2.1
bad check prosecutions, 8.2
bankruptcy discharge, 5.2.9
bona fide error, 17.4.3.3
collector error, 5.2.1
credit cards
authorized users, 5.3.3
unauthorized use, 4.8.6.2, 5.3.2.2
debt not owed, 5.5
debt owed by someone else, 5.3
debt paid, 5.2.2
debt settled, 5.2.6
defect on face of complaint, 3.4
deficiency actions, 5.6
duress, 5.5.2, 9.5.4.2
FDCPA actions, 17.4.3.2
federal administrative offsets, 10.2.9.5
generally, 1.2.1, 5.1.1
identity theft, 5.3.2
insurance coverage, 5.3.6
laches, 11.4.8.3
lack of ability to pay, 11.4.4
lack of appointed counsel, 11.4.5
lack of capacity, 5.5.1, 9.5.4.1
lack of consent, 4.8.6
lack of jurisdiction, 3.2.1
lack of standing, 3.3
medical debt collections, 9.5
mistaken identity, 5.3.1
other defenses, 5.1.2
payment misapplication, 5.2.2
prior collection action, 5.2.8
res judicata, 5.2.8
spouses, 5.3.4
statute of limitations, 3.6
venue, improper, 3.2.2
DEFICIENCY ACTIONS
defense of, 5.6
DEFINITIONS
counsel for the United States, 10.3.1
disposable earnings, 14.2.1.5.1
earnings, 14.2.1.4.1
garnishment, 14.2.1.2
judgment, 7.5.2
judgment proof, 13.1
military service, 7.4
DEMAND LETTERS
federal agency debts, 10.2.2
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
collection procedures, 10.2.13.6
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
collection procedures, student loans, 10.2.13.2
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (HHS)
collection procedures, 10.2.13.3
Privacy Rules, 9.3.4
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
collection procedures, 10.2.13.4
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
collection of federal debts, 10.2.4
criminal fines and penalties, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
see also SECRETARY OF LABOR
Wage Garnishment Regulations, Appx. C.2
DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (VA)
collection procedures, 10.2.13.5
DIRECT EXPRESS CARDS
federal benefits, garnishment protection, 2.4.2, 14.5.5.2
DISABILITY BENEFITS
see SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
DISASTER RELIEF ASSISTANCE
exempt status, 14.3.5
statutory provisions, Appx. E.13
DISCHARGE OF DEBTS
see also DEBT SETTLEMENT
accord and satisfaction, 5.2.7
bankruptcy, see BANKRUPTCY
charge-off not discharge, 5.2.6.4
criminal justice debts, 11.4.6
federal agency debts, 10.2.12
DISCLOSURE
credit card requirements, 5.7.4.3
credit reports, see CREDIT RECORD
federal debt collection, information, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.4
identity theft information, 5.3.2.3
DISCOVERY
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
affidavit evidence, 4.2.4.5
postjudgment, 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3, 16.2.4
practice aids, 2.8.3
requests for admissions, see REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS
DISCRIMINATION
see also CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS
criminal justice debtors, 11.2.3
discharge for wage garnishments, 14.2.1.6.4
exemption statutes, 13.2.3
medical services pricing, 9.1.3, 9.3.1.4
reasonable value, 9.5.6.2
UDAP challenges, 9.4.2.2
DISHONORED CHECKS
see BAD CHECKS
DISMISSAL OF ACTION
see also PREVAILING CONSUMERS
merits, before reaching, 3
voluntary dismissal by plaintiff
counterclaim, raising to avoid, 5.7.1
statute of limitations, effect on, 3.6.8.2.5
DIVORCE
see also ALIMONY
division of property
exempt benefits, 14.3.8
homesteads, 15.2.3.2, 15.2.6
DOCTORS’ BILLS
see MEDICAL DEBTS
DOCUMENTS
see RECORDS
DUE PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
criminal justice debt, 11.5.6, 11.7.1.1
execution of exempt property, 13.5
exemption statutes, 13.2.2
federal agency debt collection
administrative offsets, 10.2.9.5
generally, 10.2.14.2
frozen bank accounts, 13.5.7
garnishment of exempt property, 13.5
prejudgment garnishment, 13.5.1
DUNNING
see COLLECTION CONTACTS; DEBT COLLECTION
DURESS
defense of, 5.5.2
medical debts, 9.5.4.2
EARNED INCOME CREDITS
federal debt intercept, 10.2.8
garnishment exemption, 14.3.7
EARNINGS
defined, 14.2.1.4.1
disposable earnings, defined, 14.2.1.5.1
garnishment, see WAGE GARNISHMENT
EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see STUDENT LOANS
ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS
garnishment, 14.5.2
ELECTRONIC RECORDS
evidence, use as, 4.2.4.4
self-generated computer records, 4.2.4.1.5
ELECTRONIC TRANSFER ACCOUNTS (ETAs)
federal benefits, direct deposit, 14.5.5.3
Treasury rule, Appx. D
EMERGENCY MEDICAL TREATMENT AND ACTIVE LABOR ACT (EMTALA)
violations, 9.3.3
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
see also TORT CLAIMS
collection actions causing, 2.1.5
medical debts, 9.4.1
EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (ERISA)
see ERISA PENSION PLANS
EMPLOYEES
benefit plans, personal injury recovery, subrogation, 9.7.3
discharge for wage garnishment, 14.2.1.6, 14.2.2.1
government employees, see GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES
pensions, see PENSIONS
wage assignments, see WAGE ASSIGNMENTS
wage garnishment, see WAGE GARNISHMENTS
EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS
CCPA garnishment protections, 14.2.1.6, 14.2.2.1
ENTIRETIES
see also JOINT PROPERTY
marital property, 14.5.6.1, 14.5.6.3, 15.2.9
tenancy in personal property, 14.5.6.1, 15.3.5
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
criminal justice debt, 11.7.3
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION (EEOC)
disparate impact claims, 14.2.1.6.4
EQUAL PROTECTION
see CIVIL RIGHTS CLAIMS; CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES; DISCRIMINATION
ERISA PENSION PLANS
see also PENSIONS
garnishment restrictions
generally, 14.4
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
ERRORS
amount due, 5.2.1, 5.2.2
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
bona fide error defense, 17.4.3.3
collector error, 5.2.1
misapplication of payments, 5.2.2
mistaken identity, 5.3.1
skip tracing errors, 5.3.1
ESTATES
liability for debts, 5.3.5
EVICTIONS
military personnel, special protections, 7.6.4, 7.6.9.1
EVIDENCE
account stated claims, 4.8
implied consent, 4.8.6
review by consumer, 4.8.5
statement of account, 4.8.4
underlying obligation, 4.8.3
admissions by consumer, 4.2.2
affidavit evidence, 4.2.3
assignment of debt, 3.4.2.1, 3.4.2.2, 4.3.4.2, 4.3.4.3
bankruptcy discharge, 5.2.9
breach of contract, 4.5
business records, 4.2.4
certification, 4.2.4.2, 4.2.4.3
consumer authentication, 4.2.4.6
debt buyers, use, 4.2.4.3
electronic records, 4.2.4.1.5, 4.2.4.4
evidence challenging, 4.2.4.5
hearsay exception, 4.2.4.1
witnesses, cross-examining, 4.2.4.1.2, 4.2.4.2, 4.2.4.4
commercially reasonable sale, 5.6
computer records, 4.2.4.1.5, 4.2.4.4
debt paid, 5.2.2
debt settled, 5.2.6
IRS Form 1099-C, 2.9.2, 5.2.6.3
discovery, see DISCOVERY
documentary evidence, 4.2.4
mistaken identity, 5.3.1
open-end accounts, balance due, 4.6
“account stated” balance, 4.8
“on account” balances, 4.6
required proof, 4.6.2–4.6.4
operative documents, 4.2.4.1.5
quantum meruit claims, 4.9
standing to sue, proof, 4.3
chain of ownership, 4.3.4.3
transfer of ownership, 4.3.4.2
statement of account, 4.8.4
implied consent, 4.8.6
receipt by consumer, 4.8.5
sufficiency of collector’s evidence, 4.2
unjust enrichment claims, 4.9
written contract, 4.5
actual contract, 4.5.3
applicable law, 4.5.2
consumer assent, 4.5.3.4
contract terms, 4.5.3
implications if not proven, 4.5.4, 4.7.2
EXAMINATIONS
see DEBTOR’S EXAMINATIONS
EXECUTIONS
see SEIZURE AND SALE
EXEMPT PROPERTY
see also JUDGMENT-PROOF DEBTORS; SEIZURE AND SALE
administrative offset, 13.4.2
annuities, 14.4.2
structured settlements, 14.4.3
bank accounts, 2.4.2, 11.5.3.5, 14.5
ETAs, 14.5.5.3
practice tips, 14.5.5
special purpose accounts, 14.5.5.1
specific state exemptions, 14.5.2
bankruptcy, 13.3.1
claiming exemption, procedure, 13.3.4
constitutional validity, 13.2
bifurcated schemes, 13.2.4
due process, 11.5.6, 13.2.2
equal protection, 13.2.3
impairment of contracts, 13.2.1
state issues, 13.2.5
criminal justice debt, 11.5
deposit of funds, effect, 14.5.3
protecting after deposit, 14.5.5
Direct Express cards, 14.5.5.2
disaster relief assistance, 14.3.5
due process protections, 11.5.6, 13.5
electronic transfer accounts, 14.5.5.3, Appx. D
federal debts, 10.3.5, 11.5.3
general principles, 13.2
government benefits, 11.5.3.3, 14.3
Direct Express cards, 14.5.5.2
ETAs, 14.5.5.3
federal benefits, 14.5.4, Appx. E
protecting after payment, 14.5.5
health care debts, 9.4.3, 13.4.1
homestead exemptions, 11.5.5.2, 15.2.2
insurance benefits, 14.4.1
IRAs, 14.4
IRS exemptions, 13.4.2
liberal construction, 13.3.1
marshalling of assets, application, 13.3.5
medical debts, 9.4.3, 13.4.1
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
overview, 13.1
pensions, 11.5.4.3, 14.4
personal injury recoveries, 15.4.3
personal property, 15.3
see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS
proceeds of sale, 13.3.3
protecting postjudgment, 2.4, 13.1
public assistance payments, 14.3.2
purchased with non-exempt funds, 13.3.2
purchased with proceeds of wrongdoing, 13.3.2
purpose, 13.1, 13.3.1, 15.3.1
retirement benefits, 11.5.4.3, 14.4
Social Security and SSI benefits, 11.5.3.3, 14.3.3
stacking of exemptions, 13.3.6, 13.3.7
state protections
role of, 13.1, 14.5.4.9
state law summaries, Appx. G
structured settlements, 15.4.3
student loan proceeds, 11.5.4.4, 14.3.7
tools of the trade, 15.3.4
unemployment payments, 14.3.4
veterans benefits, 14.3.7
wage garnishment exemptions, 14.2
waiver of exemptions, 13.3.9
wildcard exemptions, 13.3.6, 13.3.7
workers’ compensation payments, 14.3.4
wrongful seizure, 14.5.7
EXEMPTION LAWS
see EXEMPT PROPERTY
EXPENSES
see COLLECTION FEES
FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
credit card billing errors, 4.8.6.4, 5.3.2.2
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
affirmative actions, 2.1.7, 17.2.4
criminal justice debt, 11.7.5
federal debt collection, application, 10.2.14.9
identity theft protections, 5.3.2.4
medical debts, application, 9.3.5
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act violations, application, 7.8
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
see also DEBT COLLECTION
affirmative actions, 2.1.7
credit reporting violations, 17.2.4
jurisdiction, 17.4.2.3
litigation misconduct, 12.6, 17.4
postjudgment, 12.6, 17.4
timing considerations, 17.4.2.4
attorney fees, 17.1.5
bona fide error, application, 17.4.3.3
counterclaims
compulsory counterclaims, 17.4.2.2
litigation conduct, 5.7.4.1
pre-litigation conduct, 5.7.4.2
tactical considerations, 5.7.2
criminal justice debt, 11.7.4
debt verification rights, 4.8.6.4.1
dishonored checks, application, 8.4
federal debt collection, application, 10.2.14.9
litigation misconduct, application, 17.4.3
medical bills, application, 9.2
examples of violations, 9.2.4
reselling debts postjudgment, application, 17.3
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act violations, application, 7.8
statute of limitations, 17.4.2.4
student loans, application, 10.2.13.2
venue provisions, 3.2.2.1, 13.3.8.5
FAIRNESS
see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
FAMILY MEMBERS
see PARENTS; RELATIVES; SPOUSES
FEDERAL AGENCIES
see also ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
CFPB, see CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
debt collection by, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
FTC, see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
FEDERAL BENEFITS
see also GOVERNMENT BENEFITS; SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS; VETERANS BENEFITS
administrative offset, 10.2.9, 14.3.3.1
debt collection procedures, 10.2
Direct Express cards, 2.4.2, 14.5.5.2
electronic deposit, 14.5.5.3, Appx. D
ETAs, 14.5.5.3
exempt benefits
protecting after payment, 14.5.5
treatment as income, 14.3.8
garnishment protections
deposit in bank, effect, 2.4.2, 14.5.3.1
generally, 14.3
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
statutory provisions, Appx. E
traceable proceeds, 14.5.3.1, 14.5.3.2
Treasury rule, 14.5.4, Appx. D
FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT
see also FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
administrative wage garnishment, 10.2.6
overview, 10.2.1.1
regulations, 10.2.1.2
scope, 10.2.1.3
FEDERAL COURT
see JURISDICTION; REMOVAL TO FEDERAL COURT
FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
see also FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION ACT
administrative offset, see ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET
agency misconduct, 10.2.14
authority for, 10.1.1, 10.2.1
state debts, 10.1.2
bankruptcy stay, 10.2.14.8
Bivens suits, 10.2.14.2
collection agencies, by, 10.2.4
compromises, 10.2.11
counterclaims for debt, 10.2.14.12
credit reporting agencies, information release to, 10.2.3
criminal fines and penalties, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
Debt Collection Act, 10.2.1.1
Debt Collection Improvement Act, 10.2.1.1
Debt Collection Procedures Act, 10.3
demand for payment, 10.2.2
Department of Agriculture, 10.2.13.6
Department of Education, 10.2.13.2
Department of Health and Human Services, 10.2.13.2
Department of Housing and Urban Development, 10.2.13.4
Department of Justice, 10.2.4
discharge of debts, 10.2.12
exempt property, 10.3.5, 14.5.4.3
failure to comply with regulations, 10.2.9.5
FDCPA, application, 10.2.14.9
Federal Claims Collection Act, 10.2.1, 10.2.6
federal employee debts, 10.2.7
FTCA claims, 10.2.14.5
HHS, 10.2.13.2
HUD, 10.2.13.4
illegal practices, remedies, 10.2.14
implementation by agencies, 10.2.13
installment plans, 10.2.11
interest and late charges, 10.2.5
IRS, 10.2.14.11
Joint Regulations, 10.2.1.2
judicial review, 10.2.14.4
loan denial, 10.2.10
NCLC treatise, organization, 1.2.3
non-litigation methods, 10.2
offsets, see ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET
overview, 10.1
postjudgment remedies, 10.3.4
challenging, 10.3.4.4
garnishment, 10.3.4.3
installment payments, 10.3.4.3
judgment liens, 10.3.4.2
prejudgment remedies, 10.3.3
Privacy Act, application, 10.2.3, 10.2.14.3
private collection services, 10.2.4
reinvestigations, 10.2.3
release of information, 10.2.3
sale of debts, 10.2.12
settlements, 10.2.11
state agencies, joint programs, 10.2.14.10
state debts, 10.1.2
state law, application, 10.3.1
statute of limitations, 3.6.2.1, 10.2.9.5, 10.3.2
statutory authority, 10.2.1
student loans, 10.2.13.2, 14.2.2.1
surcharge, 10.3.6
survey of selected agencies, 10.2.13.1
suspension of collection, 10.2.12
tax arrears, see TAX ARREARS
tax refund intercepts, 10.2.8
termination of collection activity, 10.2.12
tort claims regarding, 10.2.14.5
venue, 10.3.7
Veterans Affairs, Department of, 10.2.13.5
wage garnishment, 14.2.2.1
written demand requirements, 10.2.2
FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT ACT
see DEBT COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT ACT (DCIA)
FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES ACT
see DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES ACT (DCPA)
FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA)
see DISASTER RELIEF ASSISTANCE
FEDERAL EMPLOYEES
see GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES
FEDERAL EXEMPTIONS
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
federal benefits, 14.3
see also FEDERAL BENEFITS
selected provisions, Appx. E
liberal construction, 13.3.1
wage garnishment, 14.2.1, Appx. C
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
claims against, 10.2.14.6
debts owed to, see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
FEDERAL LOANS
denial to federal debtors, 10.2.10
FEDERAL OFFICIALS
see GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
CCPA, 14.2.4
DCIA, 14.2.2.1
exempt property protections, 14.5.4.9
limitations period, 3.6.2.2.3
FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT (FTCA)
overview, 10.2.14.5
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
credit practices rule, see CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
holder rule, see HOLDER RULE (FTC)
FEDERAL WAGE GARNISHMENT STATUTE
regulations, Appx. C.2
text, Appx. C.1
FEES
administrative offsets, 10.2.9.1
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
bank fees against protected funds, 14.5.4.10
collection fees, see COLLECTION FEES
criminal justice fees, see CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
dishonored checks, 8.3.1, 8.3.2
interest charges, see INTEREST CHARGES
late payment, see LATE PAYMENT CHARGES
FIFO (FIRST IN, FIRST OUT)
wage garnishment protections, use, 14.2.6
FINANCE CHARGES
see also FEES
interest charges, see INTEREST CHARGES
late payment charges, see LATE PAYMENT CHARGES
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
see BANKS
FINES
see also CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
collection procedures, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
exempt property, 13.4.2
FORECLOSURES
military personnel, special protections, 7.6.4
VA regulations, 10.2.13.5
FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
standing, 3.3.2
FORUM
arbitration, see ARBITRATION
court, see JURISDICTION; VENUE
FRAUD
judgment, setting aside, 12.3.10
fraud on consumer, 12.3.10.2
fraud on court, 12.3.10.4
FRINGE LENDERS AND BANKERS
medical debt, 9.4.4
GARNISHMENT
see also POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
administrative, 10.2.6
affidavit requirements, 13.5.3
bank accounts
account agreement, effect, 14.5.6.2
deposited exempt funds, 14.5.3, 14.5.5
due process considerations, 13.5
ETAs, 14.5.5.3, Appx. D
freezes, 13.5.7, 14.5.4.1
government benefits deposits, 14.5.3.1, 14.5.4
interstate, 13.3.8.3
joint accounts, 14.5.6
medical debts, 9.1.2
minimizing impact, 2.4.2
protecting exempt funds, 14.5.5
state exemptions, 14.5.2
wage deposits, 14.2.6
wrongful, 14.5.7
contesting
hearing, 13.5.6
notice of procedure, 13.5.5
debts owed to judgment debtor, 15.4.4
defined, 14.2.1.2
due process concerns
balancing of interests, 13.5.2
postjudgment garnishment, 13.5
prejudgment garnishment, 13.5.1
exemptions
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
benefits payments, 11.5.3.3, 11.5.4.3, 14.3, 14.5.4
CCPA, 11.5.3.2, 11.5.4.2, 14.2.1.1
disposable earnings, 14.2.1.5
due process protections, 11.5.6, 13.5
insurance benefits, 15.4.1
notice, 13.5.4
pension benefits, 11.5.3, 14.4
personal injury benefits, 15.4.3
state exemptions, 11.5.5, 14.5.2
student loan proceeds, 11.5.4.4
wage garnishment, 14.2
interstate garnishment, 13.3.8
military personnel, stay of execution, 7.5.4
notice requirements, 13.5.3–13.5.5
procedural requirements
hearing, 13.5.6
notice, contents, 13.5.4, 13.5.5
notice, time, 13.5.3
strict construction, 13.3.1
support claims
maximum amount, 14.2.1.5.4
priority, 14.2.1.5.5
wages, see WAGE GARNISHMENT
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
see ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES; FEDERAL AGENCIES; STATE AGENCIES
GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENTS
see FINES; PENALTIES; TAX ARREARS
GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
exempt benefits
protecting after payment, 14.5.5
treatment as income, 14.3.8
federal benefits, see FEDERAL BENEFITS
garnishment protections, 14.3
bank account deposits, 14.5.3.1, 14.5.4, 14.5.5
public assistance, see PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BENEFITS
Social Security, see SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
student loans, see STUDENT LOANS
unemployment compensation, see UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION
veterans, see VETERANS BENEFITS
victims’ compensation, see VICTIMS’ COMPENSATION
workers’ compensation, see WORKERS’ COMPENSATION
GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS
see FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION
GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES
see also GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
computer match to locate, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.7
discharge for wage garnishment, 14.2.1.6.3
federal debt collection against, 10.2.7
statutory provisions, Appx. B.2
federal exemption provisions, Appx. E
wage garnishment
federal employees, 14.2.2.2
state restrictions, 14.2.3
GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
see also GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES
debt collection abuses, 10.2.14
FDCPA exemption, 10.2.14.9
tort claims against, 10.2.14.5
HARASSMENT
see ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
HARASSMENT ACTIONS
see also ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT; FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA); TORT CLAIMS
medical debts
FDCPA violations, 9.2.4
state law, 9.4
TILA, 9.3.2
HEALTH CARE DEBTS
see MEDICAL DEBTS
HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY ACT (HIPAA)
Privacy Rule, 9.3.4
HEARINGS
default judgment, 12.3.11.1.4
federal employee debts, salary offsets, 10.2.7, 10.2.9.4
garnishment, contesting, 13.5.6
HOLDER RULE (FTC)
liability for seller misconduct, 5.7.4.4
HOME LOANS
VA-guaranteed, collection procedures, 10.2.13.5
HOMESTEAD EXEMPTIONS
bankruptcy situations, 15.2.5
consensual liens, effect, 15.2.7
co-ownership, effect, 15.2.3.2
divorce, effect, 15.2.3.2
entireties property, 15.2.9
federal debts, application, 10.3.5
filing requirements, 15.2.8
IRS exemption, 13.4.2
mortgages, application, 15.2.7
multiple parcels, 15.2.2.3
non-traditional homesteads, 15.2.2.4
occupancy requirement, 15.2.4.1
abandonment, effect, 15.2.4.2
preexisting debts, 15.2.8
proceeds of sale, 13.3.3
remainder interests, 15.2.3.3
rural and urban distinctions, 15.2.2.2
scope, 15.2.2
dollar amounts or acreage, 15.2.2.1
persons, 15.2.3
special rules for certain types of debts, 15.2.6
trust property, 15.2.3.3
waiver, 15.2.7
HOSPITAL BILLS
see MEDICAL DEBTS
HOUSEHOLD GOODS
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY; PERSONAL PROPERTY
exempt property, 15.3.2
HUD
see DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
IDENTITY THEFT
see also MISTAKEN IDENTITY
disclosure rights, 5.3.2.3
FCRA protections, 5.3.2.4
generally, 5.3.2.1
reporting, 5.3.2.4
state law protections, 5.3.2.4
TILA credit card protections, 5.3.2.2, 5.3.2.3
IMPRISONMENT
debtors, 16.3
constitutional limits on, 11.2.2, 11.2.4, 16.3.1, 16.3.4
failure to appear at examination, 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3, 16.2.4
nonpayment of criminal justice debt, 11.4.4
INCOME TAX
see also INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
arrears, see TAX ARREARS
exempt-status hospitals, breach of conditions, 9.4.5
refund offsets for federal debts
intercept program, 10.2.8
VA regulations, 10.2.13.5
INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
CCPA, application, 14.2.1.4.4
INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
exemptions from seizure, 14.4
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
discharge for wage garnishment, 14.2.1.6.2
federal debt collection misconduct, 10.2.14.2, 10.2.14.3
INSTALLMENT PAYMENTS
see REPAYMENT PLANS; WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
INSTALLMENT SALES
statute of limitations, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.6.2
INSURANCE BENEFITS
balance due protection products, 5.3.6
state exemption from seizure, 15.4.1
INTEREST CHARGES
see also LATE PAYMENT CHARGES
“account stated” causes of action, 4.8.1
federal debts, 10.2.5
military personnel
active duty cap, 7.6.2
disputing charges, 5.2.4
pre-active duty reduction, 7.6.1
postjudgment, federal courts, 6.7.3
contractual rate, proof of, 6.7.4
postjudgment, state courts, 6.7.2
compounding, 6.7.2.3
contract rate, 6.7.2
contractual rate, proof of, 6.7.4
interstate enforcement, 6.7.2.4
legal rate, 6.7.2
prejudgment
contract, proof of, 5.4.1
foregoing, 5.4.2
interest rate, proof of, 5.4.1
legality of, 5.4.3
unauthorized prejudgment, 5.4
void as usurious, 5.2.5
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
see also INCOME TAX; TAX ARREARS
exemption scheme, 13.4.2
FTCA exemption, 10.2.14.5
tax collections
information disclosure, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.4
special problems, 10.2.14.11
tax intercept program, 10.2.8
VA regulations, 10.2.13.5
INTERNET RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
INTERROGATORIES
see DISCOVERY
INTOXICATION
defense of, 5.5.1.4
INVASION OF PRIVACY
see also PRIVACY ACT
federal debt collection, 10.2.3, 10.2.14.3
medical debt
collections, 9.3.4
credit reports, 9.3.5.4
JOINT HOLDERS
authorized users distinguished, 5.3.3.1
JOINT PROPERTY
see also ENTIRETIES; MARITAL PROPERTY
attachment, 14.5.6
contract approach, 14.5.6.2
homestead exemptions, application, 15.2.3.2
net contribution approach, 14.5.6.3
personal property, 15.3.5
bank accounts, see under BANK ACCOUNTS
JUDGMENT DEBTORS
see also POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
collection proof, see JUDGMENT-PROOF DEBTORS
debts owed to, 15.4.4
due process rights, 13.5.2
examinations, 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3, 16.2.4
exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
imprisonment, 16.3
JUDGMENT LIENS
see also LIENS
federal debt collection, 10.3.4.2
JUDGMENT-PROOF DEBTORS
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
generally, 13.1
legal representation, necessity, 2.3.7
JUDGMENTS
see also POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
appeals, 12.1
assignment, 13.6.1
bankruptcy, effect, 12.5
credit reports re, 17.2
criminal restitution orders, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
default, see DEFAULT JUDGMENTS
defined, 7.5.2
due process considerations, 13.5
enforcement by execution, see SEIZURE AND SALE
enforcement by garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
enforcement, generally, see POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
favorable to consumer, wording of order, 2.9.1
installment payments, 16.3
military personnel, stay of execution, 7.5.4
personal injury, see PERSONAL INJURY JUDGMENTS
prejudgment garnishment, 13.5.1
public record reporting, 17.2.1.2
setting aside, 12.3
see also POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
confirmation judgments, 12.4
default judgments, 12.3.2, 12.3.4
newly discovered evidence, 12.3.9
prejudice to prevailing party, 12.3.7
state standards, 12.3.4
timing considerations, 12.3.5
void judgments, 12.3.11
single indebtedness, 14.2.1.6
statute of limitations, 13.6.2
stipulated judgments, see STIPULATED JUDGMENTS
summary, see SUMMARY JUDGMENTS
JUDICIAL PROCESS
see LEGAL PROCESS
JUDICIAL REVIEW
federal agency collection practices, 10.2.14.4
JURISDICTION
see also VENUE
class actions, 2.1.10
collection actions, 3.2.1
counterclaims, 5.7.1
federal government, claims against, 10.2.14.6
interstate execution, 13.3.8.2
wage garnishment, 13.3.8.4
judgments, setting aside for lack of, 12.3.11.2
litigation misconduct actions, 17.4.2.3
Tucker Acts, 10.2.14.6
JURY TRIALS
practice aids, 2.8.5
JUSTICE SYSTEM
see also LEGAL PROCESS
systematic abuse, 2.1.2
LATE PAYMENT CHARGES
see also INTEREST CHARGES
federal claims
generally, 10.2.5
HHS regulations, 10.2.13.3
military personnel, 7.6.1
LAWSUITS
see ACTIONS; COLLECTION ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
LAWYERS
see ATTORNEYS
LEASES
military personnel, protections
automobile leases, 7.6.7
property leases, 7.6.3
residential leases, 7.6.9
personal property, statute of limitations, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.6.2
LEGAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS
see CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
see also ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCESS
abuse of process, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
collection actions, see COLLECTION ACTIONS
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
discovery, see DISCOVERY
documents created for purposes of, 4.2.4.1.2
evidence, see EVIDENCE
groundless or vexatious
see also MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
attorney fee awards, 17.1.8
litigation privilege, 17.4.1
military personnel, special protections
procedural, 7.5
substantive, 7.6
misconduct, see LITIGATION MISCONDUCT
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
venue, see VENUE
LEGAL PROCESS
see also JUSTICE SYSTEM; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
complaints, see PLEADINGS
executions, see SEIZURE AND SALE
service, see SERVICE
stipulated judgments, 12.3.10.3
tolling limitations for out-of-state defendants, 3.6.8.2.3
wrongful use
abuse of process, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
malicious prosecution, see MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
LEGAL REPRESENTATION
see also ATTORNEYS; PRACTICE AIDS
advantages for consumer, 2.1.2
case selection, 2.3.8
client brochures, 2.2.2
client intake checklist, 2.3.9
criminal justice debt, necessity, 11.1.1, 11.4.2
debt collectors, necessity, 3.3.8
development of expertise, 2.1.9
judgment-proof debtors, 2.3.7
Legal Services Corporation, 11.4.2.2
military personnel, 7.1, 7.5.2
prior to being sued, 2.3.1
pro se representation, 2.6
LENDERS
see CREDITORS
LIABILITY
assignees, 5.7.4.3, 5.7.4.4
authorized users of credit cards, 5.3.3
account owner’s obligations, 5.3.3.2
own charges, 5.3.3.3
decedent’s debts, 5.3.5
FTC Holder Notice, 5.7.4.4
mental incompetents, 5.5.1.3
minors, 5.5.1.2
necessaries statutes, see NECESSARIES STATUTES
seller misconduct, 5.7.4.4
spouses, 5.3.4
medical debts, 9.6
LICENSES
collection attorneys, 3.3.9
debt buyers, 3.3.5.3
debt collectors, 3.3.5.1
plaintiffs, requirements, 3.3.5
pleading, 3.4.2.1
LIENS
see also SECURITY INTERESTS
federal judgments, 10.3.4.2
health care providers, 9.7
homesteads, 15.2.7
military personnel, special protections, 7.6.5
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
LITIGATION
see ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
LITIGATION MISCONDUCT
abuse of process, 17.4.5.3
actions challenging, 12.6, 17.4
counterclaims, 5.7.2, 5.7.4.1, 17.4.2.2
FDCPA, application, 5.7.4.1, 17.4.3
malicious prosecution, 17.4.5.2
requests for admissions, 4.2.2.5
setting aside judgment, 12.3.10
fraud on the consumer, 12.3.10.2
fraud on the court, 12.3.10.4
LOAN SHARKS
see FRINGE LENDERS AND BANKERS
LOCATION INFORMATION
federal agency debtors, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.3
mistaken identity, 5.3.1
LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS
criminal justice debtors, 10.3.4
medical expenses
assistance programs, 9.1.4
claims regarding, 9.4.5
discriminatory pricing, 9.1.3, 9.5.6.2
MAILING
see SERVICE
MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
see also CRIMINAL PROSECUTION
attorney fee recovery, 17.1.6
bad checks, 8.4
counterclaims not compulsory, 17.4.2.2
elements of claim, 17.4.5.2
tort claim, 17.4.5.1
MANDATORY ARBITRATION CLAUSES
see ARBITRATION
MANUFACTURED HOMES
homestead exemptions, 15.2.2.4
MARITAL PROPERTY
divorce settlements
exempt benefits, status, 14.3.8
homestead division, 15.2.3.2, 15.2.6
exemptions from seizure
entireties property, 15.2.9, 15.3.5, 14.5.6.1, 14.5.6.3
homesteads, 15.2.2
household goods, 15.3.2
MATRIMONIAL PROPERTY
see MARITAL PROPERTY
MEDICAL DEBTS
see also PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT
abusive collection practices, 9.2.4, 9.4.1
Affordable Care Act, application, 9.3.1
aggressive collection, 9.1.2
balance billing, 9.3.7
burden of proof, 9.5.1
CFPB, limited oversight, 9.2.3
counterclaims, 9.5.7
credit card, payment by, 9.1.4, 9.4.4.1
credit reporting issues, 9.3.5
defenses, 9.5
account stated actions, 9.5.2
cause in contract, 9.5.4
charitable-status hospitals, 9.5.7.1
duress, 9.5.4.1
hospital negligence, 9.5.6.3
other defenses, 9.5.7
overbilling and errors, 9.5.6.3
reasonable value, 9.5.6
discriminatory or “chargemaster” pricing, 9.1.3, 9.3.1.4
reasonable value, 9.5.6.2
UDAP challenges, 9.4.2.2
disputing, 9.3.5.3
emergency statute violations, 9.3.3
exemption schemes, 9.4.3, 13.4.1
extraordinary debt collection, 9.3.1.5
FCRA, application, 9.3.5
FDCPA, application, 9.2
billing service providers, 9.2.2.2
generally, 9.2.1, 9.2.2.1
in-house collection entities, 9.2.2.3
verification of debt, 9.1.5
financial assistance, 9.1.4, 9.3.1.3
gathering information, 9.1.5
homestead exemption, 15.2.6
lien on personal injury recoveries, 9.7
loan brokers and, 9.4.4
low income consumers, 9.1.3, 9.1.4, 9.3.1, 9.4.5, 9.5.6.2
NCLC treatise, organization, 1.2.3
necessaries statutes, effect, 9.6
not-for-profit hospitals, 9.3.1, 9.4.5
nursing homes, 9.3.6
privacy issues, 9.3.4, 9.3.5.4
problem of, 9.1.1
aggressive debt collection, 9.1.2
practical solutions, 9.1.4, 9.1.5
quantum meruit claims, 9.5.5
spousal liability, 9.6
state law, 9.4
charitable status hospitals, 9.4.5
collection abuses, 9.4.1
common law claims, 9.4.6
comprehensive protection laws, 9.4.3
credit reporting, 9.3.5.4
debt collection statutes, 9.4.1
exemption statutes, 9.4.3, 13.4.1
loan brokers, 9.4.4
tort law, 9.4.1
UDAP, 9.4.2
TILA, application, 9.3.2
MENTAL ANGUISH
see EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
MENTAL INCAPACITY
defense of, 5.5.1.3
MILITARY PERSONNEL
see also SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT; VETERANS
automobile leases, 7.6.7
benefits, see VETERANS BENEFITS
collection contacts restrictions, 14.2.2.3
default judgments, 7.5.2, 12.2
estates, federal debt collection, 10.2.11
foreclosures, 7.6.4
garnishment restrictions, 14.2.2.3
retirement pay, 14.4
interest rate cap, 7.6.2
interest rate reductions, 7.6.1
legal assistance office, 7.1
lien enforcement, 7.6.5
military service, defined, 7.4
NCLC treatise, organization, 1.2.3
Office of Servicemember Affairs, 7.8
repossessions, 7.6.3
residential leases, 7.6.9
special protections, 7, 14.2.2.3
assertion, no retaliation, 7.7
generally, 7.1
history of, 7.3
procedural protections, 7.5
remedies, 7.8
scope, 7.4
statutory provisions, Appx. E
substantive protections, 7.6
waiver, 7.7
stay of proceedings
automatic stay, 7.5.3.1
co-signers, 7.5.3.3
court proceedings, 7.5.3
deferment of obligations, 7.5.5
discretionary stay, 7.5.3.2, 7.5.5
student loans, 7.5.5
telephone service contracts, 7.6.8
tolling of limitations period, 3.6.8.2.1, 7.5.6
wage assignments, 14.2.5
wage garnishment, 14.2.2.3
MINORS
capacity to contract, 5.5.1.2
necessaries, liability, 5.5.1.2
MISCONDUCT
debt collectors, see DEBT COLLECTORS
federal agency misconduct, 10.2.14
litigation misconduct, see LITIGATION MISCONDUCT
pre-litigation misconduct, 5.7.4.2
seller misconduct, 5.7.4.4
MISREPRESENTATION
see FRAUD; UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
MISTAKEN IDENTITY
see also IDENTITY THEFT
consumers, 5.3.1
MISTAKES
see ERRORS
MOBILE HOMES
see MANUFACTURED HOMES
MONETARY SANCTIONS
see CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
MORTGAGES
see SECURITY INTERESTS
NATIONAL BANKS
standing, 3.3.2.1
NATIONAL VETERANS LEGAL SERVICES PROJECT
VA benefits and debt issues, 10.2.13.5
NECESSARIES STATUTES
liability for debts, 5.3.4.3
medical debt impact, 9.6
minors, 5.5.1.2
NEGLIGENCE
hospitals, effect on medical debts, 9.5.6.3
NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
assignment, 4.3.4.4
statute of limitations, 3.6.4.4
NOTICE
see also SERVICE
assignment of debt, 4.3.4.5
default judgment hearing, improper, 12.3.11.1.4
disputed credit information, 17.2.3.1, 17.2.3.2
federal agency debts, 10.2.2
credit reporting, 10.2.3
offsets, 10.2.7, 10.2.9.4, 10.2.13.5
tax intercepts, 10.2.8
garnishment
contents, 13.5.4, 13.5.5
time, 13.5.3
NURSING HOMES
liability for debts, 9.6
Nursing Home Reform Law, 9.3.6
state law, 9.3.6
OFFSET
see ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET; SET-OFFS
OPEN-END ACCOUNTS
attorney fee recovery, 6.3.2
authorized users and joint holders distinguished, 5.3.3.1
balance due, proof issues
“account stated” balances, 4.8, 9.5.2
“on account” balances, 4.6
credit cards, see CREDIT CARD DEBTS
PARENTS
see also RELATIVES
medical debt liability, 9.6
PARTIES
see also STANDING
defendants, see DEFENDANTS
plaintiffs, see PLAINTIFFS
PARTNERSHIPS
standing, 3.3.4
PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT
discriminatory pricing protections, 9.3.1.4
extraordinary debt collection, restrictions, 9.3.1.5
financial assistance, 9.3.1.3
medical debt, 9.3.1.2
other IRS rules, 9.3.1.5, 9.3.1.6
overview, 9.3.1.1
written financial assistance policies, 9.3.1.3
PAYMENTS
misapplication, 5.2.2
partial payments
accord and satisfaction, 5.2.7
reviving limitations period, 3.6.8.3.1
PENALTIES
bad checks
civil, 8.3
criminal, 8.2
collection procedures, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
PENSIONS
see also ERISA PENSION PLANS; INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
federal offsets, 10.2.9
garnishment protections
federal offsets, 10.2.9
generally, 14.4
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
support debts, application, 13.4.2.4
PERSONAL INJURY JUDGMENTS
exempt from seizure, 15.4.3
health care providers’ liens, 9.7
PERSONAL PROPERTY
see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS
exempt property
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
general scope, 15.3.2
health aids, 15.3.3
household goods, 15.3.2
IRS exemptions, 13.4.2
motor vehicles, 15.3.3
purpose, 15.3.1
tenancy by the entireties, 15.3.5
tools of the trade, 15.3.4
PERSONS
see CONSUMERS
PLAINTIFFS
proof of standing, 4.3
unqualified plaintiffs, 3.3
PLEADINGS
see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS; LEGAL PROCESS
account stated claims, 3.5.4
affidavits, see AFFIDAVITS
attachments, see ATTACHMENTS
collector entitled to bring action, 3.4.2
defects on face of complaint, 3.4
false or vague pleadings, 3.4.6
required attachments, 3.4.2.2, 3.5
required pleading, 3.4.2, 3.4.3
signature, 3.4.5
summons and service, 3.4.4
verification, 3.4.5
false or vague pleadings, 3.4.6
legal theory delineated, 4.4
nature of claim, 3.4.3
online resources, 1.2.6
service, see SERVICE
state variations
attachments, 3.4.2.2, 3.5.1
generally, 3.4.1
required pleading, 3.4.2, 3.4.3
vagueness, 3.4.6
verification, 3.4.5
POST-DATED CHECKS
bad check laws, application, 8.2.3
POSTJUDGMENT REMEDIES
appeals, see APPEALS
debtor’s examinations, 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3, 16.2.4
due process considerations, 13.5
exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
federal debts, 10.3.4
garnishment, see GARNISHMENT
interstate execution, 13.3.8
marshalling of assets, 13.3.5
minimizing impact, 2.4, 12.1
bankruptcy alternative, 12.5
seizure and sale, see SEIZURE AND SALE
setting aside judgments, 12.3
statute of limitations, 13.6.2
PRACTICE AIDS
see also RESOURCE AIDS
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
bankruptcy alternative, 2.5
case selection, 2.3.8
client, 2.3.8.2, 2.3.8.5
collector, 2.3.8.3
other factors, 2.3.8.4
status of case, 2.3.8.1
client brochure, 2.2.2
client intake checklist, 2.3.9
client interview, 2.3.4
what client should bring, 2.3.2
counterclaims, raising, 5.7.1
criminal justice debt, 11.3.2, 11.3.5, 11.3.8, 11.4.3
debt-defense checklist, 1.4
discovery, 2.8.3
evidentiary issues, see EVIDENCE
exempt federal benefits, 14.5.4.8
exempt funds, protection after payment, 14.5.5
Direct Express card, 14.5.5.2
ETAs, 14.5.5.3
separate bank accounts, 14.5.5.1
first litigation steps, 2.8.2
judgment-proof debtors, 2.3.7
litigation tactics, 2.8.1
medical debt, 9.1.4, 9.1.5
pleadings, 1.2.6
postjudgment creditor remedies, minimizing impact, 2.4
preparing client for hearing, 11.3.8.4
prior to collection suits, 2.3.1
requests for admissions, 4.2.2
scams to avoid, 2.7
setting up a defense practice, 2.2
obtaining clients, 2.2.1, 2.3.8.5
office resources, 2.2.2
settlement, 2.9.1
steps prior to representation, 2.3
case selection, 2.3.8
evaluating collector and attorney, 2.3.6
first interview, 2.3.2, 2.3.4, 11.3.8.3
review of credit report, 2.3.3
summary judgment motion, 2.8.4
trial tactics, 2.8.5
PREEMPTION OF STATE LAW
see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
PRESUMPTIONS
joint accounts, debtor’s interest, 14.5.6.3
PREVAILING CONSUMERS
attorney fees and costs, 2.1.8, 2.9.3, 17.1
credit record, cleaning up, 2.9.1, 17.2
PRINCIPAL RESIDENCE
see HOMESTEAD EXEMPTIONS
PRIVACY
see INVASION OF PRIVACY
PRIVACY ACT
see also INVASION OF PRIVACY
federal debt collection
application, 10.2.3
violations, 10.2.14.3
limitations, 10.2.14.3
PRIVATE RETIREMENT PLANS
see INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
see DISCOVERY
PROMISSORY NOTES
assignment, standing, 4.3.4.4
statute of limitations, 3.6.4.4
PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF; EVIDENCE
PROSECUTION
see CRIMINAL PROSECUTION; MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
PROTECTION OF ASSETS
defending collection action to, 2.1.6
exempt funds, 2.4.2
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BENEFITS
see also GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
exempt benefits
protecting after payment, 14.5.5
treatment as income, 14.3.8
exemption from seizure, 14.3.2
deposit in bank account, effect, 14.5.3.1
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
PUBLIC OFFICIALS
see GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES
QUANTUM MERUIT
contractual attorney fee recovery, 6.2.2
medical bills, 9.5.5
proof issues, 4.9
RAILROAD RETIREMENT BENEFITS
see FEDERAL BENEFITS
RECORDS
business records, see BUSINESS RECORDS
computer records, see ELECTRONIC RECORDS
discovery, see DISCOVERY
operative documents, 4.2.4.1.5
REGISTRATION
see LICENSES
RELATIVES
see also PARENTS; SPOUSES
liability for decedent’s debts, 5.3.5
REMOVAL TO FEDERAL COURT
counterclaims, 5.7.1
REPAYMENT PLANS
see also WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
federal agency debts, 10.2.11
judgment debts, court-ordered, 16.3
REPOSSESSIONS
deficiency actions, see DEFICIENCY ACTIONS
military personnel, special protections, 7.6.3
REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS
see also DISCOVERY
collector’s request, 4.2.2
abuses, 4.2.2.5
denying request, 4.2.2.2.4, 4.2.2.2.5
generally, 4.2.2.1
limiting impact, 4.2.2.4
missed deadlines, 4.2.2.3
objecting to, 4.2.2.2.3
responding to, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.4.6
denial, consequences, 2.8.2, 4.2.2.2.4, 17.1.7
technical defects, 4.2.2.4.5
RES JUDICATA
collection attorneys, application, 12.6
default judgments, effect, 12.6
defense to collection action, 5.2.8
extinguished debts, 17.3
litigation misconduct, application, 12.6
RESEARCH AIDS
see RESOURCE AIDS
RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
military personnel, special protections, 7.6.9
RESOURCE AIDS
see also PRACTICE AIDS
email lists, 11.1.4
NCLC treatises
online resources, 1.1.1, 1.2.6
other treatises, 1.3, 5.1.2
this treatise, 1.1.2, 1.2.2
office resources, helpful, 2.2.2
pleadings, 1.2.6
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
RESTITUTION ORDERS
see also CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEBT
criminal restitution orders, enforcement, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
exempt property, 13.4.2
homestead exemption, 15.2.6
RETIREMENT BENEFITS
see INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs); PENSIONS
ROOKER-FELDMAN DOCTRINE
criminal justice debt, 11.7.6.3.3
federal review of state court decisions, 12.6
SALE OF DEBTS
see also DEBT BUYERS; SEIZURE AND SALE
assignment documents, defects, 4.3.4.2.3
extinguished debts, 17.3
federal agency debts, 10.2.12
notice of assignment, 4.3.4.5
proof of assignment, 3.4.2.1, 3.4.2.2, 4.3.4.2, 4.3.4.3
standing to sue, proof, 4.3.4
SALE OF GOODS
statute of limitations, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.6.2
SCAMS
avoiding, 2.3.1, 2.7
SECRETARY OF LABOR
see also DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
garnishment restrictions
enforcement, 14.2.1.6.2
state exemptions, 14.2.4
SECURITIZATION
credit card obligations, 4.3.2.2
SECURITY INTERESTS
deficiency actions, see DEFICIENCY ACTIONS
due process protections, 13.2.2
homesteads, 15.2.7
military personnel, special protections, 7.6.5
waiver of personal exemptions, 13.3.9.1
SEIZURE AND SALE
see also ATTACHMENT
deficiency actions, see DEFICIENCY ACTIONS
due process protections, 13.5
exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
federal debts, 10.3.5
interstate execution, 13.3.8
medical debts, 9.4.3
military personnel property, 7.5.4, 7.6.6
minimizing impact of postjudgment remedies, 2.4.4
SERVICE
defective service, 3.4.4
defendants moving out-of-state, 3.6.8.2.3
federal collection suits, 10.3.7
improper, setting aside judgment, 12.3.11.1
mail service, 12.3.11.1.3
“sewer service,” 12.3.11.1.2
stipulated judgment, with complaint, 12.3.10.3
wrong address, 12.3.11.1.3
SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT (SCRA)
see also MILITARY PERSONNEL
automobile leases, 7.6.7
civil actions under, 7.3, 7.8
court proceedings, 7.5
default judgments, 7.5.2, 12.2
deferments, 7.5.5
finance charges, 5.2.4
foreclosures, 7.6.4
interest rate reductions and caps, 7.6.1, 7.6.2
legislative history, 7.3
lien enforcement, 7.6.5
overview, 7.1
property executions, 7.5.4, 7.6.6
residential leases, 7.6.9
retaliation, 7.7
retroactive application, 7.3
scope, 7.4
self-help repossessions, 7.6.3
state statutes, summarized, 7.2
telephone service contracts, 7.6.8
text, Appx. A
tolling of statutes of limitations, 7.5.6
violations, remedies, 7.3, 7.8
waiver of protections, 7.7
SET-OFFS
bankers’ right against exempt funds, 14.3.3.4, 14.5.4.10
federal agency debts, see ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSETS
joint property, 14.5.6
SETTLEMENT
see also DEBT SETTLEMENT
federal agency debts, 10.2.11
practice aids, 2.9.2
structured settlements, exemptions from seizure, 15.4.3
SKIP TRACING
see LOCATION INFORMATION
SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
see also FEDERAL BENEFITS; GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
administrative offsets
calculations, 10.2.9.3
generally, 10.2.9.2, 14.3.3.1
SSI debts, 10.2.13.3
student loan collections, 10.2.13.2
assignment, 14.3.3.2
Direct Express cards, 2.4.2, 14.5.5.2
ETAs, 14.5.5.3
exempt benefits
protection after payment, 14.5.5
treatment as income, 14.3.8
garnishment protections
deposit in bank, effect, 2.4.2, 14.5.3.1
generally, 14.3.3, 14.4
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
remedies, 14.5.7
state exemptions, 14.4
statutory provisions, Appx. E
support debts, application, 13.4.2.4, Appx. E.3
Treasury rule, 10.6.4
overpayments, collection procedures, 10.2.13.3
Federal Claims Collection Act, application, 10.2.1.3, 10.2.8
setoff, 14.3.3.5
transfer, 14.3.3.2
SOLDIERS AND SAILORS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
see SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
SPOUSES
see also CONSUMERS
exempt property, stacking, 13.3.6, 13.3.7
homestead exemption, 15.2.3.2
joint property, see JOINT PROPERTY
liability, 5.3.4
community property states, 5.3.4.2
medical debts, 9.6
necessaries, 5.3.4.3
marital property, see MARITAL PROPERTY
military personnel, protections, 7.4
STANDING
see also PARTIES
plaintiffs, 3.3, 4.3
assigned debts, 3.3.2.2, 3.3.5.1, 3.3.6, 4.3.4
banks, 4.3.2.1
collection agencies, 3.3.6, 4.3.3
debt buyers, 3.3, 4.3.4
fictitious names, 3.3.3, 4.3.2.1
foreign corporations, 3.3.2
national banks, 3.3.2.1
original creditors, 4.3.2
partnerships, 3.3.4
securitized debt, 4.3.2.2
unlicensed agencies, 3.3.5
SCRA, enforcement, 7.4
wrongful seizure of exempt funds suits, 14.5.7
STATE AGENCIES
see also ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES; GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
collection abuses by, 10.2.14.5, 10.2.14.10
debts owed to, non-judicial collection, 10.1.2
federal government offset, 10.1.2, 10.2.9.1
STATE LAW
see also STATE REMEDIES
account stated cause of action, 4.8.2
assignment of judgments, 13.6.1
attorney fee recovery, 6.2.2, 6.3, 17.1.4
groundless litigation, 13.1.8
reciprocal fee statutes, 6.2.3, 13.1.3
bad checks
civil penalty statutes, 8.3
criminal statutes, 8.2
borrowing statutes, 3.6.3.2
collection expense recovery
attorney fees, 6.1, 6.2.2
collector’s fees, 6.6
common law, 6.1
contractual fees, 6.2.2
non-contractual fees, 6.3
contract determinations, applicable law, 4.5.2
default judgments, setting aside, 12.3.2, 12.3.4, 12.3.13
exemption statutes
see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
bank accounts, 14.5.2
bifurcated schemes, 13.2.4
constitutional issues, 13.2.5
liberal construction, 13.3.1
medical debts, 9.4.3, 13.4.1
role of, 13.1, 14.5.4.9
summary, Appx. G
federal preemption, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
groundless or vexatious litigation, 17.1.8
state-by-state standards, 17.1.8.4
identity theft, 5.3.2.4
judgments, setting aside, 12.3.4
litigation privilege, 17.4.1
medical debt protections
common law, 9.4.6
comprehensive debtor protections, 9.4.3
credit reporting, 9.3.5.4
debt collection statutes, 9.4.1
exemption laws, 9.4.3, 13.4.1
tort law, 9.4.1
UDAP statutes, 9.4.2
military personnel protection, 7.2
necessaries statutes, see NECESSARIES STATUTES
nursing homes, 9.3.6
pleadings
attachments, 3.4.2.2, 3.5.1
generally, 3.4.1
vagueness, 3.4.6
verification, 3.4.5
servicemember protections, 7.2
state debt collection, 10.1.2
statute of limitations
applicable law, 3.6.3
determining applicable statute, 3.6.6
differing within a state, 3.6.4
federal preemption, 3.6.2
torts, see TORT CLAIMS
UDAP, see UDAP REMEDIES
wage garnishment restrictions, 14.2.3
CCPA, relationship, 14.2.4
DCIA preemption, 14.2.2.1
hardship exceptions, 14.2.3.3
independent contractors, 14.2.1.4.4
overview, 14.2.3.1
STATE OFFICIALS
see GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
STATE REMEDIES
see also STATE LAW
affirmative actions, 2.1.7
attorney fees, 17.1.5
medical debt harassment, 9.4, 13.4.1
tort remedies, see TORT CLAIMS
UDAP, see UDAP REMEDIES
STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT
implied consent, 4.8.6
proof issues, 4.8.4
receipt by consumer, 4.8.5
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
administrative offsets, 10.2.9.1
applicable law, 3.6.3
assignees, 3.6.2.2.4
bank-issued credit card debt, 3.6.6.3
borrowing statutes, 3.6.3.2
breach of contract, 3.6.4.2
class counterclaims, 5.7.3
contractually chosen, 3.6.3.1.3, 3.6.3.1.4, 3.6.3.2.4
credit sales, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.6.2, 3.6.6.3
criminal justice debt, 11.4.8
differing within a state, 3.6.4
determining applicable, 3.6.6
dishonored checks, 3.6.4.4, 8.3.3
extending by contract, 3.6.5
FDCPA, 17.4.2.4
federal debt collections, 3.6.2.1
administrative offsets, 10.2.9.1
affirmative actions, 10.3.2
tax refund intercepts, 10.2.8
federal law, 3.6.2
federal suits, 10.3.2
government, actions against, 10.2.14.1
judgments
enforcement, 13.6.2
setting aside, 12.3.5, 12.3.10.1
leases, 3.6.4.3
nullum tempus doctrine, 11.4.8.3
Privacy Act violations, 10.2.14.3
promissory note default, 3.6.4.4
raising defense, 3.6.1
reviving, 3.6.8.3
acknowledgment of debt, 3.6.8.3.2
part payments, 3.6.8.3.1
terminology, 3.6.8.1
sale of goods, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.6.2
state by state listing, 3.6.4.2
store credit cards, 3.6.6.2
student loan collections, 10.2.13.2
tax refund intercepts, 10.2.8
telephone charges, 3.6.2.2
TILA, 5.7.4.3
tolling, 3.6.8.2
bankruptcy, 3.6.8.2.2
choice of law provisions, 3.6.8.2.4
military personnel, 3.6.8.2.1, 7.5.6
terminology, 3.6.8.1
time out-of-state, 3.6.8.2.3
voluntary dismissal, effect, 3.6.8.2.5
triggering date, 3.6.7.1
credit cards, 3.6.7.2
determining default date, 3.6.7.3
UCC, 3.6.4.3, 3.6.4.4, 3.6.6.2
utilities, 3.6.6.2
STATUTORY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES
STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
debt collection, bankruptcy, effect
federal debts, 10.2.14.8
judgments, 12.5
executions, 7.5.4, 13.3.1
military personnel
court proceedings, 7.5.3
enforcement of obligations, 7.5.5, 7.6
executions, 7.5.4, 7.6.6
foreclosures, 7.6.4
other stays, 7.5.4
STIPULATED JUDGMENTS
see also JUDGMENTS
described, 12.3.3
serving stipulations with complaint, 12.3.10.3
setting aside, 12.3
state standards, 12.3.4.1
uncontested setting aside, 12.3.1
STRESS
see EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
STUDENT LOANS
see also GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
administrative offsets against, 10.2.9.2
collection procedures, 10.2.13.2
tax refund intercepts, 10.2.8
wage garnishment restrictions, 14.2.2.1
FDCPA application, 10.2.13.2
garnishment exemption, 14.3.7, Appx. E.7
military service deferment, 7.6.1, 7.5.5
minority defense, application, 5.5.1.2
SUITS
see ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
SUMMARY JUDGMENT
business records as evidence, 4.2.4.2, 4.2.4.5
creditor’s motion, practice aids, 2.8.4
verified complaints, 4.2.3.3.3
SUMMONS
see PLEADINGS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME (SSI)
see also SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
administrative offsets, 10.2.9.2, 14.3.3.1
student loan debts, 10.2.13.2
Direct Express cards, 2.4.2, 14.5.5.2
ETAs, 14.5.5.3
garnishment exemption
deposit in bank account, effect, 14.5.3.1
exempt status, 14.3.3
notice, 13.5.4
statutory provisions, Appx. E.1
support debts, application, 13.4.2.4
Treasury rule, 10.6.4
overpayments, collection procedures, 10.2.13.3
SUPPORT
see ALIMONY; CHILD SUPPORT
TAX ARREARS
collections
CCPA, application, 14.2.1.3
Federal Claims Collection Act, application, 10.2.1.3, 10.2.6
federal Procedures Act, application, 10.3.1
FTCA exemption, 10.2.14.5
garnishment for, 14.2.1.3
homestead exemption, application, 15.2.6
information disclosure, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.4
special problems, 10.2.14.11
TAX CREDITS AND REFUNDS
exemption status, 14.3.7
federal debt offset, see TAX REFUND INTERCEPT PROGRAM (TRIP)
TAX REFUND INTERCEPT PROGRAM (TRIP)
see also INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)
earned income tax credit, application, 10.2.8
offsets for federal debts
generally, 10.2.8
VA regulations, 10.2.14.3
TELEPHONE CHARGES
calling cards, unauthorized use, 5.3.2.2
counterclaims re, 5.7.4.3
military personnel, termination of contracts, 7.6.8
statute of limitations, 3.6.2.2
TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE TO NEEDY FAMILIES
see PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BENEFITS
TENANCIES
entireties, see ENTIRETIES
residential tenancies, see RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
THREATS
see also ABUSIVE COLLECTION CONDUCT
bad checks, re, 8.1, 8.4
TOOLS OF THE TRADE
exempt property, 15.3.4
IRS exemption, 13.4.2
TORT CLAIMS
see also HARASSMENT ACTIONS
abuse of process, see ABUSE OF PROCESS
emotional distress, see EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
federal agency collection abuses, 10.2.14.5
health care providers’ lien, 9.7
invasion of privacy, see INVASION OF PRIVACY
malicious prosecution, see MALICIOUS PROSECUTION
medical debt collection abuses, 9.4.1
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE
wrongful discharge, 14.2.1.6.5
TRADE REGULATION RULES (FTC)
see CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC); HOLDER RULE (FTC)
TRANSFER OF DEBTS
see SALE OF DEBTS
TRIALS
practice aids, 2.8.5
TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
counterclaims, 5.7.4.3
credit card protections, 4.6.2–4.6.4, 4.8.6.4.1, 5.3.2.2
medical debts, application, 9.3.2
TUCKER ACTS
claims against federal government, 10.2.14.6
UCC
see UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
UDAP REMEDIES
see also STATE REMEDIES
attorney fees, 17.1.5
check collector abuses, 8.4
litigation misconduct, 17.4.4
medical debts
charitable status hospitals, 9.4.5
collection abuses, 9.4.2
discriminatory pricing, 9.4.2.2
EMTALA violations, 9.3.3
exemptions, 9.4.2.1
HIPAA violations, 9.3.4
UNCONSCIONABILITY
see also UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
medical debts, 9.4.6
UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION
see also GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
garnishment protections
generally, 14.3.4
IRS seizure, 13.4.2
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
see also UNCONSCIONABILITY
check collectors, 8.4
dunning of time-barred debts, 3.6.8.3.1
medical debt collections, 9.4.2
remedies
FDCPA, see FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
state, see UDAP REMEDIES
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
statute of limitations
application, 3.6.6.2
credit sales and leases, 3.6.4.3
dishonored checks, 3.6.4.4
promissory note default, 3.6.4.4
triggering date, 3.6.7.2
UNJUST ENRICHMENT
proof issues, 4.9
UTILITY BILLS
balance due, proof issues
“account stated” balances, 4.8
“on account” balances, 4.6
statute of limitations, 3.6.6.2
VENUE
see also JURISDICTION
abuse of process, 13.3.8.5, 17.4.5.3
collection actions, 3.2.2
FDCPA provisions, 3.2.2.1, 3.2.2.2, 13.3.8.5
federal collection actions, 10.3.7
state court, limitations on, 3.2.2.1
tolling of limitations, effect, 3.6.8.2.4
venue violations, 3.2.2.2
debtor’s examinations, 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3, 16.2.4
garnishment order applications, 13.3.8.5
VETERANS
see also MILITARY PERSONNEL
administration, see DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (VA)
benefits, see VETERANS BENEFITS
finance charges, 5.2.4
home loans, collection procedures, 10.2.13.5
NVLSP manual, 10.2.13.5
VETERANS BENEFITS
see also FEDERAL BENEFITS; GOVERNMENT BENEFITS; VETERANS
Direct Express cards, 2.4.2, 14.5.5.2
ETAs, 14.5.5.3
exempt benefits
generally, 14.3.6
protection after payment, 14.5.5
treatment as income, 14.3.8
garnishment protections
deposit in bank, effect, 14.5.3.1
federal offsets, 10.2.9.2, 10.2.13.5
generally, 14.3.7
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
statutory provisions, Appx. E.2
support debts, application, 13.4.2.4, Appx. E.3
Treasury rule, 10.6.4
military retirement pay, 14.3.6
NVLSP manual, 10.2.13.5
VICTIMS’ COMPENSATION
see also GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
criminal restitution orders, enforcement, 10.3.1, 10.3.5
exempt property, 13.4.2
garnishment protections, 14.3.6
WAGE ASSIGNMENTS
see also WAGE GARNISHMENT
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 14.2.1.2
military personnel, 14.2.5
restrictions, 14.2.1.2, 14.2.5
WAGE GARNISHMENT
see also GARNISHMENT
administrative, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.6, 14.2.2.1
CCPA, application, 14.2.1.2, 14.2.1.3, 14.2.1.4
Department of Labor Regulations, Appx. C.2
deposited funds, effect, 14.2.6
excessive, remedies, 14.2.7
federal debts, 10.2.7, 10.3.4.3, 14.2.2.1
federal employees, 14.2.2.2
federal protections, 14.2.1
calculations, 14.2.1.5
discharge protections, 14.2.1.6, 14.2.2.1
military personnel, 14.2.2.3
paid or deposited earnings, 14.2.6
protected earnings, 14.2.1.4
purpose, 14.2.1.1
relationship to state law, 14.2.4
remedies, 14.2.7
scope, 14.2.1.2, 14.2.1.3, 14.2.1.4
special categories, 14.2.2
federal statute, Appx. C
regulations, Appx. C.2
text, Appx. C.1
government employees, 14.2.2.2, 14.2.3
independent contractors, 14.2.1.4.4
interstate, 13.3.8.4
medical debts, 9.4.3
military personnel, 14.2.2.3
minimizing impact, 2.4.3
multiple jobs, 14.2.1.5.5
non-periodic payments, 14.2.1.4.5
notice requirements, 13.5.3, 13.5.4
prejudgment, 13.5.1
priorities, 14.2.1.5.4
state restrictions, 14.2.3
medical debts, 9.4.3
relationship to federal law, 14.2.4
student loans, 10.2.13.2, 14.2.2.1
support debts, 14.2.1.5.4, 14.2.1.5.5
tax arrears, 14.2.1.3
tips to servers, 14.2.1.4.3
vacation and sick pay, 14.2.1.4.1
wrongful discharge protections, 14.2.1.6
WAIVER
homestead exemption, 15.2.7
military personnel protections, 7.7
personal exemptions, 13.3.9
failure to claim as, 13.3.9.1, 14.5.7
FTC prohibition, 13.3.9.2
WEB RESOURCES
email lists, 11.1.4
NCLC resources, 1.1.1, 1.2.6
pleadings, 1.2.6
WELFARE BENEFITS
see PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BENEFITS
WITNESSES
see EVIDENCE
WORKERS’ COMPENSATION
see also GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
garnishment protections
deposit in bank, effect, 14.5.3.1
generally, 14.3.4
IRS seizure, 13.4.2
notice of exemption, 13.5.4
support debts, application, 13.4.2.4
WORKOUT AGREEMENTS
see also REPAYMENT PLANS
federal agency debts, 10.2.11
WRONGFUL DISCHARGE
garnishment, for, 14.2.1.6, 14.2.4
tort claims, 14.2.1.6.5