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ACTIONS
wrongful disconnection, 6.7.1
manufactured home parks, 14.5
tenants, 6.8.4.6
AFDC EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (EA)
see also EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
repeal of program, 7.1.2
AFFORDABILITY PROGRAMS
see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
weatherization programs, 9.2.5.11
ALTERNATIVE POWER PRODUCERS (APPs)
see also COMPETITIVE SUPPLIERS
retail wheeling, 1.2.2.3
wholesale wheeling, 1.2.2.3
ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD
telecommunications equipment, accessibility guidelines, 11.5.2
ARREARS
see UTILITY ARREARS
ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS; UTILITY ARREARS
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
FCBA violations, 15.2.2
intervenor funding, 7.4.4
self-help evictions, 6.8.4.3
BANKRUPTCY
see also BANKRUPTCY CODE
administrative costs, recovery, 13.2.4.2
automatic stay, 13.1.1.1, 13.1.2.3.1, 13.2.3.1
building code enforcement, application, 13.2.3.8.2
postpetition arrears, application, 13.1.2.3.4
relief from stay, 13.2.3.4
Chapter 7
abandonment by the trustee, 13.2.3.8.1
conversion to Chapter 13, 13.1.3.6
described, 13.1.1.3
discharge of debts, 13.1.3.1
involuntary dismissal, 13.1.3.6
loss of service without abandonment, 13.2.3.8.2
pre-bankruptcy arrears, treatment, 13.1.3.1
utility liens, 13.1.3.2.2
Chapter 11
adequate assurance, 13.1.2.3.2
appointment of trustee, 13.2.3.7
conversion to Chapter 7, 13.2.3.7
use by individuals, 13.1.1.3
Chapter 12 or 13
conversion to Chapter 7, 13.1.3.6
described, 13.1.1.3
involuntary dismissal, 13.1.3.6
pre-bankruptcy arrears, treatment, 13.1.3.1
security deposit alternative, 13.1.2.3.2
stripdown, 13.1.3.2.2
utility liens, 13.1.3.2.2
voluntary dismissal, 13.1.3.6
consumer (utility customer) bankruptcy
advantages, 13.1.1.1
disadvantages, 13.1.3.4
options, 13.1.1.3
security deposits, 5.2.9, 13.1.2.3.2
utility arrears, special treatment, 13.1.2
disconnection protection, 6.3.9, 13.1.2.1, 13.1.2.5
discrimination re, 13.1.2.5
in forma pauperis, 13.2.3.5
initiating, 13.1.3.7
injunctive relief, 13.2.3.2
landlord bankruptcy
effect on state law remedies, 13.2.2
enforcing monetary claims, 13.2.4
generally, 13.2.1, 13.2.5
keeping utilities on during process, 13.2.3
withholding rent, 13.2.3.6
leverage to establish payment plans, 13.1.3.3
non-dischargeability, seeking determination, 13.2.4.3
pending actions, removal to bankruptcy court, 13.2.3.3
proof of claim, filing, 13.2.4.1
purpose, 13.1.1.4
security interests, effect, 13.1.1.3, 13.1.3.2.2
timing issues, 13.1.3.5
utility arrears, special treatment, 13.1.2
adequate assurance, 13.1.2.3.2, 13.1.2.3.3
continuation or reconnection of service, 13.1.2.3.1
governmental units, 13.1.2.5
postpetition service, 13.1.2.3.1, 13.1.2.3.2
postpetition termination procedures, 13.1.2.3.4
tampering exemption, 13.1.2.4
utility claims, status, 13.1.3.2
dealing with secured claims, 13.1.3.2.2
objecting to priority treatment, 13.1.3.2.1
BANKRUPTCY CODE
see also BANKRUPTCY
overhaul, 13.1.1.2, 13.2.1
utility arrears, special treatment, 13.1.2
service providers, application, 13.1.2.2
BILL OF RIGHTS
see CONSUMER BILL OF RIGHTS
BILLING DISPUTES
see also BILLING ERRORS
disconnection during, 6.3.5
FCBA, application, 5.5.9, 15.2.2
interstate telephone billings, 11.2.2
late charges, 5.5.2
slamming, 11.6.5.1.3
BILLING ERRORS
see also BILLING DISPUTES; UTILITY CHARGES
defined, 15.2.2
fast meters, 4.4
FCBA protections, 5.5.9, 15.2.2
meter tampering, 4.3.3
overcharges, 4.4
reverse metering, 4.1.2
undercharges, 4.1.2, 4.3.3, 6.6
unmetered use, estimating, 4.3.4
BILLING PLANS
see BUDGET BILLING PLANS; DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
BILLINGS
see UTILITY CHARGES
BREACH OF CONTRACT
see also CONTRACT LAW
discourteous treatment as, 2.6.2
energy or telecommunications service, 15.4.1.1
landlord-requested disconnects
covenant of quiet enjoyment, 6.8.4.1
third-party beneficiary, 6.8.4.6
warranty of habitability, 6.8.4.2
wrongful disconnection, 6.7.1
BUDGET BILLING PLANS
see also PAYMENT; PAYMENT RESTRUCTURING PROGRAMS; UTILITY CHARGES
customer change in circumstances, 6.3.3.1.1
deferred payment plans, relationship, 6.3.3.3.2
described, 6.3.3.1.1
extraordinary price increases, 6.3.3.4
missed payments when ahead, 6.3.6
monthly budget amount
insufficient, 6.3.3.1.3
review, 6.3.3.1.2
too high, 6.3.3.1.2, 6.3.6
overpayments, 6.3.3.1.2
overview, 7.2.4
security deposit alternative, 5.2.6
underpayments, 6.3.3.1.3
water utilities, 12.3
BUILDING AND FIRE CODES
enforcement during landlord’s bankruptcy, 13.2.3.8.2
BUNDLED SERVICE
energy service
generation and distribution, 2.1.4
unbundling, see RETAIL WHEELING
telecommunications companies, 11.6.2, 11.6.3, 11.6.4
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
bankruptcy
administrative costs, 13.2.4.2
meter tampering, 13.1.2.4
relief from stay, 13.2.3.4
injunctive relief, irreparable harm, 2.4.2
meter accuracy, 4.4
meter tampering, 4.3.2.1, 13.1.2.4
notice of disconnection, non-receipt, 6.2.5
payment, 5.1.10
punitive damages, 6.7.2.4
slamming, 11.6.5.1.3
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
CASE LAW
see SOURCES OF LAW
CHARITIES
fuel funds, 7.1.1.1
CHECK PAYMENTS
see also PAYMENT
utility charges, 5.1.4, 5.1.5
CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES
see also DISCRIMINATION
ESPs, application, 5.5.10
CLASS ACTIONS
slamming, 11.6.5.1.3
CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
see also SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
documents and unpublished cases, 1.1.2
COLLATERAL MATTERS
common law rule
generally, 2.2.1
unrelated contract, 2.2.2.1, 2.2.2.2, 6.4.2.1
defined, 2.2.1
denial of service based on, 2.2, 6.4
past undercharges, 6.6.4
prohibition, 2.2.1, 6.4.1
third-party debt, 2.2.3, 6.5
unrelated contract, 2.2.2, 6.4.2, 6.4.3
non-utility credit history, 5.2.4
old utility debts, 2.2.2.1
past conduct defrauding the utility, 2.2.2.4
past undercharges, 6.6.4
separate business run by utility, 2.2.2.5, 6.4.3
state regulations, 2.2.2.3, 6.4.2.2
third-party debt, see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
COLLECTION ACTIVITIES
disconnection as collection means
collateral matters, 6.4
disputed bills, 6.3.5
past undercharges, 6.6
PUC regulations, 5.5.3
third-party debts, 6.5
late charges, relationship, 5.5.3
long-distance charges by local phone company, 11.6.3
PUC protections, 5.5.3
COMMON LAW
collateral matters, 2.2.1, 2.2.2.2, 2.2.3.1, 6.4.2.1, 6.5.1
contract law, see CONTRACT LAW
disconnection
during billing dispute, 6.3.5
notice of disconnection, 6.2.1, 6.2.2
duty to serve, 2.1, 6.7.2.1
landlord’s duty to provide utilities, 3.3
landlord-tenant relationship, 6.8.4.4
necessaries, liability for, 2.2.3.5
security deposits, 5.2.7.1
service in own name, right to, 3.2.1
utility providers, application, 2.1.1
COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
see PUBLIC UTILITIES; TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES; TELEPHONE SERVICE; UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE; UTILITY SERVICE
COMPETITION
see RESTRUCTURING
COMPETITIVE SUPPLIERS
CLECs, 11.3.2.10.3
electric power restructuring and, 1.2.2.3
FCBA, application, 15.2.1
partial payments, allocation, 5.1.3
COMPLAINTS
denial of service, 2.4
Open Internet Rules, 11.7.3
slamming, 11.6.5.1.3
filing with FCC, 11.6.5.1.5
filing with PUC, 11.6.5.1.4
CONSERVATION PLANS
see ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
discrimination, see DISCRIMINATION
due process, see DUE PROCESS
CONSUMER BILL OF RIGHTS
utility service, 2.5
CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS
ECOA, see EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
ESPs, application, 5.5.10
FCBA, see FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
inadequately regulated utilities, application, 15.4
state utilities regulations
background to rules, Appx. A.2
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3
state-by-state summaries, Appx. A.5Appx. A.7
UCC, see UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
UDAP, see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
CONSUMERS
see CUSTOMERS; DISABLED CUSTOMERS; ELDERLY CUSTOMERS; LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS
CONTRACT LAW
breach of contract, see BREACH OF CONTRACT
energy or telecommunications service, application, 15.4.1.1
mistake doctrine, 4.1.2
notice of disconnection, 6.2.1
public utilities, application, 2.1.1
quantum meruit doctrine, 6.5.6.4
tenant as third-party beneficiary, 6.8.4.6
third-party liability, 2.2.3.4, 6.5.6.2
contracts implied in fact, 6.5.6.3
contracts implied in law, 6.5.6.4
UCC application, see UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
unjust enrichment, 6.5.6.4
unrelated contracts, see COLLATERAL MATTERS
usage of trade, application, 15.4.1.3
COOPERATIVES
see RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES (RECs)
COURTEOUS TREATMENT
see also CUSTOMER SERVICE
right to
remedies for discourteous treatment, 2.6.2
special relationship, 2.6.1
CRAMMING
described, 11.6.5.5
FCC Truth in Billing rule, 11.6.5.5
CREDIT HISTORY
see CREDIT REPORTS; CREDIT SCORES
CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
pyramiding late charges, 5.5.6.2
CREDIT REPORTS
full utility credit reporting, 5.2.5
current practice, 5.2.5.4
fairness and consistency, 5.2.5.7
harm to low income consumers, 5.2.5.5
overview, 5.2.5.1
state protections, 5.2.5.6
nontraditional credit reports, 5.2.5.3
CREDIT SCORES
accuracy of information, 5.2.4.5
application to utility access, 5.2.4
challenging, 5.2.4.8
disparate impact, 5.2.4.6
duty to provide service, 5.2.4.4
fairness, 5.2.4.2
necessary safeguards, 5.2.4.9
reliability, 5.2.4.2, 5.2.4.5
security deposits, 5.2.4.1
credit reporting by utilities, 5.2.5
disputing, 5.2.4.7
how they work, 5.2.4.3
nontraditonal uses, 5.2.5.3
traditional uses, 5.2.5.2
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS
defined, 5.2.2.2.3
discrimination
ECOA, 5.2.2.2
state law, 5.2.2.2.5
CRISIS ASSISTANCE
see EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
CROSSMETERING
see REVERSE METERING
CUSTOMER SERVICE
see also TREATMENT OF CUSTOMERS
courteous treatment, right to, 2.6
deregulation effect, 1.2.2.3.2
quality of service, 1.2.2.3.1
duty to serve, see DUTY TO SERVE
telephone customers, issues, 11.6
CUSTOMERS
see also CUSTOMER SERVICE
bill of rights, see CONSUMER BILL OF RIGHTS
disabled customers, see DISABLED CUSTOMERS
discourteous treatment, 2.6.2
elderly customers, see ELDERLY CUSTOMERS
illness, see MEDICAL ILLNESS
low-income customers, see LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS
service, see CUSTOMER SERVICE
special relationship with utility, 2.6.1
DAMAGES
credit discrimination, 5.2.2.2.4
discourteous treatment, 2.6.2
FCBA violations, 15.2.2
implied warranty of habitability, breaches, 3.4.1.5
late charges as, 5.6.4
refusal of service, 2.4.2
termination by utility, 6.7.1, 6.7.2.4
bankruptcy stay violation, 13.1.2.3.1
billing dispute, during, 6.3.5
termination of service by landlord, 3.4.2.1
covenant of quiet enjoyment, 6.8.4.1
self-help evictions, 6.8.4.3
DEBTS
collateral debts, see COLLATERAL MATTERS
collection, see COLLECTION ACTIVITIES; FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
third-party debts, see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
DEFAULT SERVICE
Provider of Last Resort (POLR), 1.2.2.3, 2.2.2
restructured states, 2.1.4
electricity rates, 1.2.2.3
risks for consumers, 1.2.2.3.3
DEFENSES
disconnection
estoppel, 4.1.2, 6.6.2, 6.6.3
Fair Credit Billing Act, 5.5.9, 15.2.2
payment, 5.1
regulatory protections, 5.5.3
erroneous undercharges, 4.1.2, 6.6
late charges, 5.5
payment as defense, pleading, 5.1.10
spousal liability, inability to pay, 2.2.3.5
tender of payment, effect, 5.1.2
utility allowances, inadequate, 10.7.2
DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
see also PAYMENT; PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS; UTILITY CHARGES
arrearage forgiveness, 7.2.5
bankruptcy leverage, 13.1.3.3
budget billing plans, relationship, 6.3.3.3.2
default on agreement, 6.3.4
extraordinary price increases, 6.3.3.4
form of agreements, 6.3.3.3.3
mistaken undercharges, 6.6.1
overview, 6.3.3.3.1
partial payment as substitute, 6.3.3.3.4
renegotiation, 6.3.3.3.5
varying terms between utilities, 5.2.5.7.2
water utilities, 12.3
DEFINITIONS
billing error, 15.2.2
collateral matter, 2.2.1
cost-effective, 9.4.6
cramming, 11.6.5.5
credit transaction, 5.2.2.2.3
crisis, 8.2.5
default service, 2.1.4
discriminate against an applicant, 5.2.2.2.1
energy cost allocation, 4.5.3.1
good faith, 15.4.1.4
household, 8.3.2.1, 8.3.2.4
public utility, 1.1.3
slamming, 11.6.5.1.1
standard offer service, 2.1.4
tenant rent, 10.1.3
unfairness, 15.4.2.2
universal telecommunications service, 11.1, 11.3.2.4.4
utility allowance, 10.2.1
DELIVERABLE FUELS (UNREGULATED)
see UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM)
restructuring, effect, 1.2.2.3.2, 9.4.1
weatherization and conservation, 9.4.1
DENIAL OF SERVICE
see REFUSAL OF SERVICE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
weatherization assistance, 9.3.2
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE)
weatherization program, see WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (WAP)
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) Program, 7.1.3
Forms 52722-A and -B, 10.8.6
subsidized housing programs
described, 10.1.2
project-based assistance, 10.2.6.3
Public Housing Occupancy Guidebook, 10.2.3.2
public housing program, see PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM
Section 8 voucher program, see SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES)
Section 236 housing, 10.2.6.2
utility allowances, policies, 10.6.3, 10.6.4
DEPOSITS
see SECURITY DEPOSITS
DEREGULATION
see RESTRUCTURING
DISABLED CUSTOMERS
see also CUSTOMERS; LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS
protections from disconnection, 6.3.1
telecommunications accessibility, 11.5
enforcement, 11.5.3
generally, 11.5.1
guidelines, 11.5.2
DISCLOSURE
credit scores, use, 5.2.4.7
payment assistance recipients, information re, 7.3.3
pay-per-call services, 11.6.5.6.4
DISCONNECTION OF SERVICE
see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
DISCOUNT RATES
see also RATE DISCOUNT PROGRAMS; RATES
as unjust discrimination, 2.3.4, 7.5
outreach and enrollment, Appx. F
PUC authority, 7.5.4
restructuring and, 1.2.2.3.2
telephone, see TOLL-LIMITATION SERVICES
DISCRIMINATION
see also CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
bankruptcy filing, 13.1.2.5
civil rights statutes, see CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES
credit scores, 5.2.4.6
defined, 5.2.2.2.1
duty to serve without, 2.3.2
ECOA, see EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
Fair Housing Act (FHA) prohibitions, 6.8.4.8
landlord conduct, 6.8.4.4, 6.8.4.8
late charges, 5.5.7, 5.5.10
payment assistance programs as, 2.3.4, 7.5
public utilities
FHA, 6.8.4.8
generally, 2.3.1, 5.2.2.2.1
governmental units, 13.1.2.5
RECs, 15.1.4
security deposits, 5.2.2
third-party debts, 2.2.3.2, 15.1.3.2
unjust and unreasonable discrimination
basic rule, 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 7.5.2
city resident status, 2.3.3
low-income rates as, 2.3.4, 7.5
undercharges as, 4.1.2
utility rates and service, 2.3, 4.1.2, 7.5
DISPUTE RESOLUTION
billing disputes, see BILLING DISPUTES
regulated utilities
PUCs, 1.3.5
refusal of service, 2.4.1
restructuring, after, 1.3.5
WAP benefits, tenant issues, 9.2.5.11
weatherization programs, 9.2.5.11
DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES
partial payments, allocation, 5.1.3
DPAs
see DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
DSM
see DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM)
DUE PROCESS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
IOUs, application, 15.1.1
LIHEAP actions, 8.7.2
MUNIs, application, 15.1.2
public and subsidized housing, 6.8.4.7
RECs, application, 15.1.4
requirements, 15.1.3
generally, 15.1.3.1
landlord defaults, 3.2.3, 15.1.3.3
third-party debts, 15.1.3.2
termination of service, 3.2.3, 15.1.3
DURESS
payments under, 5.1.9
DUTY TO SERVE
see also UTILITY SERVICE
codification, 2.1.3
common law duty, 2.1.2, 6.7.2.1
credit scores and, 5.2.4.4
default or standard offer service, 2.1.4
deregulation effect, 2.1.4
non-discriminatory rates and services, 2.3.2, 7.5.2
special relationship between utilities and customers, 2.6.1
statutory duty, 2.1.2
tort remedies, 6.7.2
ELDERLY CUSTOMERS
see also CUSTOMERS; LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS
protections from disconnection, 6.3.1
ELECTRIC MEMBERSHIP CORPORATIONS
see RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES (RECs)
ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE
see also REGULATED UTILITIES; UTILITY SERVICE
affordability programs, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
civil rights acts, application, 5.5.10
consumer protection statutes, application, 5.5.10
contract law, application, 15.4.1.1
credit reporting, 5.2.5.5
demand side management, 1.2.2.3.2
deregulation, 1.1.4, 1.2.2.3
disconnection, see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
good faith standard, 15.4.1.4
industry overview, 1.2.2.1
infrastructure, assistance connecting to, 7.2.6
integrated resource planning, 1.2.2.3.2
investor-owned utilities, see INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES (IOUs)
meters, see METERS
municipal utilities, see MUNICIPAL UTILITIES (MUNIs)
non-utility generators, see ALTERNATIVE POWER PRODUCERS (APPs)
prepaid service, 4.6
rates, see RATES
regulation, 1.2.2.2
reliability issues, 1.2.2.3.1
restructuring, 1.1.4, 1.2.2.3
customer service, 1.2.2.3.2
default service risk, 1.2.2.3.3
low-income consumers, impact, 1.2.2.3.2
quality and reliability issues, 1.2.2.3.1
weatherization, 1.2.2.3.2
retail wheeling, 1.2.2.3
rural cooperatives, see RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES (RECs)
self-generation, 4.5.2.1
tenancy situations, see RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
UCC, application, 15.4.1
UDAP, application, 15.4.2
usage of trade, application, 15.4.1.3
wholesale wheeling, 1.2.2.3
ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES IN GLOBAL AND NATIONAL COMMERCE ACT (E-SIGN)
disconnect notice exemption, 6.2.5
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see also FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
AFDC repeal, 7.1.2
Emergency Food and Shelter Program (EFSP), 7.1.4
Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) Program, 7.1.3
FEMA funds, 7.1.4
fuel funds, see FUEL FUNDS
LIHEAP, 8.1.3.2, 8.2.5
MOE funds, 7.1.2
TANF block grants, 7.1.2
EMERGENCY FOOD AND SHELTER PROGRAM (EFSP)
see also EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
overview, 7.1.4
EMERGENCY SERVICES
calls using Internet relay services, 11.5.1
universal access, 11.3.2.4.4
EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS (ESG)
see also EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
overview, 7.1.3
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
see MENTAL DISTRESS
ENERGY ASSISTANCE
see FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
ENERGY ASSURANCE PROGRAMS (EAPs)
see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
ENERGY COST ALLOCATION SYSTEMS
see also MASTER-METERING
described, 4.5.3.1
justification for use, 4.5.3.2
potential regulations, 4.5.3.5
types of systems, 4.5.3.3
UDAP challenges, 4.5.3.4
water allocation formulas, 4.5.4
ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS
see also WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE
funding, 9.1
low-income programs, 9.4.7
combining funds, 9.4.7.4
cost-effectiveness, 9.4.6
high transaction costs, 9.4.7.1
low-interest loans, 9.4.7.3
non-energy savings repairs, 9.4.7.2
summary of programs, Appx. E
utility-sponsored, 9.4
cost-effective requirement, 9.4.6
low-income programs, 9.4.7
ENERGY POLICY ACT (EPACT)
wholesale wheeling, 1.2.2.3
ENERGY SERVICE
see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE; NATURAL GAS SERVICE; UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
credit transactions, application, 5.2.2.2.3
discrimination, definition, 5.2.2.2.1
enforcement, 5.2.2.2.4
late charges, application, 5.5.10
overview, 5.2.2.2.1
parallel state statutes, 5.2.2.2.5
prohibited bases, 5.2.2.2.2
public utilities, application, 5.2.2.2.1
security deposits, application, 5.2.2.2
EQUAL PAYMENT PLANS
see BUDGET BILLING PLANS
EQUAL PROTECTION
see DISCRIMINATION
EQUITABLE REMEDIES
credit discrimination, 5.2.2.2.4
estoppel, see ESTOPPEL
injunctive relief, see INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
mandamus, see MANDAMUS
refusal of service, 2.4.2
tenant as third-party beneficiary, 6.8.4.6
ERRONEOUS BILLING
see BILLING ERRORS; REVERSE METERING
ESPs
see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE
ESTOPPEL
see also EQUITABLE REMEDIES
erroneous undercharges, application, 4.1.2, 6.6.2, 6.6.3
late or partial payments, acceptance as, 6.3.4
EVICTIONS
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
discriminatory, 6.8.4.4
public and subsidized housing, 6.8.4.7
retaliatory, 6.8.4.4
self-help, see SELF-HELP EVICTIONS
UDAP violations, 6.8.4.5
utility disconnection as, 6.8.4.1
manufactured home parks, 14.5
weatherization, after, 9.2.5.5
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF; PRESUMPTIONS
meter tampering
presumption of responsibility, 4.3.2.1
standard of evidence, 4.3.2.2
payment, 5.1.10
EXTENDED PAYMENT PLANS
see DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS
see also WINTER SERVICE
disconnection moratoria, 6.3.2
state-by-state protections, Appx. A.5
LIHEAP funding, 8.1.3.2, 8.2.5
FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
application to utilities, 15.2.1
disconnections, using to stop, 5.5.9
municipal or REC disconnects, 15.2
late charges, application, 5.5.9
overview, 5.5.9, 15.2.2
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA)
application
landlord-requested disconnects, 6.8.4.5
local phone company collection of long-distance and other debts, 11.6.3
FAIR HOUSING ACT (FHA)
discrimination prohibitions, 6.8.4.8
FAMILY MEMBERS
see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
FCC
see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see also PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS; UTILITY ARREARS
emergency assistance, see EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
Housing and Development Act, eligibility provision, 8.5.2.2
LIHEAP, see LOW INCOME HOME ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (LIHEAP)
REACH, see RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ASSISTANCE CHALLENGE (REACH)
telephone access, see LIFELINE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
WAP, see WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (WAP)
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
jurisdiction, 11.2.2
Open Internet Rules, 11.7.3
slamming
anti-slamming rules, 11.6.5.1.1
complaints, filing, 11.6.5.1.3, 11.6.5.1.5
regulations, Appx. B.3
telecommunications regulation, 11.2.2
Internet, 11.7.3
pay-per-call regulations, Appx. B.4.1
slamming regulations, 11.6.5.1.1, Appx. B.3
unsolicited calls, proposed rules, 11.6.6
Truth in Billing rule, 11.6.5.5
FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA)
Emergency Food and Shelter Program, 7.1.4
FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (FERC)
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
electric power regulation, 1.2.2.2
natural gas regulation, 1.2.1.2
wholesale wheeling policies, 1.2.2.3
FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC)
utility allowances, 10.2.7
FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE)
utility allowances, 10.2.7
FEDERAL POVERTY LEVEL (FPL)
overview of guidelines, 7.3.4.2
median income alternative, 7.3.4.3
2008 guidelines, Appx. D.4
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
FCC, 11.2.2
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
credit practices rule, see CREDIT PRACTICES RULE (FTC)
pay-per-call regulations, Appx. B.4.2
unfairness standard, 15.4.2.2
FEMA FUNDS
see EMERGENCY FOOD AND SHELTER PROGRAM (EFSP); FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA)
FOOD STAMPS
see UTILITY ARREARS
FORGIVENESS OF ARREARS
Connecticut model, 7.2.5.2
Missouri model, 7.2.5.3
other states, 7.2.5.4
overview, 7.2.5.1
FRAUD
grounds for termination, 6.1.3
meter tampering, see METER TAMPERING
900-number fraud, 11.6.5.6.5, 11.6.5.8, Appx. B.5
FTC
see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
FUEL FUNDS
see also EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
funds raised, 7.1.1.2
overview, 7.1.1.1
summary of programs, Appx. E
FUEL OIL
see HOME HEATING OIL
GARBAGE SERVICE
see SANITATION SERVICE
GAS SERVICE
see NATURAL GAS SERVICE; REGULATED UTILITIES; UTILITY SERVICE
GOOD FAITH STANDARDS
public utilities, 15.4.1.4
HABITABILITY
see WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY (IMPLIED)
HEARINGS
see also REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS
due process rights, 15.1.3.1
public and subsidized housing evictions, 6.8.4.7
HEATING COST ALLOCATION (HCA) SYSTEMS
see also ENERGY COST ALLOCATION SYSTEMS; MASTER-METERING
described, 4.5.3.1
public housing, 10.8.7.2
HEATING FUELS
electric power, see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE
home heating oil, see HOME HEATING OIL
natural gas, see NATURAL GAS SERVICE
propane, see PROPANE GAS
unregulated deliverable fuels, see UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
HEATING SERVICE
see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE; NATURAL GAS SERVICE; PUBLIC UTILITIES
HOME HEATING OIL
see also UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
price gouging statutes, 15.3.5
PUC regulations, application, 15.3.4
special problems, 15.3.3
UDAP, application, 15.3.4
HOUSEHOLDS
energy expenditures, disparities, 5.2.5.7.3
LIHEAP eligibility
definition, 8.3.2.1, 8.3.2.4
separate living quarters, 8.3.2.3
unrelated borders, 8.3.2.2
HOUSING
see also FAIR HOUSING ACT (FHA)
code violations, 3.4.1.6
discrimination prohibitions, 6.8.4.8
energy efficiency, see ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS; WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE
HUD, see DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
manufactured housing, see MANUFACTURED HOMES
subsidized housing, see PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM; SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES); SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
HOUSING AND DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1992
energy assistance eligibility provision, 8.5.2.2
special LIHEAP rule, 8.5.2.4, 8.5.2.5
HUD
see DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD)
ILLNESS
see MEDICAL ILLNESS
INCOME-BASED PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
see PERCENTAGE OF INCOME PAYMENT PLANS (PIPPs)
INFORMATION PROVIDERS (IPs)
1-900-service, 11.6.5.6.1, Appx. B.5
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
see also EQUITABLE REMEDIES
bankruptcy court, 13.2.3.2
implied warranty of habitability, 3.4.1.5
termination of service, 2.4.2
breach of covenant of quiet enjoyment, 6.8.4.1
self-help eviction, 6.8.4.3
wrongful termination, 6.3.5, 6.7.1, 6.8.3
utility allowances, inadequate, 10.7.3
INTEGRATED RESOURCE PLANNING (IRP)
weatherization and conservation, 9.4.1
INTEREST CHARGES
compound interest, 5.5.6.4
late charges distinguished, 5.5.8, 5.6.2, 5.6.4
INTEREST PAYMENTS
security deposits, 5.2.10
INTERNET
see also TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
IP-enabled voice providers, 11.5.1
National Broadband Plan, 11.1
Open Internet Rules, 11.7.3
relay services, 11.5.1
research aids, see WEB RESOURCES
telecommunications jurisdiction, 11.2.2
VoIP, 11.5.1
INTERVENOR FUNDING
see also REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS
allowable costs, 7.4.4
attorney fee awards, 7.4.4
benefits of regulatory participation, 7.4.1
NCLC manual, 7.4.1
publicly funded counsel as alternative, 7.4.5
PURPA requirements, 7.4.5
specific conditions, 7.4.3
state authority, 7.4.2
INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES (IOUs)
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES; REGULATED UTILITIES
due process, application, 3.2.3, 15.1.1
duty to serve, 2.1.2
electric power capacity, 1.2.2.1
FCBA, application, 15.2.1
UDAP, application, 5.5.11
unjust discrimination, 2.3.2
JOINT BOARD ON UNIVERSAL SERVICE
see also UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
mandate, 11.2.3
universal service definition, 11.3.2.4.4
JURISDICTION
complaints against utilities, 1.3.5
doctrine of primary jurisdiction, 1.3.5, 2.4.2
FCC, 11.2.2, 11.7.3
PUCs, 1.3.5, 11.2.1
refusal of service complaints, 2.4.2
telecommunications services
Internet, 11.7.3
interstate services, 11.2.2
long-distance slamming, 11.6.5.1.1
services for the disabled, 11.5.3
wireline services, 11.2.1
KEROSENE
see UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
LANDLORDS
see RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
LATE CHARGES
see also PAYMENT; UTILITY ARREARS; UTILITY CHARGES
challenging
discriminatory fees, 5.5.7, 5.5.10
ECOA, 5.5.10
FCBA, 5.5.9
generally, 5.5.1
late payments by others, 5.5.4
late receipt of bill, 5.5.4
liability terminated, 5.5.5
pyramided charges, 5.5.6
UDAP, 5.5.11
unauthorized charges, 5.5.2, 5.5.3
unfairness, 5.6
uniform fees, 5.5.7
usury, 5.5.8
disputed bills, 5.5.2
fairness, 5.6
generally, 5.6.1
non-utility context, 5.6.4
prompt payment inducement, 5.6.3
reasonable and legitimate expenses, 5.6.2
interest status, 5.5.8, 5.6.2, 5.6.4
premature assessment, 5.5.7
PUC regulations, 5.5.2, 5.5.3
purpose, 5.6.2, 5.6.3
pyramiding
described, 5.5.6.1
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 5.5.6.2
multiple charges for same payment, 5.5.6.3
unpaid late charges, 5.5.6.4
tender of payment, effect, 5.1.2
partial tender, effect, 5.1.2
LDCs
see LOCAL DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES (LDCs)
LECs
see LOCAL TELEPHONE COMPANIES
LETTERS OF AGENCY (LOA)
long-distance telephone carriers, 11.6.5.1.2
LEVEL PAYMENT PLANS
see BUDGET PAYMENT PLANS
LIENS
see UTILITY LIENS
LIFELINE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
see also PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS; UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
amount of support, 11.3.2.3
increased funding, 11.3.2.9
Universal Service Fund, 11.3.2.1.2
barriers to service, 11.3.2.10
consumer information, 11.3.2.3
covered services, 11.3.2.4
deposit restrictions, 11.3.2.10.1
eligibility, 11.3.2.6, 11.3.2.9
certification, 11.3.2.7
enhanced program, 11.3.2.8.2, 11.3.2.8.3
modifications, 11.3.2.9
one-per-household, 11.3.2.2
verification, 11.3.2.7
eligible telecommunications carriers
duties re, 11.3.2.1.3, 11.3.2.12.1
regulations, Appx. B.2.1
Telecommunications Act of 1996, Appx. B.1.1
tribal lands, 11.3.2.8.4
enhanced support, 11.3.2.8
federal regulations, Appx. B.2
Link-up program, 11.3.2.5
modifications, 11.3.2.9
no-disconnect rule, 11.3.2.4.3
number-portability charge waiver, 11.3.2.4.2
outstanding bills, effect, 11.3.2.10.2
overview, 11.3.2.2
participation, strategies to increase, 11.3.2.12
automatic enrollment, 11.3.2.12.2
other resources, Appx. B
outreach, 11.3.2.9, 11.3.2.12.1, 7.3.4.7
predatory carriers and, 11.3.2.10.3
state support, 11.4
termination of assistance, dealing with, 11.3.2.11
long-distance arrears, 11.3.2.4.3
notice requirement, 11.3.2.11
toll-limitation service, 11.3.3
Tribal Lifeline and Link-Up, 11.3.2.8
customer qualifications, 11.3.2.8.3
eligible carriers, 11.3.2.8.4
geographic coverage, 11.3.2.8.2
increased funding, 11.3.2.9
LINK-UP PROGRAM
see also LIFELINE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM; UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
consumer information, 11.3.2.3
described, 11.3.2.5
eligibility, 11.3.2.6
certification, 11.3.2.7
enhanced program, 11.3.2.8.2, 11.3.2.8.3
verification, 11.3.2.7
enhanced program, 11.3.2.8
outreach, 11.3.2.9, 11.3.2.12.1
Tribal Lifeline and Link-Up, 11.3.2.8
customer qualifications, 11.3.2.8.3
eligible carriers, 11.3.2.8.4
geographic coverage, 11.3.2.8.2
increased funding, 11.3.2.9
LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
see UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
LOAD LIMITERS
disconnection prerequisite, 6.3.8
LOCAL DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES (LDCs)
electricity, restructuring and, 1.2.2.3
natural gas
regulation, 1.2.1.2
restructuring and, 1.2.1.3
supply to consumers, 1.2.1.1
LOCAL EXCHANGE COMPANIES (LECs)
see LOCAL TELEPHONE COMPANIES
LOCAL GAS DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES
see LOCAL DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES (LDCs)
LOCAL TELEPHONE COMPANIES
cramming, 11.6.5.5
long-distance and other charges, 11.6.3
non-communications charges, 11.6.4
shut-offs for other than local service, 11.6.2
slamming, 11.6.5.1
LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONE CARRIERS
see also TELECOMMUNICATIONS CARRIERS
charges, see LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONE CHARGES
freezing, 11.6.5.3
Letter of Agency (LOA), 11.6.5.1.2
slamming, 11.6.5.1
verification requirements to switch service, 11.6.5.1.2
LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONE CHARGES
collection by local phone company, 11.6.3
prepaid telephone cards, 11.6.7
shut-offs re, 11.6.2
Lifeline customers, 11.3.2.4.3
local phone company, 2.2.2.5
toll limitation, Lifeline customers, 11.3.3
deposit restrictions, 11.3.2.10.1
LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
advanced metering and, 4.5.6
conservation of energy, see ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS
credit reporting by utilities, effect, 5.2.5.5
fairness and consistency, 5.2.5.7
credit scores, disparate impact, 5.2.4.6
disabled consumers, see DISABLED CUSTOMERS
discount rates
see also RATE DISCOUNT PROGRAMS
as unjust discrimination, 2.3.4, 7.5
outreach and enrollment, Appx. F
restructuring and, 1.2.2.3.2
telephone, see TOLL-LIMITATION SERVICES
water, 12.3
discriminatory deposits, 5.2.2
discriminatory rules, challenging, 2.3.1
DSM programs, 9.4.1
dynamic pricing structures and, 4.5.6
ECOA, application, 5.2.2.2.2
elderly consumers, see ELDERLY CUSTOMERS
energy assistance, see FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; LOW INCOME HOME ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (LIHEAP); PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
energy burdens, 7.3.4.5
federal poverty guidelines, 7.3.4.2, Appx. D.4
identifying, 7.3.2.2, 7.3.4
outreach issues, 7.3.1, 7.3.2.2, 7.3.3, Appx. F
prepayment meters and, 4.6.3, 4.7.3
privacy concerns, 7.3.3
public housing, see PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM
reconnection charges, waiver, 5.4
regulatory proceeding participation, see INTERVENOR FUNDING
restructuring and, 1.2.2.3.2
security deposits, see SECURITY DEPOSITS
subsidized housing, see SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
telecommunications service
federal assistance program, see UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
local service from predatory carriers, 11.3.2.10.3
universal service, definition, 11.1
universal service, regulations, Appx. B.2
universal service, statutory provisions, Appx. B.1
time-based pricing and, 4.5.6
water affordability, 12.112.3
weatherization assistance, see WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE
LOW INCOME HOME ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (LIHEAP)
see also FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
administrative review, 8.7.2
due process considerations, 8.7.2
eligibility, 8.3
generally, 8.3.1
household as determination, 8.3.2
income disregard provision, 8.6
median income standard, 7.3.4.3
public housing and Section 8 tenants, 8.5.2
emergency assistance, 8.1.3.2, 8.2.5
equal treatment of homeowners and tenants, 8.5
funding, 8.1.3
annual allocation, 8.1.1, 8.1.2, 8.1.3.1
extreme price increases or temperatures, 8.1.3.2
leveraging incentive program, 8.2.6
REACH program, 8.2.6
state applications for, 8.2.3, 8.3.1
supplemental, 7.2.3.4
withholding provision, 8.7.1
history of LIHEAP, 8.1.2
implied right of action, 8.8
overview, 8.1, Appx. C
summary of program, 8.1.1
profile, Appx. C.4
purpose of program, 8.2.1
regular block grant, 8.1.3.1
regulations, Appx. C.2
remedies under
administrative review, 8.7.2
enforcement of statute, 8.8
withholding of funding, 8.7.1
significant provisions, 8.2
state administration, 8.1.1, 8.2.2
state plans, 8.2.3
crisis intervention, 8.2.5
directors, Appx. C.3
public participation, 8.2.4
statute, text, Appx. C.1
supplemental assistance, 7.2.3.4
targeting of benefits, 8.4
weatherization programs, 8.2.7, 9.3.1
MANDAMUS
see also EQUITABLE REMEDIES
denial of service, 2.4.2
wrongful termination, 6.3.5, 6.7.1
MANUFACTURED HOMES
definition, 14.1.1
importance, 14.1.1
inefficient homes
new homes, 14.6.3.5
replacement of old homes, 14.6.3
weatherization, 14.6.2
resident ownership of communities, 14.7
utility service
charges for, 14.3.2
choice of provider, 14.2
failure of park to provide, 14.4
inclusion in rent, 14.3.3
master-metering, 14.3
termination to evict, 14.5
unique issues, 14.1.2
water submetering, 14.3.4
MASTER-METERING
see also METERS
bans on master-metering, 4.5.2.2
manufactured home parks, 14.3.1
public housing, 10.1.4.1
bans on resale, 4.5.2.1
described, 4.5.1
public housing, 10.1.4.2
energy cost allocation distinguished, 4.5.3.1
flow-through rules, 4.5.2.3
hold-harmless rules, 4.5.2.3
inclusion in rent, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.3.1
manufactured home parks, 14.3
other protections, 14.3.2
restrictions, 14.1.1
other tenant protections, 4.5.2.4
public housing, 10.1.4.2
HUD conversion requirement, 10.1.4.1, 10.3
submetering, 4.5.3.1
water service, 4.5.2.2
MEDICAL ILLNESS
disconnection protection, 6.3.1, Appx. A.3.3, Appx. A.6
sample petitions and letters, Appx. G
MENTAL DISTRESS
discourteous treatment causing, 2.6.2
implied warranty of habitability, breaches, 3.4.1.5
wrongful disconnection, 6.7.2.4
METER BYPASS
see METER TAMPERING
METER TAMPERING
see also METERS
back bills, 4.3.3, 4.3.4
bankruptcy protections, exemption, 13.1.2.4
denial of service due to past conduct, 2.2.2.4
described, 4.3.1
grounds for termination, 6.1.3
issues involved, 4.3.1
liability for other’s use, 4.2
notice of termination, 6.2.2
presumption of responsibility, 4.3.2.1
standard of evidence, 4.3.2.2
METERS
access, failure to permit, 6.1.4
accuracy testing, 4.4
advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), 4.5.5
equity principles, 4.5.7
low income consumers and, 4.5.6
prepaid service, 4.6.1, 4.6.2
crossmetering, see REVERSE METERING
disconnection, see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
fast meters, 4.4
master-metering, see MASTER-METERING
non-exclusive use
described, 4.2.1
liability for others’ use, 4.2.2
prepayment meters, 4.6, 4.7
Great Britain experience, 4.6.3
low-income consumer protections, 4.7.3
overview, 4.6.1
state regulations, 4.7.1
technologies, 4.6.2
U.S. experience, 4.7.2
reverse metering, see REVERSE METERING
smart meters, 4.5.5
subsidized housing, 10.1.4
check-metered projects, 10.1.4.3, 10.5.1
conversions in public housing, 10.1.4.1, 10.3
master-metered projects, 10.1.4.2, 10.5.2
retail-metered units, 10.1.4.4
tampering, see METER TAMPERING
unauthorized use, see METER TAMPERING
MILITARY PERSONNEL
protections from disconnection, 6.3.10
MISTAKEN OVERCHARGES
see also BILLING ERRORS; UTILITY CHARGES
fast meters, 4.4
MISTAKEN UNDERCHARGES
see also BILLING ERRORS; METER TAMPERING; UTILITY CHARGES
collection by utility, 4.1.2, 4.3.3
disconnection for, 6.6
estoppel doctrine, application, 4.1.2, 6.6.2, 6.6.3
unmetered use, 4.3.4
MOBILE HOMES
see MANUFACTURED HOMES
MUNICIPAL UTILITIES (MUNIs)
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES
bankruptcy of customer, 13.1.2.5
due process
application, 15.1.2
requirements, 15.1.3
duty to serve, 2.1.2
laws applicable
FCBA, 15.2.1
UDAP, 5.5.11
standard of care, 6.7.2.2
unjust discrimination, 2.3.2, 2.3.3
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REGULATORY UTILITY COMMISSIONERS (NARUC)
energy efficiency committee, 9.4.1
Telecommunication Consumer Bill of Rights, 2.5
NATIONAL BROADBAND PLAN
universal broadband access, 11.1
NATIONAL FUEL FUND NETWORK (NFFN)
see also FUEL FUNDS
utility bill assistance, 7.1.1.2
NATURAL DISASTERS
see EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS
NATURAL GAS PIPELINES
see also NATURAL GAS SERVICE
deregulation, 1.2.1.3
overview, 1.2.1.1
regulation, 1.2.1.2
NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS
see also NATURAL GAS SERVICE
non-regulation, 1.2.1.1
retail access, 1.2.1.3
NATURAL GAS SERVICE
see also REGULATED UTILITIES; UTILITY SERVICE
affordability programs, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
contract law, application, 15.4.1.1
credit reporting, 5.2.5.5
delivery to consumer, 1.2.1.1
deregulation, 1.1.4, 1.2.1.3
good faith standard, 15.4.1.4
local distribution companies, see LOCAL DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES (LDCs)
meters, see METERS
pipelines, see NATURAL GAS PIPELINES
producers, see NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS
regulation, 1.2.1.2
restructuring, 1.1.4, 1.2.1.3
retail access, 1.2.1.3
tenancy situations, see RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
UCC, application, 15.4.1
UDAP, application, 15.4.2
usage of trade, application, 15.4.1.3
NECESSARIES
spouses, liability for, 2.2.3.5
NEGLIGENCE
see also TORT REMEDIES
disconnection as, 6.7.2.2
causation, demonstrating, 6.7.2.3
NOTICE
disconnection, see NOTICE OF DISCONNECTION
landlord utility arrears, 2.2.3.3
Lifeline assistance termination, 11.3.2.11
utility rates, rules and regulations, 2.5
NOTICE OF DISCONNECTION
see also TERMINATION OF SERVICE
contents of notice, 6.2.3
due process requirements, 3.2.3, 15.1.3.1
electronic notices, 6.2.5
failure to provide as tort, 6.7.2.1
meter tampering, 6.2.2
method of providing, 6.2.5
right to
actual user, 6.2.6
due process, 3.2.3, 15.1.3.1
generally, 6.2.1
tenancy situations, 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 6.2.6, 15.1.3.3
state regulations
selected regulations, Appx. A.3.7
state-by-state summary, Appx. A.7
timing of notice, 6.2.4
NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
see UTILITY ARREARS
OIL
see HOME HEATING OIL; UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
PAY-PER-CALL
see also TELEPHONE SERVICE
blocking options, 11.6.5.6.3
cramming, 11.6.5.5
disclosure requirements, 11.6.5.6.4
FCC regulations, Appx. B.4.1
FTC regulations, Appx. B.4.2
generally, 11.6.5.6.1
information providers, 11.6.5.6.1
key protections, 11.6.5.6.2
nonpayment of charges, 11.6.5.6.5, 2.2.2.5
1-800 numbers distinguished, 11.6.5.6.1
remedies for fraud, 11.6.5.6.5, 11.6.5.8
service bureaus, 11.6.5.8
state regulations, 11.6.5.7
PAY TELEPHONES
inmate payphones, 11.7.2
public-interest payphones, 11.7.1
rates, 11.7.1
inmate phones, 11.7.2
PAYMENT
see also UTILITY ARREARS; UTILITY CHARGES
agents, payments to, 5.1.7
assistance, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
billing disputes, see BILLING DISPUTES; BILLING ERRORS
budget billing, see BUDGET BILLING PLANS
burden of proof, 5.1.10
community payment centers, 5.1.7
date of payment, calculating, 5.1.4
default, see UTILITY ARREARS
deferred payments, see DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
direction of payment, 5.1.8
due date, 5.1.4
varying timeframes, 5.2.5.7.2
duress, payments under, 5.1.9
evidence of, 5.1.10
fixed payment plans, 6.3.3.2
forms of payment
checks, 5.1.4, 5.1.5
forms designated by utility, 5.1.6
other forms, 5.1.6
interest charges, see INTEREST CHARGES
late charges, see LATE CHARGES
nonpayment, see UTILITY ARREARS
obligations, 5.1.1
partial payments
acceptance in lieu of deferred payments, 6.3.3.3.4
allocation of payment, 5.1.3, 5.5.2
effect, 5.1.2, 5.1.3
pleading as defense, 5.1.10
prepaid service, 4.6, 4.7
receipt, entitlement, 5.1.1
security deposits, see SECURITY DEPOSITS
split payments, 5.1.8
telephone bill as payment mechanism, 11.6.4
tender of payment, 5.1.2
third-party payments, 5.1.7
PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
see also FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; PAYMENT
administrative costs
net revenue implications, 7.3.2.3
ongoing costs, 7.3.2.2
start-up costs, 7.3.2.1
administrative procedures, 7.3.1
budget billing plans, see BUDGET BILLING PLANS
deferred payment plans, see DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
developing and administering, 7.3
discriminatory, as, 2.3.4, 7.5
eligibility components, 7.3.4
categorical eligibility, 7.3.4.6
federal poverty level, 7.3.4.2
median income, 7.3.4.3
non-income criteria, 7.3.4.5
overview, 7.3.4.1
resources on, 7.4.3.7
self-sufficiency standard, 7.3.4.4
utility burden, 7.3.4.5
energy conservation, see ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS
forgiveness of arrears, see FORGIVENESS OF ARREARS
fuel funds, see FUEL FUNDS
intervenor funding to encourage, 7.4
legality, 7.5
lifeline, see LIFELINE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
LIHEAP, see LOW INCOME HOME ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (LIHEAP)
line extension assistance, 7.2.6
long-term options, 7.2.1
outreach issues, 7.3.1, 7.3.2.2, 7.3.3, 7.3.4.7, Appx. F
payment restructuring, see PAYMENT RESTRUCTURING PROGRAMS
PIPPs, see PERCENTAGE OF INCOME PAYMENT PLANS (PIPPs)
privacy considerations, 7.3.3
rate discount programs, see RATE DISCOUNT PROGRAMS
short-term assistance, see EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
state programs
MA, Appx. A.4, Appx. F.1
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3.2
summary of programs, Appx. E
Texas, Appx. F.2
variability among states, 5.2.5.7.4
supplemental assistance programs, see SUPPLEMENTAL ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
system benefits charges, 7.2.7
USAC, see UNIVERSAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE COMPANY (USAC)
utility allowances, see PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM; SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES); SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
water and sewage utilities, 12.2, 12.3
PAYMENT RESTRUCTURING PROGRAMS
see also PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
arrearage forgiveness, 7.2.5
budget billing plans, see BUDGET BILLING PLANS
deferred payment plans, see DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
summary of programs, Appx. E
water utilities, 12.3
PERCENTAGE OF INCOME PAYMENT PLANS (PIPPs)
see also PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
default on agreement, 6.3.4
fixed credit model, 7.2.3.3
Maine program, 7.2.3.3.3
New Jersey program, 7.2.3.3.2
overview, 7.2.3.1
straight PIPP, 7.2.3.2
Ohio program, 7.2.3.2.2
Pennsylvania program, 7.2.3.2.3
summary of programs, Appx. E
supplemental assistance, 7.2.3.4
PIPELINES
see NATURAL GAS PIPELINES
POVERTY LEVEL
see FEDERAL POVERTY LEVEL (FPL)
POWER
see also ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE; NATURAL GAS SERVICE; UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
bans on resale, 4.5.2.1
self-generation, 4.5.2.1
POWER LINES
extension assistance, 7.2.6
PRACTICE TIPS
see also SOURCES OF LAW
affordability programs, developing and administering, 7.3
companion website, Appx. H
public utilities commissions, dealing with, 1.3
utility allowances, 10.8
analyzing consumption, 10.8.5
documents to obtain, 10.8.3
estimating consumption, 10.8.7
evaluating, 10.8.4
HUD Forms 52722-A and -B, 10.8.6
inadequate allowances, 10.7
negotiation strategies, 10.9
use of experts, 10.8.1
PREPAYMENT METERS
see also METERS
generally, 4.6.1
Great Britain experience, 4.6.3
low-income consumers and
Great Britain, 4.6.3
United States, 4.7.3
technology, 4.6.2
United States experience, 4.7.2
low-income consumers and, 4.7.3
state regulations, 4.7.1
PRESUMPTIONS
see also EVIDENCE
meter tampering, 4.3.2.1
tested meter accuracy, 4.4
PRICE
see RATES
PRIVACY
low-income assistance, protections, 7.3.3
PRIVATELY-OWNED UTILITIES
see INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES (IOUs)
PROPANE GAS
see also UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
price gouging statutes, 15.3.5
PUC regulations, application, 15.3.4
special issues, 15.3.2
UDAP, application, 15.3.4
unconscionability challenges, 15.3.6
PROVIDER OF LAST RESORT (POLR)
see also DEFAULT SERVICE
deregulated states, 2.1.4
electricity rates, 1.2.2.3
risks to consumers, 1.2.2.3.3
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see also FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
data sharing, 7.3.3
defined, 5.2.2.2.2
ECOA, prohibited basis, 5.2.2.2.2
eligibility criteria, 7.3.2.2
LIHEAP benefits, effect on, 8.6
PUBLIC BENEFITS CHARGE
see SYSTEM BENEFITS CHARGE
PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM
see also SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
constitutional protections, 6.8.4.7
described, 10.1.2
evictions, 6.8.4.7
HUD guidebook, 10.2.3.2
involuntarily relocated tenants, 10.10
LIHEAP eligibility, 8.5.2
litigation on behalf of tenants, 10.7, 10.8
analyzing consumption, 10.8.5
documents to obtain, 10.8.3
estimating consumption, 10.8.7
experts, use of, 10.8.1
factors to consider, 10.8.4
HUD Forms 52722-A and -B, 10.8.6
inadequate allowances, 10.7, 10.8
weatherization needs, determination, 10.8.2
metering arrangements, 10.1.4
meter conversions, 10.1.4.1, 10.3
Performance Funding System (PFS), 10.6.4, 10.9.1
PHA plan process, 10.9.3
surcharges
carry-over credits, 10.4
check-metering surcharges, 10.2.2, 10.5.1
individual relief, 10.9.2
master-metered units, 10.5.2
tenant rent, 10.1.3
rent burden, 10.6.2
termination of service, 6.8.4.7
utility allowances, see UTILITY ALLOWANCES
utility charges
advocating for clients, 10.8
allowable uses, 10.2.4
check and retail metered units, 10.2.2
conversion to individual metering, 10.3, 10.9.1
generally, 10.2.1
HUD regulations, 10.3, 10.9.2
individual relief, 10.9.2
issues presented, 10.2.3.1
method for establishing, 10.2.2
negotiation strategies, 10.9
surcharging system, 10.5
voucher programs distinguished, 10.2.5.1
PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS (PSCs)
see PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
PUBLIC UTILITIES
see also UTILITY SERVICE
Bankruptcy Code, application, 13.1.2.2
charges, see UTILITY CHARGES; RATES
common law, application, 2.1.1
concept of, 1.1.3
contract law, application, 15.4.1.1
credit reporting, 5.2.5
current practice, 5.2.5.4
fairness and consistency, 5.2.5.7
harm to low income consumers, 5.2.5.5
overview, 5.2.5.1
state protections, 5.2.5.6
customer service, see CUSTOMER SERVICE
defined, 1.1.3
deposits, see SECURITY DEPOSITS
deregulation, see RESTRUCTURING
discrimination, see DISCRIMINATION
disputes with customers
PUC resolution, 1.3.5
refusal of service, 2.4.1
DSM, see DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM)
duty to serve, see DUTY TO SERVE
ECOA, application, 5.2.2.2.1
electric power, see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE
FCBA, application, 15.2.1
federal aid, see FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
FHA, application, 6.8.4.8
good faith standards, 15.4.1.4
infrastructure, assistance connecting to, 7.2.6
integrated resource planning, 1.2.2.3.2
investor-owned, see INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES (IOUs)
liens, see UTILITY LIENS
municipal utilities, see MUNICIPAL UTILITIES (MUNIs)
natural gas, see NATURAL GAS SERVICE
natural monopolies, 1.1.3
provider of last resort, see PROVIDER OF LAST RESORT (POLR)
rates, see RATES
refusal of service, see REFUSAL OF SERVICE
regulated, see REGULATED UTILITIES
regulation
federal regulation, 1.2.1.2, 1.2.2.2
generally, 1.1.3
state regulation, 1.3
regulations
see also TARIFFS
third-party-liability rules, 6.5.6
violations, grounds for disconnect, 6.1.3
regulatory bodies, see PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
regulatory proceedings, see REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS
restructuring, see RESTRUCTURING
rules and regulations, see TARIFFS
rural electric cooperatives, see RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES (RECs)
sewer, see WATER AND SEWER SERVICE
sources of law, see SOURCES OF LAW
tariffs, see TARIFFS
termination of service, see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
third parties, duties to, 6.5.6.3
TILA, application, 15.2.1
treatment of customers, see TREATMENT OF CUSTOMERS
UCC, application, 15.4.1
UDAP, application, 15.4.2
unregulated, see UNREGULATED UTILITIES
unused capacity, 1.1.3
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
water, see WATER AND SEWER SERVICE
PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
see also FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (FERC)
authority, basis for, 6.5.6.1
discount rates, authority, 7.5.4
dispute resolution, 1.3.5
electric power regulation, 1.2.2.2
governing statute, 1.3.1
informal precedents, 1.3.3
intervenor funding, see INTERVENOR FUNDING
natural gas regulation, 1.2.1.2
precedents, 1.3.2
primary jurisdiction, 1.3.5
proceedings before, see REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS
regulations, see PUC REGULATIONS
rules, see PUC REGULATIONS
state commissions, Appx. A.8
telephone regulation, 11.2.1
slamming complaints, 11.6.5.1.3, 11.6.5.1.4
slamming protections, 11.6.5.4
unpublished orders, 1.3.2
working relationship with staff, developing, 1.3.2
PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 (PURPA)
electric industry restructuring, 1.2.2.3, 7.4.5
installment payments in lieu of termination, 6.3.3.3.3
intervenor funding, 7.4.5
PUC REGULATIONS
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
back-billing, 4.1.2, 4.1.3
budget billing plans, 6.3.3.1.1
collateral matters, 2.2.2.3, 2.2.3.1, 6.5.6
collection activities, 5.5.3
deferred payment plans, 6.3.3.3.1, 6.3.3.3.3
disconnect protections, 5.5.3
duty to serve, 2.1.3
generally, 1.3.2
good faith standards, 15.4.1.4
late charges, 5.5.2, 5.5.3
obtaining, 1.3.2
prepayment meters, 4.7.1
right to service, 2.1.3
security deposits, 5.2.3, 5.2.7.2, 5.2.10
summaries, Appx. A.1
tenancies, termination of service, 3.2.4
third-party debts, 2.2.3.1, 2.2.3.4, 6.5.6
unregulated deliverable fuels, application, 15.3.4
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
PUCs
see PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
implied warranty of habitability, breaches, 3.4.1.5
wrongful disconnect, 6.7.2.4
PYRAMIDING
late charges, 5.5.6
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 5.5.6.2
QUIET ENJOYMENT
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
breach of covenant
master-metering, 4.5.2.4
non-exclusive use, 4.2.2
termination of utilities, 3.3, 6.8.4.1
implied covenant, residential leases, 3.3
RATE DISCOUNT PROGRAMS
see also PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS; RATES
consumption-based discounts, 7.2.2.4
customer charge waiver, 7.2.2.5
discrimination, as, 2.3.4, 7.5
outreach and enrollment, Appx. F
overview, 7.2.2.1
restructuring and, 1.2.2.3.2
sample legislation and materials, Appx. F
straight discounts, 7.2.2.2
California program, 7.2.2.2.2, Appx. F.3
other states, 7.2.2.2.3
summary of programs, Appx. E
supplemental assistance models, 7.2.3.4
Maryland program, 7.2.3.4.2
Oregon program, 7.2.3.4.4
Washington program, 7.2.3.4.3
tiered discounts, 7.2.2.3
Indiana program, 7.2.2.3.2
New Hampshire program, 7.2.2.3.3
water and sewer utilities, 12.3
RATES
see also TARIFFS; UTILITY CHARGES
affordability programs, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS; UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
discounted
see also DISCOUNT RATES
legality of, 2.3.2, 2.3.4, 7.5
programs, see RATE DISCOUNT PROGRAMS
dynamic pricing structures, 4.5.5, 4.5.6, 4.5.7.8
electricity restructuring and, 1.2.2.3
extraordinary increases, 6.3.3.4
LIHEAP funding, 8.1.3.2
fixed price programs, 6.3.3.2
long-distance telephone companies, 11.2.2
non-approved tariff, 6.3.7
payphones, 11.7.1
inmate payphones, 11.7.2
right to written notice, 2.5
setting, see REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS
time-based pricing, 4.5.5, 4.5.6
unjust discrimination, 2.3.1
low-income rates as, 2.3.4, 7.5
unregulated deliverable fuels, 15.3.5
water rates, 12.1
RATIO-UTILITY BILLING SYSTEMS (RUBS)
see also ENERGY COST ALLOCATION SYSTEMS
water service, 4.5.4
RECONNECTION
see RESTORATION OF SERVICE
RECs
see RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES (RECs)
REFUNDS
budget billing overpayments, 6.3.3.1.2
fast meters, 4.4
security deposits, 5.2.11
REFUSAL OF SERVICE
see also RIGHT TO SERVICE; TERMINATION OF SERVICE
collateral matters, 2.2
past conduct defrauding the utility, 2.2.2.4
prohibition, 2.2.1
third-party debt, see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
unrelated contract, 2.2.2
commission of crime, 2.2.2.4
discrimination, 2.3
duty to serve, 2.1
remedies, 2.4
court remedies and jurisdiction, 2.4.2
dispute resolution, regulated utilities, 2.4.1
security deposit, nonpayment, 5.2.1
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3.6
REGULATED UTILITIES
see also INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES (IOUs)
dispute resolution, see DISPUTE RESOLUTION
electric power, see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE
FCBA, application, 15.2.1
natural gas, see NATURAL GAS SERVICE
provider of last resort, 2.1.4
refusal of service, 2.4.1
security deposits, 5.2.7.2
sources of law, see SOURCES OF LAW
tariffs, see TARIFFS
TILA, application, 15.2.1
types, 1.2
UDAP, application, 15.4.2.1
water and sewer, see WATER AND SEWER SERVICE
REGULATION
electric power industry, 1.2.2.2
FERC, see FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (FERC)
natural gas industry, 1.2.1.2
public utilities, consumer protection
background to, Appx. A.2
regulations, Appx. A.3
public utilities, generally, see PUC REGULATIONS
state utility commissions, see PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
telephone services and telecommunications, 11.2
water utilities, 1.2.3
REGULATIONS
FCC, see FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC)
FTC, see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
public utilities, see TARIFFS
PUCs, see PUC REGULATIONS
REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
intervenor funding, see INTERVENOR FUNDING
late charges, challenging, 5.5.2, 5.5.6.3
order-to-show-cause proceedings, 5.5.2
precedents, 1.3.2
wrongful disconnection, 6.7.1
RELAY SERVICES
see TELECOMMUNICATIONS RELAY SERVICE (TRS)
RENT
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
rent withholding
bankruptcy situations, 13.2.3.6
breach of warranty of habitability, 3.4.1.2
direct utility payments, 3.3, 13.2.3.6
utility shut-offs, 3.4.2.1
subsidized housing, 10.1.3, 10.6.2
utilities included
landlord’s breach of obligation, 3.3, 3.4.1.2, 3.4.2.1, 13.2.3.6
manufactured home parks, 14.3.3
master-metering, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.3.1
weatherization effect on
increases after, 9.2.5.4
new tenants, 9.2.5.6
payment of heat through rent, 9.2.5.8
RENTAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES); SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
RESEARCH AIDS
see SOURCES OF LAW; WEB RESOURCES
RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ASSISTANCE CHALLENGE (REACH)
see also LOW INCOME HOME ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (LIHEAP)
purpose and funding, 8.2.6
RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
see also LOW-INCOME CONSUMERS
bankruptcy of landlord, 13.2
discriminatory conduct, 6.8.4.4
energy cost allocation, 4.5.3
evictions, see EVICTIONS; SELF-HELP EVICTION
Fair Housing Act, application, 6.8.4.8
habitability, implied warranty, 3.4.1, 6.8.4.2
individual metering, 4.5.2.2
involuntary displacement due to federal project, 10.10
landlord-requested terminations, 6.8
contract law, 6.8.4.6
FHA application, 6.8.4.8
generally, 6.8.1
manufactured home parks, 14.5
other state and local laws, 6.8.2, 6.8.3
public and subsidized housing, 6.8.4.7
PUC regulations, 3.2.4
state landlord-tenant law, 3.4.2, 6.8.4
UDAP remedies, 6.8.4.5
manufactured homes, see MANUFACTURED HOMES
master-metering, see MASTER-METERING
non-exclusive use of meter, 4.2
nonpayment of utilities
landlord, by, 3.2.1, 3.3, 3.4.1.2, 13.2, 15.1.3.3
manufactured home parks, 14.5
third-party debt, 2.2.3.3, 6.5.3
notice of disconnection
due process rights, 3.2.3, 15.1.3.3
tenants’ rights, 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 15.1.3.3
power resales, bans on, 4.5.2.1
public housing, see PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM
quiet enjoyment covenant, see QUIET ENJOYMENT
ratio-utility billing systems (RUBS), 4.5.4
rent withholding, 3.3, 3.4.1.2, 13.2.3.6
retaliatory conduct, 3.4.3, 6.8.4.4
reverse metering, see REVERSE METERING
right to service in own name, 3.2
common law right, 3.2.1
Safe Drinking Water Act, application, 4.5.2.1
state public utility statutes
landlord instigated shut-offs, 3.4.2
utility instigated shut-offs, 3.2.2
subsidized housing, see SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
termination of service
bankruptcy of landlord, 13.2
constitutional principles, 3.2.3, 15.1.3.3
self-help eviction, 3.4.2.1, 6.8.4.3, 15.1.3.3
state law, 3.2.2, 3.4.1.1, 3.4.2, 13.2.2
third-party debts, 2.2.3.3, 6.5.3
wrongful termination by landlord, 3.4.2, 6.8
utility access problems, overview, 3.1
utility service
bankruptcy of landlord, effect, 13.2.1, 13.2.3
due process right, 3.2.3, 15.1.3.3
landlord’s obligation, 3.4, 14.4
tenant as third-party beneficiary, 6.8.4.6
water service, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.2.2, 4.5.4
weatherization assistance, see WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE
RESTORATION OF SERVICE
see also TERMINATION OF SERVICE
Bankruptcy Code, special rules, 13.1.2.3.1
reconnection charges, 5.4
RESTRUCTURING
default service risks to consumers, 1.2.2.3.3
demand side management (DSM), 1.2.2.3.2, 9.4.1
discriminatory practices, 2.3.2
dispute resolution after, 1.3.5
duty to serve, effect on, 2.1.4
electric industry, 1.2.2.3
energy efficiency and, 1.2.2.3.2
integrated resource planning, 1.2.2.3.2
low-income consumers and, 1.2.2.3.2
natural gas industry, 1.2.1.2
overview, 1.1.4
partial payments, effect, 5.1.3
quality and reliability of service, 1.2.2.3.2
security deposits and, 5.2.12
system benefits charges, 7.2.7
RETAIL ELECTRIC PROVIDERS (REP)
see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE
RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (RISAs)
utility transactions, application, 5.5.6.3
RETAIL WHEELING
electric power industry, 1.2.2.3
natural gas industry, 1.2.1.3
REVERSE METERING
see also METERS
back bills, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3
erroneous undercharges
collection by utility, 4.1.2
limits on collection, 4.1.3
typical fact patterns, 4.1.1
RIGHT TO SERVICE
see also REFUSAL OF SERVICE; TERMINATION OF SERVICE
common law duty to serve, 2.1.2
default service, 2.1.4
deregulation effect, 2.1.4
PUC regulations, 2.1.3
sources of law, see SOURCES OF LAW
standard offer service, 2.1.4
state law, 2.1.3
ROOMMATES
see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
RULES AND REGULATIONS
public utilities, see TARIFFS
PUCs, see PUC REGULATIONS
RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES (RECs)
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES
debts of former owners, 2.2.3.2
discrimination, 15.1.4
due process, application, 15.1.4
duty to serve, 2.1.2
FCBA, application, 15.2.1
standard of care, 6.7.2.2
UDAP, application, 5.5.11
unjust discrimination, 2.3.2
usage of trade, application, 15.4.1.3
SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT
residential multi-unit properties, application, 4.5.2.1
SANITATION SERVICE
see also WATER AND SEWER SERVICE
nonpayment, disconnect of water service, 2.2.2.5
SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
see also CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
documents, obtaining, 1.1.2
SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES)
see also SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
described, 10.1.2
LIHEAP eligibility, 8.5.2
project-based assistance, 10.2.6.3
public housing distinguished, 10.2.5.1
relocated public housing tenants, 10.10
tenant rent, 10.1.3
rent burden, 10.6.2
utility allowances, see UTILITY ALLOWANCES
utility charges, unique problems, 10.2.5.2
SECURITY DEPOSITS
advance payment charges distinguished, 11.6.1
alternatives, 5.2.6
amount, 5.2.7
maximum may not be reasonable, 5.2.7.3
reasonable level, 5.2.7.1
regulated utilities, 5.2.7.2
bankrupt customers, 5.2.9, 13.1.2.3.2, 13.1.2.3.3
challenging, 5.3
costs to ratepayers, 5.3.3
economic considerations, 5.3.1
function of deposit, 5.3.2
credit history application, 5.2.4
discriminatory practices, 5.2.2
ECOA prohibitions, 5.2.2.2
generally, 5.2.2.1
installment payments, 5.2.8
interest on, 5.2.10
Lifeline customers, 11.3.2.10.1
nonpayment, grounds for termination, 6.1.2
past conduct defrauding the utility, 2.2.2.4
refunds, 5.2.11
restructured utilities, 5.2.12
right to require, 5.2.1
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3.1
telephone service, 11.6.1
UCC, application, 5.2.6
who must pay, 5.2.3, 5.2.4
SECURITY INTERESTS
see UTILITY LIENS
SELF-HELP EVICTIONS
see also EVICTIONS; RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
public and subsidized housing, 6.8.4.7
state law prohibiting, 6.8.4.3
termination of service as, 3.4.2.1, 6.8.4.3
UDAP violations, 6.8.4.5
SENIORS
see ELDERLY CUSTOMERS
SERVICE
see UTILITY SERVICE
SERVICE PROVIDERS
pay-per-call services, 11.6.5.8
utilities, see PUBLIC UTILITIES
SERVICEMEMBERS
see MILITARY PERSONNEL
SHUT-OFFS
see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
SLAMMING
described, 11.6.5.1.1
disputes, resolving, 11.6.5.1.3
FCC, 11.6.5.1.5
PUCs, 11.6.5.1.4
Letter of Agency (LOA), 11.6.5.1.2
preventive measures, 11.6.5.3
remedies under federal rule, 11.6.5.2
consumer has already paid, 11.6.5.2.2
consumer has not yet paid, 11.6.5.2.1
state administration of federal rules, 11.6.5.1.4
state protections, 11.6.5.4
verification prior to switching service, 11.6.5.1.2
SOCIAL SECURITY PROGRAM
data sharing, 7.3.3
described, 7.3.2.2
SSI, see SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME (SSI)
SOURCES OF LAW
see also PUC REGULATIONS; STATE LAW
bankruptcy protections, see BANKRUPTCY CODE
constitutional law, see CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
consumer protection statutes
ECOA, see EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
FCBA, see FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
selected state utility regulations, Appx. A.3
UCC, see UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
UDAP, see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
contract law, see CONTRACT LAW
FCC activities, 11.2.2
PUC decisions, 1.3.2
PURPA, see PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 (PURPA)
residential tenancies, 3.2.2
tariffs, 1.3.4
tort remedies, see TORT REMEDIES
SPOUSES
debts, see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
family expense doctrine, 2.2.3.5
STANDARD OFFER SERVICE
see DEFAULT SERVICE
STATE LAW
bankruptcy effect on remedies, 13.2.2
bill payment timeframes, 5.2.5.7.2
credit discrimination statutes, 5.2.2.2.5
deferred payment agreements, 5.2.5.7.2
duty to serve, 2.1.3
family expense doctrine, 2.2.3.5
inadequately regulated utilities, application, 15.4
intervenor funding, 7.4.2, 7.4.3
landlord-requested disconnects, 6.8.2, 6.8.3, 6.8.4
manufactured home communities
landlord-tenant law, 14.4
master metering, 14.3.1, 14.3.2
service provider, 14.2
pay-per-call services, 11.6.5.7
price gouging statutes, 15.3.5
right to service, 2.1.3
tenants’ rights, 3.2.2, 3.4.1.1
RISAs, see RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES ACTS (RISAs)
self-help evictions, 6.8.4.3
slamming, 11.6.5.4
UDAP, see UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
utility consumer protection regulations, Appx. A
utility credit reporting, 5.2.5.6
STATE UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
see PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
bankruptcy stay, 13.2.3.1, 13.1.1.1, 13.1.2.3.1
relief from stay, 13.2.3.4
SUBMETERING
energy cost allocation distinguished, 4.5.3.1
manufactured home parks
generally, 14.3.1, 14.3.2
water service, 14.3.4
water service, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.2.2
manufactured home parks, 14.3.4
SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
see also HOUSING; PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM
constitutional protections, 6.8.4.7
evictions, 6.8.4.7
HUD housing programs, overview, 10.2.6.1
LIHEAP eligibility, 8.5.2
metering arrangements, 10.1.4
public housing conversions, 10.1.4.1, 10.3
public housing, see PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM
section 8 housing, see SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES)
section 236 housing, 10.2.6.2
tenant rent, 10.1.3
rent burden, 10.6.2
termination of service, 6.8.4.7
types of housing, 10.1.2
utility allowances, see UTILITY ALLOWANCES
utility charges
advocating for clients, 10.8
carry-over credits, 10.4
negotiation strategies, 10.9
public housing, 10.3
Section 8 housing, 10.2.5
Section 236 housing, 10.2.6.2
surcharges, 10.5
SUPPLEMENTAL ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
see also PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS; RATE ASSISTANCE PLANS
Maryland model, 7.2.3.4.2
Oregon model, 7.2.3.4.4
overview, 7.2.3.4.1
Washington model, 7.2.3.4.3
SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
see UTILITY ARREARS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME (SSI)
see also UTILITY ARREARS
data sharing, 7.3.3
described, 7.3.2.2
SUPPLIERS
see COMPETITIVE SUPPLIERS; PUBLIC UTILITIES
SYSTEM BENEFITS CHARGES
restructured states, 7.2.7
Nevada program, 7.2.7.2
Texas program, Appx. F.2.1
Wisconsin program, 7.2.7.3
TANF
see TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF)
TARIFFS
see also RATES
binding on utilities, 1.3.4
filed rate doctrine, 11.2.2
non-approved tariffs, 6.3.7
overview, 1.3.4
rates less than, see DISCOUNT RATES
right to written notice, 2.5
third-party-liability rules, 6.5.6
UDAP, application, 15.4.2.2
unjust discrimination, 2.3.1, 2.3.2
violation of regulations under, 6.1.3
where to find, 1.3.4
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1996
see also TELEPHONE SERVICE; UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
services for the disabled, 11.5
universal service commitment, 11.3.1
selected text, Appx. B.1
TELECOMMUNICATIONS CARRIERS
see also TELEPHONE SERVICE
cramming, 11.6.5.5
eligible universal service carriers
basic minimum services, 11.3.2.4.1
designation, 11.3.2.1.3
federal regulations, Appx. B.2.1
responsibilities, 11.3.2.1.3
Telecommunications Act of 1996, Appx. B.1.1
Tribal Lifeline and Link-up, 11.3.2.8.4
verification duties, 11.3.2.7.3.111.3.2.7.3.4
freezing, 11.6.5.3
Letter of Agency (LOA), 11.6.5.1.2
UCC, application, 15.4.1.2
unauthorized switching, see SLAMMING
TELECOMMUNICATIONS RELAY SERVICE(TRS)
problems with Internet-based services, 11.5.1
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
see also UTILITY SERVICE
carriers, see TELECOMMUNICATIONS CARRIERS
changing landscape, 11.1
consumer bill of rights, 2.5
contract law, application, 15.4.1.1
courteous treatment, 2.6
disabled customers, 11.5
essential service, 11.1
good faith standards, 15.4.1.4
IP-enabled voice providers, 11.5.1
National Broadband Plan, 11.1
overview, 11.1
regulatory authorities, 11.2
FCC, 11.2.2
state utility commissions, 11.2.1
relay services, 11.5.1
telephone service, see TELEPHONE SERVICE
UCC, application, 15.4.1.2
UDAP, application, 15.4.2
universal service, see UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
TELEMARKETING CALLS
unsolicited calls, 11.6.6
TELEPHONE BILLS
bundled services, shut-offs re, 11.6.2
cramming, 11.6.5.5
interstate long-distance disputes, 11.2.2
long-distance charges on local phone bill, 11.6.3
non-communications charges, 11.6.4
pay-per-call services, 11.6.5.6.5
slamming disputes, 11.6.5.1.3, 11.6.5.2
TELEPHONE DISCLOSURE AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION ACT OF 1992
pay-per-call regulations, 11.6.5.6.1, Appx. B.4
TELEPHONE SERVICE
see also TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE; UTILITY SERVICE
affordability programs, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
basic telephone service, 11.1
bill of rights, 2.5
bills, see TELEPHONE BILLS
bundled services, 11.6.2, 11.6.3, 11.6.4
carriers, see TELECOMMUNICATIONS CARRIERS
contract law, application, 15.4.1.1
cramming, 11.6.5.5
customer service issues, 11.6
disabled persons, 11.5
essential service, 11.1
good faith standard, 15.4.1.4
Internet-based services, 11.5.1
interstate jurisdiction, 11.2.2
lifeline, see LIFELINE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
local phone company, see LOCAL TELEPHONE COMPANIES
long-distance charges, see LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONE CHARGES
non-communications charges on phone bills, 11.6.4
number-portability, 11.3.2.4.2
1-800 numbers, see TOLL FREE NUMBERS
1-900 numbers, see PAY-PER-CALL
payphones, 11.7
inmate payphones, 11.7.2
prepaid telephone cards, 11.6.7
regulatory authorities, 11.2
security deposits, 11.6.1
shut-offs, 11.6.2
slamming, see SLAMMING
Telecommunications Act, see TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1996
UCC, application, 15.4.1
UDAP, application, 15.4.2
universal service, see UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
unsolicited calls, 11.6.6
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF)
see also UTILITY ARREARS
emergency heating assistance, 7.1.2
TENANCIES
see RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
TENDER
utility payment, 5.1.2
TERMINATION OF SERVICE
see also REFUSAL OF SERVICE; RIGHT TO SERVICE
bankruptcy
automatic stay, 6.3.9, 13.1.2.1, 13.1.2.3.1
postpetition debts, 13.1.2.3.4
billing disputes, 6.3.5
budget billing, missed payments when ahead, 6.3.6
collateral matters, 2.2, 6.4
mistaken undercharges, 6.6.4
prohibition, 2.2.1, 6.4.1
third-party debt, see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
unrelated contract, 2.2.2, 6.4.2, 6.4.3
collection means, 5.5.3, 6.6.4
disabled customers, 6.3.1
discretionary nature, 6.6.3
due process, see DUE PROCESS
duty of care, 6.7.2.1
breach of duty, 6.7.2.2
elderly customers, 6.3.1
eviction means, 6.8.4.1, 14.5
extraordinary price increases, 6.3.3.4
FCBA, application, 15.2
grounds
customer request, 6.1.5, 6.8
deposit, failure to pay, 6.1.2
DPA default, 6.3.4
fraud, 6.1.3
health or safety reasons, 6.1.4
meter tampering, 4.3.3, 6.1.3
nonpayment, 6.1.1, 6.3.5, 6.3.6, 6.3.7
utility access, failure to permit, 6.1.4
utility regulations, violation, 6.1.3
illness protections, 6.3.1
sample petitions and letters, Appx. G
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3.3
state-by-state summary, Appx. A.6
injunctive relief, 2.4.2
landlord default, 3.2, 15.1.3.3
landlord-requested, 6.8
contract law, 6.8.4.6
FHA application, 6.8.4.8
generally, 6.8.1
manufactured home parks, 14.5
other state and local laws, 6.8.2, 6.8.3
public and subsidized housing, 6.8.4.7
PUC regulations, 3.2.4
state landlord-tenant law, 6.8.4
UDAP remedies, 6.8.4.5
Lifeline customers for long-distance arrears, 11.3.2.4.3
load limiters, use prior to, 6.3.8
manufactured home parks, 14.5
meter tampering, 4.3.3, 6.1.3, 6.2.2
military personnel, 6.3.10
mistaken undercharges, 6.6
collateral matter status, 6.6.4
estoppel, 6.6.2, 6.6.3
generally, 4.1.3, 6.6.1
mandatory vs. discretionary practices, 6.6.3
non-approved tariffs, effect, 6.3.7
notice, see NOTICE OF DISCONNECTION
partial payment, effect, 5.1.2, 5.1.3
pay-per-call nonpayment, 11.6.5.6.2
prepayment meters, 4.6, 4.7.3
protections, 6.3, Appx. A.3, Appx. A.5, Appx. A.6
reconnection, see RESTORATION OF SERVICE
remote disconnection, 4.5.6
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3
sources of law, see SOURCES OF LAW
telephone customers, 11.6.2
temperature-based moratoria, 6.3.2
state-by-state protections, Appx. A.5
tenancy situations
bankruptcy of landlord, 13.2
constitutional principles, 3.2.3, 15.1.3.3
self-help eviction, 3.4.2.1, 6.8.4.3
state law, 3.2.2, 3.4.1.1, 3.4.2, 13.2.2
third-party debts, 2.2.3.3, 6.5.3, 15.1.3.2
wrongful termination by landlord, 3.4.2, 6.8
third-party debt, see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
time-of-day limitations, 6.3.2
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3.5
winter moratoria, 6.3.2
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3.4
wrongful termination, 6.7
damages, 6.7.2.4
landlords, 3.4.2, 6.8
remedies, 6.3.5, 6.7.1
tort remedies, 6.7.2
THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
see also COLLATERAL MATTERS
contracts implied in fact, 6.5.6.3
contracts implied in law, 6.5.6.4
denial of service based on, 2.2.3, 6.5
applicable law, 2.2.3.1
due process considerations, 15.1.3.2
former owner or occupant, 2.2.3.2, 6.5.2
general rule, 2.2.3.1, 6.5.1
landlord-tenant situations, 2.2.3.3, 6.5.3
PUC rules, validity, 6.5.6
roommate or family member, 2.2.3.4, 6.5.4
spouse, 2.2.3.5, 6.5.5
due process and equal protection violations, 15.1.3.2
family expense doctrine, 2.2.2.5
non-exclusive use, 4.2.2
TOLL-FREE NUMBERS
see also TELEPHONE SERVICE
1-900 numbers distinguished, 11.6.5.6.1
TOLL-LIMITATION SERVICES
Lifeline customers, 11.3.3
deposit restrictions, 11.3.2.10.1
TOLLS
see TARIFFS
TORT REMEDIES
see also NEGLIGENCE
wrongful disconnection
breach of duty, 6.7.2.2
causation, 6.7.2.3
damages, 6.7.2.4
duty of care, 6.7.2.1
generally, 6.7.1
TRADE CODES
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
TREATMENT OF CUSTOMERS
see CUSTOMER SERVICE
TRIBAL LANDS
enhanced Lifeline and Link-up support, 11.3.2.8
TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
exemptions, 15.2.1
FCBA, see FAIR CREDIT BILLING ACT (FCBA)
UNCONSCIONABLE PRACTICES
see also UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
unregulated deliverable fuels
challenging, 15.3.6
price gouging, 15.3.5
UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
energy allocation systems, 4.5.3.4
home heating oil vendors, application, 15.3.4
IOUs, application, 5.5.11
landlord-requested disconnects, 6.8.4.5
late charges, challenging
generally, 5.5.11, 5.6
multiple for same payment, 5.5.6.3
MUNIs, application, 5.5.11
prepaid phone cards, 11.6.7
propane vendors, application, 15.3.4
ratio-utility billing systems (RUBS) for water, 4.5.4
RECs, application, 5.5.11
scope, 15.4.2.1
security deposits, application, 5.2.12
telecommunications, 11.6.5
cramming, 11.6.5.5
pay-per-call, 11.6.5.7
slamming, 11.6.5.1
unfairness standard, 15.3.4, 15.4.2.2
warranty of habitability, breaches, 3.4.1.5, 6.8.4.2
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
good faith standard, 15.4.1.4
security deposits, application, 5.2.6
usage of trade doctrine, 15.4.1.3
utility sales, application, 15.4.1
UNIFORM RESIDENTIAL LANDLORD TENANT ACT (URLTA)
retaliatory conduct prohibited, 6.8.4.4
state adoption, 6.8.4.3
UNIVERSAL SERVICE
default service, see DEFAULT SERVICE
payment assistance plans, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
telephone, see UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
UNIVERSAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE COMPANY (USAC)
see also UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
administration of federal universal service fund and programs, 11.3.2.1.2
website, 11.4
UNIVERSAL SERVICE FUND
see also UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
administration, 11.3.2.1.2
eligible carriers, 11.3.2.1.3
UNIVERSAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
see also TELEPHONE SERVICE
covered services, 11.3.2.4
basic minimum services, 11.3.2.4.1
criteria, 11.3.2.4.4
number-portability charge waiver, 11.3.2.4.2
definition, 11.1
evolving term, 11.3.2.4.4, 11.3.2.8.4
federal policy commitment, 11.3.1
federal programs, 11.3
administration, 11.3.2.1.2
Lifeline, see LIFELINE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
Link-up, see LINK-UP PROGRAM
low-income assistance programs, 11.3.2
other programs, 11.3.4
overview, 11.3.2.1
selected regulations, Appx. B.2
toll-limitation service, 11.3.3
Tribal Lifeline and Link-up, 11.3.2.8
federal Universal Service Fund, see UNIVERSAL SERVICE FUND
federal-state joint board, 11.2.3
necessity, 11.1
state programs, 11.4
California, Appx. F.3.2
Telecommunications Act of 1996
requirements, 11.3.1
selected text, Appx. B.1
UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS
contract law, application, 15.4.1.1
good faith standard, 15.4.1.4
home heating oil vendors, special problems, 15.3.3
overview, 15.3.1
price gouging statutes, 15.3.5
propane vendors, special issues, 15.3.2
PUC regulations, application, 15.3.4
UCC, application, 15.4.1
UDAP, application, 15.3.4, 15.4.2
unconscionability challenges, 15.3.6
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
UNREGULATED UTILITIES
MUNIs, see MUNICIPAL UTILITIES (MUNIs)
RECs, see RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES (RECs)
standard of care, 6.7.2.2
UDAP, application, 5.5.11, 15.4.2.2
USAGE OF TRADE
UCC doctrine, 15.4.1.3
USURY
late charges as, 5.5.8
UTILITIES
see PUBLIC UTILITIES; UTILITY SERVICE
UTILITIES ALLOCATION SYSTEMS
see ENERGY COST ALLOCATION SYSTEMS
UTILITY ALLOWANCES
see also PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM; SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES); SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
air conditioning coverage, 10.2.4, 10.4, 10.5.2
allotment methods, 10.1.4
calculation, 10.2
HUD guidebook, 10.2.3.2
overview, 10.2.1
PHA’s discretion, 10.2.3.1
retail and check-metered tenants, 10.2.2
Section 8 project-based assistance, 10.2.6.3
Section 8 voucher programs, 10.2.5.3
Section 236 housing, 10.2.6.2
covered appliances and uses, 10.2.4
HUD guidebook, 10.2.3.2
estimating consumption, 10.8.7
evaluating, 10.8.4
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, 10.2.7
generally, 10.1.4.1
government sponsored enterprises, 10.6.7
HUD-subsidized developments, 10.2.6
overview, 10.2.6.1
project-based Section 8 assistance, 10.2.6.3
Section 236 housing, 10.2.6.2
inadequacy of allowances, 10.6
GAO findings, 10.6.2
GAO recommendations, 10.6.5
litigation on, 10.7
reasons for, 10.6.3, 10.6.4
involuntarily relocated tenants, 10.10
litigation
inadequate allowances, 10.7, 10.8
surcharges, 10.5
metering arrangements, 10.1.4
check-metered projects, 10.1.4.3, 10.2.2, 10.5.1
master-metered projects, 10.1.4.2, 10.5.2
retail-metered units, 10.1.4.4, 10.2.2
negotiation strategies, 10.9
generally, 10.9.1
individual relief, 10.9.2
PHA plan process, using, 10.9.3
overview of problems, 10.1
relationship to costs, 10.6.1
role in setting rents, 10.1.3
seasonal allowances, 10.4
surcharges, 10.5
utilities, defined, 10.2.1
voucher tenants, 10.2.5
calculation, 10.2.5.3
public housing difference, 10.2.5.1
unique problems, 10.2.5.2
who gets them, 10.1.2
UTILITY ARREARS
see also PAYMENT; UTILITY CHARGES
bankruptcy solution, see BANKRUPTCY
deferred payment agreements, see DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
disconnection for, see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
erroneous undercharges, 4.1, 6.6
forgiveness programs, 7.2.5
grounds for termination, 6.1.1
landlords, see RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
liens re, see UTILITY LIENS
Lifeline customers, 11.3.2.10.2
payment assistance, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
third-party arrears, see THIRD-PARTY DEBTS
UTILITY CHARGES
see also RATES; TARIFFS
billing errors, see BILLING ERRORS
budget billing plans, see BUDGET BILLING PLANS
conservation plans, see ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS
deferred payment plans, see DEFERRED PAYMENT PLANS
flat customer charge, 7.2.2.5
late charges, see LATE CHARGES
long-distance charges, see LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONE CHARGES
manufactured home parks, 14.3
metering, see METERS
mistaken overcharges, see MISTAKEN OVERCHARGES
mistaken undercharges, see MISTAKEN UNDERCHARGES
non-approved tariffs, 6.3.7
non-exclusive use, 4.2.2
nonpayment, see UTILITY ARREARS
payment assistance, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
payment obligations, see PAYMENT
reconnection charges, 5.4
subsidized housing, see PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM; SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES); SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
system benefits charge, 7.2.7
telephone bills as new payment mechanism, 11.6.4
third-party billing, 2.2.3.1, 6.5.1
unmetered use, 4.3.4
UTILITY COMMISSIONS
see FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (FERC); PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSIONS (PUCs)
UTILITY DISPUTES
billing disputes, see BILLING DISPUTES; BILLING ERRORS
PUC jurisdiction, 1.3.5
refusal of service, see REFUSAL OF SERVICE
right to service, see RIGHT TO SERVICE
sources of law, see SOURCES OF LAW
termination of service, see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
UTILITY LIENS
bankruptcy, effect, 13.1.1.3
dealing with secured claims, 13.1.3.2.2
third-party debts, 2.2.3.2, 2.2.3.3
UTILITY METERS
see METERS
UTILITY RATES
see RATES
UTILITY SERVICE
see also PUBLIC UTILITIES
affordability programs, see PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
basic generation service, 2.1.4
bill of rights, 2.5
bundled service, 2.1.4
charges for, see UTILITY CHARGES
contract law, application, 15.4.1.1
credit history, application, 5.2.4
customer service, see CUSTOMER SERVICE
default service, 2.1.4
risks to consumers, 1.2.2.3.3
deregulation, see RESTRUCTURING
disconnection, see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
duty to serve, see DUTY TO SERVE
electric power, see ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE
garbage, see SANITATION SERVICE
gas, see NATURAL GAS SERVICE
good faith standards, 15.4.1.4
inelastic demand, 1.1.3
last resort service, 2.1.4
liens re, see UTILITY LIENS
manufactured homes, see MANUFACTURED HOMES
master-metering, see MASTER-METERING
meter tampering, see METER TAMPERING
meters, see METERS
natural gas, see NATURAL GAS SERVICE
NCLC manual structure, 1.1.2
companion website, Appx. H
overview, 1.1
payment for, see PAYMENT
prepaid service, 4.6, 4.7
provider of last resort, see PROVIDER OF LAST RESORT (POLR)
providers, see PUBLIC UTILITIES
rates, see RATES; TARIFFS
refusal, see REFUSAL OF SERVICE
restoration, see RESTORATION OF SERVICE
right to, see RIGHT TO SERVICE
sanitation, see SANITATION SERVICE; WATER AND SEWER SERVICE
security deposits, see SECURITY DEPOSITS
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3
sources of law, see SOURCES OF LAW
standard offer service, 2.1.4
telecommunications, see TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
telephone, see TELEPHONE SERVICE
tenancy situations, see RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
termination, see TERMINATION OF SERVICE
treatment of customers, see TREATMENT OF CUSTOMERS
UCC, application, 15.4.1
UDAP, application, 15.4.2
unbundling, see RETAIL WHEELING
universal service, see UNIVERSAL SERVICE
unjust discrimination, 2.3.1
usage of trade, 15.4.1.3
water, see WATER AND SEWER SERVICE
UTILITY TARIFFS
see TARIFFS
VOUCHER HOUSING PROGRAM
see SECTION 8 HOUSING (VOUCHERS AND CERTIFICATES)
WAIVER
customer charges, low-income discount programs, 7.2.2.5, 12.3
implied warranty of habitability, 3.4.1.4
late or partial payments, acceptance as, 6.3.4
number-portability charge, Lifeline customers, 11.3.2.4.2
reconnection charges, 5.4
WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY (IMPLIED)
see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
application of doctrine, 3.4.1.2
jurisdictions adopting, 3.4.1.3
manufactured home pads, 14.4
overview, 3.4.1.1
remedies for breach, 3.4.1.5, 6.8.4.2
serious code violations violating, 3.4.1.6
waiver, 3.4.1.4
WATER AND SEWER SERVICE
see also SANITATION SERVICE; UTILITY SERVICE
affordability programs
see also PAYMENT ASSISTANCE PLANS
examples, 12.3
types, 12.2
collateral matters, 2.2.2.5
growing affordability problem, 12.1
multi-unit properties, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.2.2, 4.5.4
municipal utilities, see MUNICIPAL UTILITIES (MUNIs)
overview, 1.2.3
ratio-utility billing systems (RUBS), 4.5.4
regulation, 1.2.3
submetering, 4.5.2.1, 4.5.2.2
UCC, application, 15.4.1.2
WEATHER CONDITIONS
see EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS; WINTER SERVICE
WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE
see also ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS
alternative dispute resolution, 9.2.5.11
consumer information
frequently asked questions, Appx. D.3.1
weatherization services, Appx. D.3.2
Department of Agriculture, 9.3.2
Department of Energy, see WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (WAP)
evictions after, 9.2.5.5
funding, 9.1
combining funds, 9.4.7.1, 9.4.7.4
inadequate, 9.4.5
grantee-owner agreements, 9.2.5.9, 9.2.5.12
LIHEAP funds, 8.2.7, 9.3.1
low-interest loans, 9.4.7.3
manufactured homes, 14.6.2
modern technology, using, 9.4.2
need for, determination, 10.8.2
non-energy-savings repairs associated with, 9.4.7.2
owner-agency agreements, 9.2.5.9, 9.2.5.10
piggybacked programs, 9.4.7.1, 9.4.7.4
rent increases following, 9.2.5.4
new tenants, 9.2.5.6
tenants who pay for heat through rent, 9.2.5.8
restructuring, effect, 1.2.2.3.2
sale of weatherized property, 9.2.5.7
state funding, 9.3.3
transaction costs, 9.4.7.1
utility sponsored, 9.4
combining funds, 9.4.7.1, 9.4.7.4
cost-effective requirement, 9.4.6
high transaction costs, 9.4.7.1
low-income programs, challenges, 9.4.7
measures not covered by WAP, 9.4.29.4.5
multifamily dwellings, 9.4.3
overview, 9.4.1
whole house programs, 9.4.7.1, 9.4.7.4
WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (WAP)
see also FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS; WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE
alternative dispute resolution, 9.2.5.11
annual state plans, 9.2.4, 9.2.5.10
assistance provided, 9.2.3, 9.4.4
combining with utility programs, 9.4.7.4
consumer information, Appx. D.3
contacts, Appx. D.5
cost-effectiveness, 9.4.7.4
Davis-Bacon Act, application, 9.2.6
eligibility, 9.2.2
history, 9.2.1
inadequate funding, 9.4.5
legislation, text, Appx. D.1
manufactured homes, application, 14.6.2.1, 14.6.2.4
multifamily dwellings, 9.4.3, Appx. D.6
overview, 9.2.1
regulations, Appx. D.2
rent increases following, 9.2.5.4
reweatherization, 9.4.2
tenant applicability, 9.2.5
alternative dispute resolution, 9.2.5.11
DOE regulations, 9.2.5.2
eligibility, 9.2.2
enforcement issues, 9.2.5.12
grantee-owner agreements, 9.2.5.9, 9.2.5.12
issues to be addressed, 9.2.5.49.2.5.12
overview, 9.2.5.1
owner-agency agreements, 9.2.5.9, 9.2.5.10
state plans, 9.2.5.3, 9.2.5.10
statutory guidance, 9.2.5.2
tenants who pay for heat through rent, 9.2.5.8
WEB RESOURCES
companion website, Appx. H
FCC activities, 11.2.2
Lifeline program, 11.3.2.3
PUC decisions, 1.3.2
slamming complaints, 11.6.5.1.5
universal service programs, 11.4
utility tariffs, 1.3.4
WELFARE PROGRAMS
see UTILITY ARREARS
WHEELING
see RETAIL WHEELING; WHOLESALE WHEELING
WHOLESALE WHEELING
electric power industry, 1.2.2.3
WINTER SERVICE
see also EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS; UTILITY SERVICE
moratoria on terminations, 6.3.2
selected state regulations, Appx. A.3.4
WOOD
see UNREGULATED DELIVERABLE FUELS