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ACTIONS
see CLAIMS; CLASS ACTIONS; LITIGATION
ADHESION CONTRACTS
defined, 6.6.1
procedural unconscionability, 6.6.1
ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES
consumer arbitration agreements, binding effect, 7.6.8
AFFINITY GROUPS
arbitration agreements, 7.6.9
AGENTS
arbitration agreements, enforcement
by or against, 7.5.5
debt collectors, 7.6.3
nursing home patients, 7.6.4
AGREEMENTS
adhesion contracts, see ADHESION CONTRACTS
arbitrability, see ARBITRABILITY
assent to agreement, 5.2
bill stuffers, see BILL STUFFERS
binding arbitration, see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
“browse-wrap” agreements, 5.2.2.6
change-in-terms provisions, 5.6.4
choice of law clauses, 3.4.7
class action bans, 6.7.5.1
“click-wrap” agreements, 5.2.2.6
condition precedent contracts, 5.7
contract law defenses, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
credit agreements, see CREDIT AGREEMENTS
electronic agreements, see ELECTRONIC AGREEMENTS
existence of agreement, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES; FORMATION OF AGREEMENTS TO ARBITRATE
fraud in the factum, 5.2.2.7
fraud in the inducement, 6.9.1
illusory agreements
unconscionable, 6.7.3.3
unenforceable, 5.3, 6.7.3.2
integration clauses, 6.9.4.2
referring to arbitration, 5.4.2
sales agreements, see SALES AGREEMENTS
“shrinkwrap” agreements, 5.6.3
standard form agreements, 6.5, 6.6.1
state regulation, 6.9.3
unconscionability, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
unilateral additions, 5.6
AMERICAN ARBITRATION ASSOCIATION (AAA)
see also ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
availability as forum, 5.8.1, 5.8.2
debt collection arbitrations, 11.1
fee schedule, unconscionability, 6.7.2.2
rules not binding on court, 8.6
rules of procedure, Appx. C
California disclosures, Appx. C.6
class arbitration rules, 9.3.2, Appx. C.3
commercial rules, 6.7.2.2, Appx. C.1
consumer due process protocol, Appx. C.5
consumer rules, 6.7.2.2, Appx. C.2
debt collection arbitrations, Appx. C.4
no-waiver clause, 8.6
status as private body, 10.4.3.4
APPEALS
arbitration decisions, see JUDICIAL REVIEW
FAA limitations, 1.3.7, 3.5.1
judicial orders, 2.6
FAA rules, 2.6.2, 3.5.1
federal orders denying arbitration, 2.6.2
federal orders enforcing arbitration, 2.6.3
pendent jurisdiction, 2.6.4
state court orders, 2.6.5, 3.5.1
trial court review of award, 10.2.6
waiver of rights, 2.6.2, 8.3.2.8
non-mutual appeal rights in arbitration clauses, 6.7.3.6
ARBITRABILITY
see also ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS; FORMATION OF AGREEMENTS TO ARBITRATE; SCOPE OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
ambiguous clauses, 7.3.4, 7.3.5
arbitration re, 7.4.2
bankrupt debtors, claims against, 4.3.3
burden of proof, 5.1.1
classwide relief, 9.2
intent of parties, 9.2.2
judicial review of determination, 9.2.5
jurisdiction to determine, 9.2.1
prohibitive clauses, 9.2.4
silent authorization, 9.2.3
contempt proceedings, 7.6.8
contract invalidity claims, 7.4.6
determinations
appeals from, 2.6
applicable law, 7.2, 7.3.2, 7.3.5
delegation clauses, 2.2.3, 6.3, 7.4.2
jurisdiction, 2.2, 2.5, 5.1, 6.3, 7.4.2, 8.3.1, 9.2.1
discovery re, rights, 2.4
earlier agreements, 7.4.10
earlier conduct, 7.4.9.1
FAA policy favoring, 3.2.2
limits to policy, 7.3
federal limits on, 4
fraud claims, 7.4.6
intent of parties, 7.2, 7.3.4
interpretation of agreement, 7.2
jury trials re, 2.5
later agreements, 7.4.10
Magnuson-Moss claims, 4.3.2.1, 5.6.3
non-arbitrable claims, 7.4.11
non-signatory issues, 7.5
nursing home claims, 7.6.4
particular claims, 7.4
post-termination disputes, 7.4.9.2
presumption of arbitrability
when applicable, 7.3.4
when not applicable, 7.3.3
self-help actions, 7.4.8
state law, 7.2, 7.4.6
statutory claims, 7.4.6, 10.5.2.4
federal claims, 4.1
tort claims, 7.4.6
unambiguous clauses, 7.3.3
vacating award based on lack of, 10.4.2, 11.4.4.1, 11.5.3
waiver, see WAIVER
wrongful death claims, 7.6.5
ARBITRAL IMMUNITY
doctrine of, 10.6
ARBITRATION
see also ARBITRABILITY
arbitrators, see ARBITRATORS
awards, see ARBITRATION AWARDS
bias, see BIAS
binding, see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
classwide arbitrations, see CLASSWIDE ARBITRATIONS
clauses, see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
compelling, see ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
consolidation of claims, 7.4.11
constitutional issues, see CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
debt collection via, 1.5, 11
see also DEBT COLLECTION
discovery rights, see DISCOVERY
FAA policy favoring
application, 7.3.3, 7.3.4
clarification, 3.2.2
limits to policy, 7.3
narrow reading, 7.3.2
federal explicit limits on, 4.2
fees, see FEES
hearings, see ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS
informal vs. formal nature, 4.3.2.5
jurisdiction, see JURISDICTION
litigation alternative, see LITIGATION
mandatory, see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
mechanisms, see ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
mediation distinguished, 1.2
NCLC treatise, overview, 1.1
online version, 1.1.3
notice, see NOTICE
postdispute arbitration, 1.2
preclusive effect, 10.8
predispute agreements, see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
procedures, see PROCEDURES
proceedings, see ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS
right to
see also ARBITRABILITY
compelling, see ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
scope issues, see SCOPE OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
service providers, see ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
statutory claims, see STATUTORY CLAIMS
statutory law
see also STATUTORY CLAIMS
federal arbitration law, see FEDERAL ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
limitations periods, shortening, 4.4.2.6, 6.7.4.4
state law, see STATE LAW
stay of proceedings, see STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
upcoming developments, 1.7
venue, see VENUE
waiver of rights, see WAIVER
ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
ARBITRATION AWARDS
affecting non-parties, 10.5.6
amounts in excess, 11.5.7.4
appeals, 1.3.7, 10.1
see also JUDICIAL REVIEW
arbitrary and capricious awards, 10.5.4
biased, see BIAS
confirmation, see JUDICIAL REVIEW
contrary to law or facts, 10.5.2, 10.7.4, 11.4.4.7
disadvantages, 1.3.3
effectiveness, 1.3.3
enforcement, 10.1
exceeding powers, 10.4.2, 10.7.3
explanation, failure to provide, 10.5.2.3
incomplete or indefinite, 10.4.2
injunctive relief, appropriateness, 6.7.4.3
judicial review, see JUDICIAL REVIEW
manifest disregard of the law, 1.3.7, 10.5.1, 10.5.2, 10.7.4, 11.4.4.7
notice, defective or lack thereof, 11.5.2
preclusive effect, 10.8
procured by corruption, fraud or undue means, 10.4.5, 11.4.4.9, 11.5.5, 11.6
public policy considerations, 10.5.3, 10.7.5
punitive damages, 10.7
setting aside confirmed awards, 11.6
statutory rights, affecting, 10.5.2.4
ultra vires, 10.4.2
vacating, modifying, or confirming, see JUDICIAL REVIEW
written opinions, 10.5.2.3
ARBITRATION CLAUSES
see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
ARBITRATION COSTS
see FEES
ARBITRATION DECISIONS
see ARBITRATION AWARDS; ARBITRATORS
ARBITRATION HEARINGS
see ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS
ARBITRATION MECHANISMS
see ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS
see also PROCEDURES
adjournment refusal, judicial review, 10.4.4
consumer participation, 11.3.3
effect on confirmation, 11.3.3.1, 11.5.3, 11.5.6
implications, 11.3.3.1, 11.3.3.2
how to participate, 11.3.3.3
counterclaims, raising, 11.3.3.3
fees, see FEES
informal vs. formal nature, 4.3.2.5
in-person hearings, 11.4.4.3
mechanisms, see ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
non-prevailing consumers, 4.5.4
notice
consumer options after receiving, 11.3
lack of notice, 10.4.1, 11.4.4.2
rules, see ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS; PROCEDURES
stay of proceedings, 11.3.2
ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
see also ARBITRATORS
AAA, see AMERICAN ARBITRATION ASSOCIATION (AAA)
agreements made with, 5.3.3
alternative forums, 5.8.2
bias, 1.3.3, 6.7.7
defenses to allegations of, 6.7.7.2
National Arbitration Forum, 1.5, 11.2
repeat player bias, 1.3.3, 10.4.3.1, 11.2
unconscionability, 6.7.7.1
debt collection via, 11.2
designated forum not possible, effect, 5.8.3, 6.8.2
fees, see FEES
JAMS, see JAMS
NAF, see NATIONAL ARBITRATION FORUM (NAF)
nursing home disputes, 7.6.4.4
rules
American Arbitration Association, Appx. C
class arbitrations, 9.3
designated rules, 5.8.3.4
failure to follow, 8.4.2, 11.4.4.4
no-waiver clauses, 8.6
punitive damages restrictions, 10.7.3.2, 10.7.3.3
statute of limitations, shortened, 4.4.2.6, 6.7.4.4
state law regulation, federal preemption, 3.4.8
tribal forums, 5.8.3.5
unavailability, 5.8
warranty arbitrations, designation in agreement, 4.3.2.7.5
ARBITRATORS
see also ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
acting outside powers, 10.4.2, 10.7.3
bias, see BIAS
blackballing of, 1.3.3
corruption, 10.4.3, 10.4.5, 11.5.5, 11.6
decisions, see ARBITRATION AWARDS
deposing for judicial review purposes, 10.5.2.3
disclosure requirements
business relationships, 10.4.3.1
California statute, 10.4.3.2
ex parte communications, 10.4.3.3
substantial relationship, 10.4.3.1
disregard of law, 10.5.2, 10.7.4
equal protection in selection, 10.4.3.4
ethics standards, 3.4.8
evident partiality, 10.4.3
see also BIAS
defined, 10.4.3.1
ex parte communications, 10.4.3.3
proof, 10.4.3.1
waiver of conflict, 10.4.3.1
failure to explain decision, 10.5.2.3
fees, see FEES
immunity, 10.6
impartiality concerns, 1.3.3
see also BIAS
evident partiality, 10.4.3
unconscionability, 6.7.7
improper selection, 11.4.4.5
judicial review of, see JUDICIAL REVIEW
jurisdiction, 2.1, 2.2
arbitrability determinations, 2.2.3, 9.2
class proceedings determinations, 9.2.1
delegation clauses, 2.2.3, 6.3, 7.4.2
injunctive relief, 6.7.4.3
procedural issues, 8.3.1
punitive damages, 10.7.3
scope determinations, 7.4.2
unconscionability determinations, 6.1, 6.3
waiver determinations, 8.3.1
misconduct, 10.4.4, 10.4.5
misinterpretation of law, 10.5.2.2
punitive damages awards
challenges to arbitrator’s authority, 10.7.3
public policy violations, 10.7.5
refusal to hear evidence or grant adjournment, 10.4.4
state law regulation, federal preemption, 3.4.8
ASSENT
arbitration agreements, 5.2
bill stuffers, 5.2.3.2.5, 5.2.3.3.2, 5.2.3.3.3
electronic assent, 5.2.2.6
express assent, 5.2.2
implied assent, 5.2.3
incorporation by reference, 5.2.2.5
notice requirement, 5.2.3.2
signature, by, 5.2.2.1
sufficient action to signify, 5.2.3.3
ASSIGNEES
arbitration agreements, application, 6.9.4.2, 7.6.1
debt buyers, 7.6.3
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
limitations on, 4.4.2.1, 6.7.4.2
loser pays rules, 4.4.2.2, 6.7.9
AUTOMOBILE SALES
see DEALERS; MANUFACTURERS
AWARDS
see ARBITRATION AWARDS
BAD FAITH
arbitration awards, vacating, 10.4.5
breach of good faith covenant as waiver, 8.4.3
contract law defense, 6.9.2
BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
binding arbitration and, 4.3.3
claims of bankruptcy estate, 4.3.3.5
core proceedings, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.6
non-core proceedings, 4.3.3.7
rescission claims, 6.9.4.1
BIAS
arbitration service provider, 1.3.3
defenses, 6.7.7.2
National Arbitration Forum, 1.3.3, 1.5, 11.2
repeat player bias, 1.3.3, 10.4.3.1, 11.2
unconscionability, 6.7.7
arbitrators
evident partiality, 10.4.3
grounds to vacate order, 6.7.7.1, 10.4.3, 11.4.4.8
immunity, 10.6
impartiality concerns, 1.3.3
unconscionability, 6.7.7
discovery re, right to, 2.4
judicial review grounds, 6.7.7.1, 10.4.3, 11.4.4.8
repeat player bias, 1.3.3
debt collection via arbitration, 11.2
evident partiality, 10.4.3.1
BILL STUFFERS
arbitration clauses, enforceability, 5.6.4
implied assent, 5.2.3
notice, 5.2.3.2.5
change-in-terms, as, 5.6.4
BINDING ARBITRATION CLAUSES
see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
BRIEFS
see PLEADINGS
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE
arbitration agreement
notice, 5.2.3.2.1
retroactivity, 7.4.9.1
validity, 5.1.1
arbitration award, delivery, 10.2.3.1
arbitration fees, excessiveness, 4.5.2
arbitrator partiality, 10.4.3.1
corruption, fraud, or undue means, 10.4.5
diversity jurisdiction, 2.3.3.2
FAA applicability, 3.4.6.1
FAA preemption by federal statute, 4.3.1.1
manifest disregard of law, 10.5.2.2
CARRIERS
household goods, mandatory arbitration of claims, 4.3.5
CASE LAW
bill stuffer change in terms, 5.6.4.2
citations, 1.1.4
class action bans
Concepcion decision, 6.7.5.2
federal claims, 4.4.2.4
pre-Concepcion case law, 6.7.5.1
scope of Concepcion, 6.7.5.3
confidentiality provisions
finding unconscionable, 6.7.8.2
not finding unconscionable, 6.7.8.3
excessive fees, 4.5.2, 6.7.2.4
injunctive relief and arbitration, 4.4.2.5
knowing and voluntary waiver of rights
examples of doctrine, 5.5.3
rejection of doctrine, 5.5.5
non-mutuality
as unconscionable, 6.7.3.3
not unconscionable, 6.7.3.4
waiver of arbitration, prejudice requirement, 8.5.1
CHOICE OF LAW
class action bans, 6.7.5.1
contractual provisions, 3.4.7
CIVIL RIGHTS CLAIMS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
employment related, mandatory arbitration of, 4.3.6
waiver of rights must be clear and unambiguous, 5.4.1
CLAIMS
see also LITIGATION; PLEADINGS
arbitration clauses, application, 7.4
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
counterclaims, see COUNTERCLAIMS
employment-related, see EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CLAIMS
enforcement agencies, 7.6.8
public injunctive relief, 6.7.4.3
arbitrability, 7.6.8
statutory claims, see STATUTORY CLAIMS
tort claims, see TORT CLAIMS
UDAP claims, see UDAP CLAIMS
warranty claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
CLASS ACTIONS
arbitration of, see CLASSWIDE ARBITRATIONS
diversity jurisdiction, 2.3.3.2
limitations on, 1.3.2, 4.4.2.4, 6.7.5
challenging, 6.7.5.3
Concepcion decision, 6.7.5.2
early case law, 6.7.5.1
Italian Colors decision, 4.4.2.4, 6.7.5.3.2
state laws prohibiting, 3.3.3.1, 6.7.5.2
unconscionability challenges, 6.7.5.3.1
motion to compel arbitration, timing, 8.3.2.7
CLASSWIDE ARBITRATIONS
see also CLASS ACTIONS
AAA rules, 9.3.2, Appx. C.3
advantages for consumers, 9.1
arbitrability determinations, 9.2
clauses prohibiting, 9.2.4
court or arbitrator, by, 9.2.1
court review, 9.2.5
parties intent, 9.2.2
silent authorization, 9.2.3
confirmation of award, 9.5
differences from court proceedings, 9.1
JAMS rules, 9.3.3
judicial review
arbitration award, 9.5
authorization of arbitration, 9.2.5
certification of class, 9.4
interlocutory review, 9.2.5.2
procedural limits, 9.2.5.3
limitations on, 1.3.2, 4.4.2.4, 6.7.5, 9.2.4
challenging, 6.7.5.3
Concepcion decision, 6.7.5.2
early case law, 6.7.5.1
Italian Colors decision, 4.4.2.4, 6.7.5.3.2
limited review, 9.4
state laws prohibiting, 3.3.3.1, 6.7.5.2
unconscionability challenges, 6.7.5.3.1
NAF withdrawal, implications, 9.3.4
procedures, 9.3
forum importance, 9.3.1
state laws, 3.3.3.1
waivers, 9.1
COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
arbitration decisions, effect, 10.8
COLLECTION ACTIVITIES
see DEBT COLLECTION
COMMON LAW DEFENSES
see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
COMPELLING ARBITRATION
see ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
COMPLAINTS
see CLAIMS; PLEADINGS
CONFIDENTIALITY PROVISIONS
unconscionability of, 6.7.8
CONFIRMATION HEARINGS
see JUDICIAL REVIEW
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
see also BIAS
arbitrators, 10.4.3.1
CONSENT
see ASSENT
CONSOLIDATION OF CLAIMS
non-arbitrable and arbitrable claims, 7.4.11
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
civil rights claims, 4.3.6, 5.4.1
due process, 10.7.6, 10.7.6
equal protection rights, 10.4.3.4
FAA preemption and, 3.3.1
jury trial rights
waiver must be clear and unambiguous, 5.4.1
waiver must be knowing and voluntary, 5.5
waiver
arbitration disadvantage, 1.3.7
clear and unambiguous, 5.4.1
jury trial, 5.5
voluntary and knowing, 5.5
CONSUMER CONTRACTS
see ADHESION CONTRACTS; CREDIT AGREEMENTS; SALES AGREEMENTS
CONSUMER DEBTS
see DEBT COLLECTION
CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU (CFPB)
arbitration clauses, authority to restrict, 4.2.1, 4.2.4, Appx. B.3
proposed regulations, 4.2.4
CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS
see also STATUTORY CLAIMS
FAA preemption, 3.4.3, 3.4.4
CONSUMER REMEDIES
see STATUTORY CLAIMS
CONTEMPT PROCEEDINGS
arbitrability, 7.6.8
CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
bad faith, 6.9.2
canceled contracts, 6.9.4.1
condition precedent contracts, 5.7
determination, jurisdiction, 2.2, 2.5, 5.1.1, 6.3, 7.4.6
duress, 6.9.2
FAA preemption, 7.7
formation of agreement, see FORMATION OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
fraud in the factum, 5.2.2.7
fraud in the inducement, 6.9.1, 7.4.6
frustration, 6.9.2
impossibility, 6.9.2
incapacity, 5.2.4, 6.9.2
interpretation of agreement, 7.2
lack of assent, 5.2
lack of consideration, 5.3
lack of mutuality, 5.3.1, 6.7.3
misrepresentations, 6.9.1
mistake, 6.9.2
scope of agreement, 7.2
state law determination, 3.2, 6.1, 7.2
state statutes regulating, 6.9.3
unconscionability, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
undue influence, 6.9.2
waiver of arbitration rights, 8.1, 8.5.1, 8.6
CONTRACTS
see AGREEMENTS; CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
COOLING-OFF PERIODS
effect on arbitration clauses, 6.9.4.1
CORPORATIONS
avoidance of arbitration, 1.6
CORRUPTION
arbitrators, 10.4.3
awards procured by, 10.4.5, 11.4.4.9, 11.5.5, 11.6
COSTS
see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS; FEES
COUNTERCLAIMS
filing in arbitration proceedings, 11.3.3.3
COURT ORDERS
see also JURISDICTION; MOTION TO COMPEL ARBITRATION
appeals, 2.6
federal court orders, 2.6.2, 2.6.3
interlocutory orders, 2.6
pendent jurisdiction, 2.6.4
state court orders, 2.6.5
judicial review of arbitration decision, see JUDICIAL REVIEW
violations, arbitrability, 7.6.8
CREDIT AGREEMENTS
see also AGREEMENTS; CREDIT CARDS
affinity groups, 7.6.9
arbitration clauses
see also MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
CFPB authority to restrict, 4.2.4
CFPB proposed regulations, 4.2.4
contract law defenses, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
debt collection under, see DEBT COLLECTION
state regulation, 6.9.3
TILA remedies, see TILA REMEDIES
CREDIT CARDS
see also CREDIT AGREEMENTS
affinity cards, 7.6.9
arbitration clauses, CFPB authority to restrict, 4.2.4
proposed regulations, 4.2.4
bill stuffer arbitration clauses, 5.6.4
non-use of card, 5.2.3.3.3
notice sufficiency, 5.2.3.2.5
use of card as assent, 5.2.3.3.2
change-in-terms provisions, 5.6.4
CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS ACT (CROA)
claims under, mandatory arbitration of, 4.3.4
CREDITORS
debt collection, see DEBT COLLECTION
DAMAGES
limitations on, 4.4.1.1
punitive damages, 4.4.2.3, 10.7.3, 10.7.5
unconscionability, 6.7.4.1
lower arbitration awards, 1.3.3
DEALERS
arbitration agreement, enforcement by manufacturer, 7.6.2
arbitration between auto dealer and franchisor, restrictions, 4.2.1
federal statute, text, Appx. B.7
DEBT BUYERS
enforcement of arbitration agreements, 7.6.3.2
producing agreement, 5.1.1, 7.6.3.1
waiver, 8.3.2.2
DEBT COLLECTION
arbitration agreements, application, 7.6.3
enforcement by debt collector, 7.6.3.3
waiver, 8.3.2.2
arbitration as a collection technique, 1.5, 11
AAA rules, Appx. C.4
consumer options after notice, 11.3
default awards, 11.3.1, 11.5.6
judicial review of award, 11.4
no longer utilized, 11.1
non-signatories to credit agreement, 7.6.3
opposing confirmation, 11.5
overview, 11.2
participating in the proceeding, 11.3.3
setting aside confirmed awards, 11.6
stay of arbitration, 11.3.2
vacating awards, 11.4
venue, 11.5.7.2
DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
see UDAP CLAIMS; UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES
DEFAMATION CLAIMS
see also TORT CLAIMS
arbitrability, 7.4.6.6
DEFENSES TO ARBITRATION CLAUSES
contract defenses, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
unconscionability, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
waiver, see WAIVER
DEFINITIONS
binding arbitration, 1.2
contract of adhesion, 6.6.1
predispute arbitration agreement, 1.2
predispute binding arbitration agreement, 1.2
DEPOSITIONS
see also DISCOVERY
arbitrators for judicial review purposes, 10.5.2.3
DISCLOSURE
arbitrators
business relationships, 10.4.3.1
California statute, 10.4.3.2
ex parte communications, 10.4.3.3
substantial relationship, 10.4.3.1
California disclosures, 10.4.3.2
AAA rules of procedure, Appx. C.6
warranty arbitration, 4.3.2.7
service contracts, 4.3.2.7.4
written warranties, 4.3.2.7.2
DISCOVERY
arbitrability issues, right to, 2.4
conducting discovery as waiver, 8.3.2.5
deposition of arbitrator, 10.5.2.3
limitations on, 1.3.5
unconscionability, 6.7.10
DUE PROCESS
see also CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
mandatory arbitration, 10.7.6
punitive damages, 10.7.6
DURESS
contract law defense, 6.9.2
ELECTRONIC AGREEMENTS
assent, 5.2.2.6
“browse-wrap” agreements, 5.2.2.6
“click-wrap” agreements, 5.2.2.6
formation, 5.2.2.6
sufficient notice, 5.2.3.2.2
ELECTRONIC DELIVERY
notice, 5.2.3.2.5
EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CLAIMS
arbitrability, 7.4.6.7
FAA application, 3.4.6.1
FAA preemption, 3.4.3, 3.4.4, 4.3.6
federal contractors, 4.2.1, 4.2.5
executive order, text, Appx. B.4
mandatory arbitration, 4.4.1.1
assent to arbitration, 5.2.3.3.2
conflict with statutory rights, 4.3.6
discrimination claims, 4.2.5, Appx. B.4
excessive charges, 4.5.3.1
harassment claims, 4.2.5, Appx. B.4
limits on class actions, 4.4.2.4
one-sided control by employer, 4.6
military personnel, 4.3.6
ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
see also ARBITRABILITY; MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
agents, 7.5.5, 7.6.3.3
amended complaints, after, 8.3.4
appeals from judicial orders, 2.6
federal court orders, 2.6.2, 2.6.3
pendant jurisdiction, 2.6.4
state court orders, 2.6.5
waiver of right, 2.6.2, 8.3.2.8
arbitrator, determination by, 2.2.3, 6.3
assent requirement, 5.2
assignees, 7.6.1, 7.6.3.2
production of agreement, 7.6.3.1
auto manufacturers against dealers, 4.2.1, Appx. B.7
bankruptcy-related matters, 4.3.3
bill stuffers, 5.2.3.2.5, 5.6.4
breach of agreement, effect, 8.4.1
burden of proof, 5.1.1
challenging, 2.1
change in law, after, 8.3.3
class action bans, 6.7.5
consideration requirement, 5.3, 6.7.3.2
contract law defenses, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
credit repair organizations, 4.3.4
debt buyers, 7.6.3.2
production of agreement,7.6.3.1
debt collectors, 7.6.3.3
production of agreement, 7.6.3.1
delay, effect, 8.3.2.6
discovery rights, 2.4
earlier agreements, 7.4.10
electronic agreements, 5.2.2.6
employment matters, 7.4.6
equitable estoppel, 7.5.3
existence of agreement, see FORMATION OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
FAA, under, 2.3.1
FAA policy favoring, 3.2.2
limits to policy, 7.3
presumption against waiver, 8.2
state law preemption, circumstances, 3.2, 3.3
FAA preemption by federal law, 4.2, 4.3
FAA preemption of state law, 3.3
federal limits on, 4
CFPB proposed regulations, 4.2.4
Dept. of Education proposed regulations, 4.2.4a
financial industry, 4.2.1, 4.2.4, Appx. B.3
guarantors and sureties, 7.6.6
judicial determination, 2.2, 5.1.1, 6.3, 8.3.1
appeals from, 2.6
judicial review based on, 10.4.2, 11.4.4.1, 11.5.3
jurisdiction, 2.3
jury determination, 2.5
later agreements, 7.4.10
limits on, 4.2, 4.3
livestock or poultry farmers, 4.2.1, Appx. B.5
military personnel, 4.2.1, 4.2.3, Appx. B.2
mortgage loans, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, Appx. B.1
motion to compel, see MOTION TO COMPEL ARBITRATION
necessity to invoke arbitration clause, 7.4.6
no presumption, 5.1.1
non-mutual agreements, 5.3.1, 6.7.3
non-signatories, 7.5
nursing home residents, 7.6.4.2, 7.6.4.3
public injunctive relief claims, 7.6.8
residential mortgage loans, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, Appx. B.1
signatures, 5.2.2
state court, 2.3.1
state law regulation, 3.2.3, 6.1
intrastate commerce, 3.4.6.2
preemption, 3.3
restrictions on arbitration, 6.9.3
third party rights, 7.5.2
statutory claims, 4
student loans, federal, 4.2.4a
third parties, general rule, 7.5.1
third-party beneficiaries, 7.5.4
unavailability of designated forum, 5.8.3
unconscionable agreements, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
unilateral addition, 5.6, 5.6.4
venue, 2.3.6
waiver of rights, see WAIVER
warranty claims, 4.3.2, 5.6.3
wrongful death claims, 7.6.5
EQUITABLE ESTOPPEL
arbitration agreements, enforcement, 7.5.3
non-signatory, against, 7.5.3.3
non-signatory, by, 7.5.3.2
over-expansion of doctrine, 7.5.3.2.4
retreating from, 7.5.3.2.5
payment processors and originating banks, 7.5.3.2.6
EQUITABLE RELIEF
see also INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
arbitration limitations, 4.4.2.5, 6.7.4.3
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF
arbitration agreement, existence, 11.4.4.1
false evidence, judicial review, 10.4.5
re-examination on judicial review, 10.5.5
refusal to hear, judicial review, 10.4.4
EXTENDED WARRANTIES
see also WARRANTIES
binding arbitration clauses, disclosure requirements, 4.3.2.7.4
FARMERS
livestock and poultry, limits on mandatory arbitration, 4.2.1, Appx. B.5
FEDERAL ARBITRATION ACT (FAA)
appeal rules, 2.6.2
class action bans, application, 6.7.5.2, 6.7.5.3
compelling arbitration under, 2.3
conflicts with other federal statutes, 4.3
Bankruptcy Code, 4.3.3
burden of proof, 4.3.1.1
Carmack amendment, 4.3.5
CROA, 4.3.4
employment statutes, 4.3.6
FTC Act, 4.3.7
general standards, 4.3.1
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, 4.3.2
statutory rights, 4.5, 4.6
insurance disputes, application, 3.4.5
judicial review procedures
application, 10.2.2
grounds to modify or correct award, 10.3
grounds to vacate award, 10.4.1
proper court, 10.2.1
timing requirements, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.2
venue, 11.5.7.2
limited applicability
burden of proof, 3.4.6.1
contract issues, 3.2, 3.4.2
contractual displacement, 3.4.7
insurance claims, 3.4.5
interstate commerce, 3.4.6, 4.3.5
“market participant” exception, 3.4.3
preempted state laws, 3.3
procedural provisions, 3.5.3
qui tam provisions, 3.4.4
unpreempted state laws, 3.4
policy favoring arbitration enforcement, 3.2.2
congressional intent to limit, 4.3.1.1
explicit federal limits on, 4.2
limits to policy, 4.1, 7.3
presumption against waiver, 8.2
state law preemption, circumstances, 3.2, 3.3
preemption of state law, see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
procedural provisions, 3.5
application to state claims, 3.5.3
judicial review, 10.2
jury trials, 2.5
preemption of state rules, 3.5
punitive damages
authorization, 10.7.3.4.1
state restrictions, preemption, 10.7.3.4.2
purpose, 3.2.2
state claims, application, 3.1
procedural provisions, 3.5
text, Appx. A
FEDERAL CONTRACTORS
employee claims, arbitration restrictions, 4.2.1, 4.2.5
executive order, text, Appx. B.4
FEDERAL JURISDICTION
compelling arbitration, 2.3
confirmation proceedings, 10.2.1
diversity jurisdiction, 2.3.3, 10.2.1
amount in controversy, 2.3.3.2
complete diversity, 2.3.3.1
federal question jurisdiction, 2.3.2
judicial review, 10.2.1
supplemental jurisdiction, 10.2.1
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
FAA by other federal statutes, 4.3, 6.7.5.3.3
“market participant” exception, 3.4.3
qui tam claims, 3.4.4
state arbitration law
class action ban provisions, 3.3.3.1, 6.7.5.2, 6.7.5.3.2
formation of arbitration clause, 3.2.2, 3.4.2
judicial review of award, 10.2.2
limits on arbitration enforcement, 3.2.3, 3.3
non-preemption, 3.2, 3.4
obstacle preemption, 3.3.1
procedural provisions, 2.5, 3.5
punitive damages restrictions, 10.7.3.4.2
regulation of arbitrators and services, 3.4.8
state non-arbitration law
contract law, 3.2, 3.4.2
insurance laws, 3.4.5
laws effectively prohibiting arbitration, 3.3.3
unconscionability principles, 6.1, 6.2
state procedural law, 3.5
statutory rights, 6.7.5.3.2
voluntary and knowing doctrine, 5.5.2
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
see also GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
unfair agreements, authority to prohibit, 4.3.7
FEES
American Arbitration Association, 6.7.2.2
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
breach of contractual obligation as waiver, 8.4.4
consumer disadvantage, 1.3.6
loser pay rules, 1.3.7
debt collection via arbitration, 11.3.3.3
excessive as limitation on remedies, 4.5, 6.7.4.5
arbitration charges exceeding court fees, 4.5.3.1
burden of proof, 4.5.2
charges deterring pursuit of claims, 4.5.3.2
loser pays rules, 4.4.2.2
offers to pay fees, effect, 4.5.5
reimbursement of fees, effect, 4.5.4
excessive as unconscionable, 6.7.2
loser pays rules, 6.7.9
modification of agreement to avoid, 6.8.2
precedent, 6.7.2.4
who pays, 6.7.2.3
AAA rules, 6.7.2.2
loser pays rules, 1.3.7, 4.4.2.2, 6.7.9
merchant paid, 1.3.2, 1.3.6
non-prevailing consumer, 4.5.4
service provider rules, 11.4.4.4
FINANCIAL INDUSTRY
limits on mandatory arbitration, 4.2.1, 4.2.4
CFPB authority, 4.2.4, Appx. B.3
CFPB proposed regulations, 4.2.4
SEC authority, Appx. B.3
whistleblowers, Appx. B.6
FORCED ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
FORMATION OF AGREEMENTS TO ARBITRATE
arbitration re, 7.4.7
assent, lack of, 5.2
bill stuffers, 5.2.3.2.5, 5.6.4
“browse-wrap” cases, 5.2.2.6
clear and unambiguous, 5.4. 7.3
“click-wrap” cases, 5.2.2.6
consideration, 5.3
discovery re, right to, 2.4
electronic agreements, 5.2.2.6
express assent, 5.2.2
illusory agreements, 5.3, 6.7.3.2, 6.7.3.3
implied assent, 5.2.3
incapacity, 5.2.4
incorporation by reference, 5.2.2.5
integration clauses, 6.9.4.2
judicial determination, 5.1.1
judicial review, 10.4.2, 11.4.4.1, 11.5.3
mutuality, 5.3.1, 6.7.3.2
no presumption, 5.1.1
notice, delivery, 5.2.3.2
signature, 5.2.2
state law application, 3.2.2, 5.1.2
stay of arbitration pending determination, 11.3.2
unilateral clauses, 5.6, 5.6.4
voluntary and knowing doctrine, 5.5
superseded agreements, 6.9.4.2, 7.4.10
unconscionability, 5.9
FORUM
see ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS; VENUE
FRAUD
awards procured by, 10.4.5, 11.4.4.9, 11.5.5, 11.6
claims re, arbitrability, 7.4.6.6
forged signatures, 5.2.2.7
fraud in the execution, 6.9.1
fraud in the factum, 5.2.2.7
fraud in the inducement, 6.9.1
GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
consumer arbitration agreements, binding effect, 7.6.8
GUARANTORS
arbitration agreements, application, 7.6.6
HEARINGS
see ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS
IMMUNITY
arbitrators, 10.6
IMPOSSIBILITY
contract law defense, 6.9.2
INCAPACITY
contract law defense, 5.2.4, 6.9.2
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
arbitration forum, restrictions, 4.4.2.5, 6.7.4.3
rescission remedy, effect, 6.9.4.1
public injunctive relief claims
appropriate forum, 6.7.4.3
arbitrability, 7.6.8
FAA preemption, 4.4.2.5
INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
arbitration and integration clauses, 6.9.4.2
INSURANCE DISPUTES
applicable law, 3.4.5
non-signatories, arbitrability, 7.6.2
INTEGRATION CLAUSES
side documents, effect, 6.9.4.2
INTERNET RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
INTERROGATORIES
see DISCOVERY
INTERSTATE COMMERCE
Carmack Amendment, 4.3.5
FAA applicability, 3.4.6.1, 4.3.5
JAMS
see also ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
class arbitrations, rules of procedure, 9.3.3
JUDICIAL REVIEW
appeal of trial court review, 10.2.6
applicable law, 10.2.2, 11.4.3
award affecting non-party, 10.5.6
challenging arbitration clause through, 2.1
class arbitrations
arbitrability determinations, 9.2.5
arbitration award, 9.5
certification award, 9.4
generally, 9.1
interlocutory review, 9.2.5.2
procedural limits, 9.2.5.3
confirmation process, 11.5.1
awards obtained without participation, 11.5.6
class arbitrations, 9.5
defects in procedures, 11.5.7
grounds to oppose confirmation, 11.5
production of agreement, 10.2.4, 11.5.4
setting aside confirmed awards, 11.6
vacating awards during, 10.2.3.3
contractual modification of review, 9.2.5.1, 10.2.5
increase in scope, 10.2.5.2
limits on review, 10.2.5.1
debt collection orders
confirmation of order, 11.5
setting aside confirmed order, 11.6
vacating order, 11.4
deposing of arbitrator, 10.5.2.3
grounds to modify or correct award, 10.3
grounds to oppose confirmation, 11.5
corruption, fraud or undue means, 11.5.5
defective confirmation proceedings, 11.5.7
dismissal of prior action, 11.5.8
failure to produce agreement, 11.5.4
lack of enforceable agreement, 11.5.3
non-participation in arbitration, 11.5.6
procedural defects, 11.5.7
grounds to vacate award, 10.4, 10.5, 11.4
arbitrary and capricious awards, 10.5.4
arbitration agreement unenforceable, 10.4.2, 11.4.4.1, 11.5.3
arbitrator exceeding powers, 10.4.2, 10.7.3, 11.4.4.4
arbitrator improperly selected, 11.4.4.5
arbitrator misconduct, 10.4.3.3, 10.4.4, 10.4.5
arbitrator partiality, 10.4.3, 11.4.4.8
bias in arbitration mechanism, 6.7.7.1
breach of agreement, 8.4.3
contractually created standards, 10.2.5.2
contrary to facts, 11.4.4.7
corruption, fraud, or undue means, 10.4.5, 11.4.4.9, 11.5.5
debt collection actions, 11.4.4
failure to explain decision, 10.5.2.3
failure to follow rules, 10.7.3.3, 11.4.4.4
incomplete or indefinite awards, 10.4.2
inconvenient venue, 11.4.4.6
independent grounds, 10.5.1
lack of hearing, 11.4.4.3
lack of notice, 10.4.1, 11.4.4.2
manifest disregard of the law, 10.5.1, 10.5.2, 10.7.4, 11.4.4.7
merits of award, 10.5
public policy conflicts, 10.5.3, 10.7.5
re-examination of evidence, 10.5.5
refusal to postpone hearing or hear evidence, 10.4.4
statutory claims, 10.5.2.4
statutory grounds, 10.4.1
jurisdiction, 10.2.1, 11.4.3
diversity jurisdiction, 2.3.3
overview, 10.1
participation in arbitration proceedings, effect, 11.3.3.1, 11.5.3, 11.5.6
procedures, 10.2, 11.5.1, 11.5.7
punitive damages awards, 10.7
re-examination of evidence, 10.5.5
setting aside confirmed awards, 11.6
state versus federal court, 10.2.1
statutory rights, awards affecting, 10.5.2.4
timing requirements, 10.2.3
arbitrability challenges, 11.5.3
confirming award, 10.2.3.2, 11.5.7.1
extending time for vacating, 10.2.3.3, 11.5.2
punitive damages, 10.7.2
vacating or modifying award, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.3, 11.4.2, 11.5.2, 11.5.3, 11.5.5
venue, 10.2.1, 11.4.3, 11.4.4.6
JURISDICTION
arbitrability issues, 2.1, 5.1.1, 7.4.2
appellate courts, 2.6.4
class arbitrations, 9.2
court or arbitrator, 2.2, 6.3
jury determination, 2.5
arbitration agreement existence, determinations, 5.1.1, 7.4.7
bankruptcy court, 4.3.3
class arbitrations, determination of right to proceed, 9.2.1
combined arbitrable and non-arbitrable claims, 7.4.11
compelling arbitration, 2.3
abstention by federal court, 2.3.4
appeals, 2.6
classwide arbitration, 9.2.1
federal diversity jurisdiction, 2.3.3
federal question jurisdiction, 2.3.2
generally, 2.3.1
motion to compel, 2.3.1
Native American disputes, 2.3.7
pendent jurisdiction, 2.6.4
personal jurisdiction, 2.3.7
right to jury trial, 2.5
Rooker-Feldman doctrine, application, 2.3.5
state court, 2.3.1
venue, 2.3.6
contract validity determinations, 2.2.4, 5.1.1, 7.4.7
delegation clauses, 2.2.3, 6.3, 7.4.2
federal jurisdiction, see FEDERAL JURISDICTION
gateway issues, 2.2.2
judicial review of arbitration decision, 10.2
applicable law, 10.2.2, 11.4.3
confirmation actions, 11.5.7.2
proper court, 10.2.1, 11.4.3
procedural questions, 8.3.1
scope issues, 7.4.2
unconscionability determinations, 2.5, 6.1, 6.3
class action bans, 6.7.5.1
delegation clauses, 6.3
waiver issues, 8.3.1
JURY TRIALS
right to
see also CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
assent issues, 5.2.1
enforceability issues, 2.5
waiver, 5.5
KNOWING AND VOLUNTARY DOCTRINE
see VOLUNTARY AND KNOWING DOCTRINE
LANGUAGE
clear and unambiguous, 5.4
interpreting ambiguous language, 7.3.5
procedural unconscionability, 6.6.2.3
LIMITATIONS
see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
LITIGATION
see also CLAIMS
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
consolidation of non-arbitrable and arbitrable claims, 7.4.11
jury trials, see JURY TRIALS
parties not subject to arbitration clause, 7.6.7
statutory claims, see STATUTORY CLAIMS
stay of proceedings, see STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
waiver of arbitration rights, as, 8.3, 8.6
addressing merits, 8.3.2.4
bringing motions, 8.3.2.4
conducting discovery, 8.3.2.5
delay enforcing arbitration, 8.3.2.6
filing pleadings, 8.3.2.3
jurisdiction to decide, 8.3.1
pre-litigation conduct, 8.3.2.2
LOSER PAYS RULES
see also FEES
arbitration concern, 1.3.7
enforceability, 4.4.2.2
unconscionability, 6.7.9
MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
see also MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT; STATUTORY CLAIMS
binding arbitration, 4.3.2
disclosure requirement, 4.3.2.7
enforceability, 4.3.2, 5.6.3
tie-in restrictions, 4.3.2.7.5
informal dispute settlement procedures, 4.3.2.5
service contracts, 4.3.2.7.4
MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
see also MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
disclosure requirements, 4.3.2.7
implementing regulations, 4.3.2.4
informal dispute settlement, non-binding, 4.3.2.5
legislative history, 4.3.2.3
text and structure, 4.3.2.2
tie-in restrictions, 4.3.2.7.1, 4.3.2.7.5
MAILBOX RULE
notice delivery, 5.2.3.2.4
MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
see also AGREEMENTS; ARBITRATION
AAA as service provider, 5.8.1, 5.8.2
adhesion contracts, 6.6.1
affinity groups, 7.6.9
agents, application, 7.5.5
ambiguous language, 5.4, 7.3.4
interpreting, 7.3.5
arbitration service provider, with, 5.3.3
arbitrator selection, 6.7.7.1
assent, 5.2
electronic assent, 5.2.2.6
express assent, 5.2.2
implied assent, 5.2.3
lack of capacity, 5.2.4
assignees, application, 7.6.1, 7.6.3.2
bad faith, 6.9.2
bankruptcy proceedings, effect, 4.3.3, 6.9.4.1
bill stuffers, 5.6.4
as change-in-terms, 5.6.4
notice sufficiency, 5.2.3.2.5
breach of provisions as waiver, 8.4
forum rules, 8.4.2
good faith covenant, 8.4.3
payment provisions, 8.4.4
broad language, 7.4.4
“browse-wrap” agreements, 5.2.2.6
canceled agreements, 6.9.4.1, 6.9.4.2
challenges to, who decides, 2.2
delegation clauses, 2.2.3, 6.3, 7.4.2
gateway issues, 2.2.2
scope issues, 7.4.2
unconscionability challenges, 6.3
choice-of-law provisions, 3.4.7
class action bans, 6.7.5.1
class action bans, 1.3.2, 6.7.5, 9.2.4
Concepcion decision, 6.7.5.2
early case law, 6.7.5.1
enforceability, 1.3.2
unconscionability challenges, 6.7.5.3
class arbitrations under, 9.2
arbitrability decisions, 9.2.1, 9.2.5
despite clauses appearing to prohibit, 9.2.4
intent of parties, 9.2.2
silent clauses authorizing, 9.2.3
clear and unambiguous requirement, 5.4
“click-wrap” agreements, 5.2.2.6
conflicting agreements, 5.4.3
conflicting terms, 5.4.4
consideration, 5.3
conspicuousness, 6.6.2.1
constitutional waiver challenges
equal protection rights, 10.4.3.4
generally, 1.3.7
improper delegation of power
jury trial rights, 5.5
consumer credit contracts, 4.2.1, 4.2.4
contempt proceedings, application, 7.6.8
contract defenses, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
corporate avoidance, 1.6
courts, application, 7.6.8, 10.8
credit repair organizations, claims against, 4.3.4
debt buyers and collectors, application, 7.6.3
defined, 1.2
delegation clause, 2.2.3, 6.3, 7.4.2
designated forum, 1.5, 5.8, 6.8.2
disadvantages, 1.3
class action limitations, 1.3.2
corporations, for, 1.6
discovery limitations, 1.3.5
fees, 1.3.6
generally, 1.3.1
impartiality concerns, 1.3.3
lower damages awards, 1.3.3
other concerns, 1.3.7
secrecy, 1.3.4
studies examining, 1.4
disclosure, see DISCLOSURE
duress, 6.9.2
earlier contracts, application, 7.4.10
effect, 1.2
electronic agreements, 5.2.2.6
employment agreements involving federal contractors, 4.2.5
enforceability, see ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
enforcement agencies, application, 7.6.8
expired agreements, 6.9.4.2, 7.4.9.2
FAA application, 3.3
conflicts with other federal statutes, 4.3
explicit federal limits on, 4.2
federal law determines, 7.7
FAA policy favoring enforcement, 3.2.2
limits to policy, 4.1, 7.3
presumption against waiver, 8.2
state law preemption, circumstances, 3.2, 3.3
formation of agreement, see FORMATION OF AGREEMENTS TO ARBITRATE
fraud in the execution, 6.9.1
fraud in the factum, 5.2.2.7
fraud in the inducement, 6.9.1
FTC authority, 4.3.7
future contracts, application, 7.4.10
illusory agreements, 5.3, 6.7.3.3
impact on consumers, 1.2, 1.3
studies on, 1.4
impossibility, 6.9.2
incapacity, 5.2.4, 6.9.2
incorporation by reference, 5.2.2.5
integration clauses, 6.9.4.2
interpretation
ambiguous language, 7.3.5
arbitrability issues, 7.4.2
general standards, 7.2
intent of parties, 7.2, 7.3.4
mandatory or permissive remedy, 7.7
judicial review provisions, validity, 10.2.5
language considerations, 6.6.2.3
later contracts, application, 7.4.10
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, application, 4.3.2, 5.6.3
material contract term, 5.6.2
meaningful choice, 6.6.3
military personnel, 4.2.1, 4.2.3
misrepresentations, 6.9.1
missing terms, 5.4.4
mortgage loans, 4.2.1, 4.2.2
multiple clauses, 5.4.3
NAF as service provider, 1.5, 5.8
alternative forums, 5.8.2
NAF rules, 5.8.3.4
unavailability, effect, 5.8.3
narrowly written clauses, 7.4.5
non-mutual clauses, 5.3.1, 6.7.3
mutual appearance, 6.7.3.5
non-signatories, application, 7.5, 7.6
notice requirements, 5.2.3.2
conspicuousness, 5.2.3.2.5
delivery, 5.2.3.2.2, 5.2.3.2.3
e-mail box rule, 5.2.3.2.3
mailbox rule, 5.2.3.2.4
nursing home residents, 7.6.4
one-way clauses, 5.3.1, 6.7.3
opt-out provisions, 6.5
post-termination conduct, application, 7.4.9.2
producing at confirmation hearing, 11.5.4
public injunctive relief, application, 7.6.8
punitive damages, limits on, 10.7.3.2
related claims not subject to, 7.6.7
rescission, 6.9.4.1, 7.4.10
retroactivity, 7.4.9.1
rewriting, 6.8.2
scope, see SCOPE OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
secrecy provisions, 6.7.8
severance, 4.4.1.3, 6.8.3
“shrinkwrap” agreements, 5.6.3
signature requirements, 5.2.2
electronic agreements, 5.2.2.6
forged signatures, 5.2.2.7
spot delivery sales, 5.7
standard form contracts, 6.5, 6.6.1, 7.4.3
state regulation, 3, 6.9.3
enforceability of agreement, 3.2.3
formation of agreement, 3.2.2
statutory claims, application to, 4.1, 7.4.6
statutory rights, clauses inconsistent with, 6.7.4
studies examining, 1.4
superseded agreements, 6.9.4.2, 7.4.10
termination of contract, survival after, 6.9.4.2, 7.4.9.2
UDAP complaints attacking, 6.9.3
unconscionability, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
undue influence, 6.9.2
unfair clauses, 4.3.7
unilateral change-of-terms provisions, 5.3.4
unilateral presentation, 5.6
bill stuffers, 5.6.4
validity, see ARBITRABILITY; ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
venue provisions, 2.3.6
voiding, 6.1
vacating award, 10.4.2, 11.4.4.1, 11.5.3
voluntary and knowing doctrine, 5.5
waiver of arbitration rights
see also WAIVER
breach of provisions as, 8.4
“no waiver” clauses, 8.6
warranties, 4.3.2, 5.6.3
wrongful death claims, application, 7.6.5
yo-yo sales, 5.7
MANUFACTURERS
dealer’s arbitration agreement, enforcement by, 7.6.2
mandatory arbitration with auto dealer, restrictions, 4.2.1
federal statute, text, Appx. B.7
MEDIATION
arbitration distinguished, 1.2
MILITARY PERSONNEL
mandatory arbitration, restrictions, 4.2.1, 4.2.3
employment-related claims, 4.3.6
federal statute, text, Appx. B.2
MISREPRESENTATIONS
fraud in the factum, 5.2.2.7
fraud in the inducement, 6.9.1
MISTAKE
contract law defense, 6.9.2
MORTGAGE LOANS
prohibition on mandatory arbitration, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, Appx. B.1
Regulation Z, Appx. B.1.2
retroactive application, 4.2.2.2
TILA, 4.2.2.1, Appx. B.1.1
MOTION TO COMPEL ARBITRATION
see also ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
appeals, 2.6.5, 3.5.1
waiver of right, 8.3.2.8
challenging arbitrability at, 2.1
class action issues, 8.3.2.7
delay in filing, effect, 8.3.2.6
discovery, right to, 2.4
federal court review, 2.3.5
jurisdiction, 2.3
jury trial, 2.5
Native American disputes, 2.3.7
non-signatory to agreement, 7.5
revival after waiver
amended complaints changing scope, 8.3.4
change in law, 8.3.3
venue, 2.3.6
waiver of right, see WAIVER
MOTION TO VACATE
see JUDICIAL REVIEW
NATIONAL ARBITRATION FORUM (NAF)
see also ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
bias concerns, 1.3.3, 1.5, 11.2, 11.6
consumer arbitration and, 1.5, 5.8.1
class arbitrations, 9.3.4
debt collection arbitrations, 11.1, 11.6
unavailability as forum, 5.8
setting aside awards, 11.6
NEGLIGENCE CLAIMS
see also TORT CLAIMS
arbitrability, 7.4.6.6
NON-SIGNATORIES
see THIRD PARTIES
NOTICE
arbitration award, 11.5.2
arbitration clauses, prerequisite to implied assent, 5.2.3.2
arbitration proceedings
consumer options after receiving, 11.3
judicial review based on lack thereof, 10.4.1, 11.4.4.2
bill stuffer arbitration clauses, 5.2.3.2.5
e-mail box rule, 5.2.3.2.3
mailbox rule, 5.2.3.2.4
NURSING HOMES
arbitration of claims, 7.6.4
background, 7.6.4.1
enforcement, 7.6.4.2, 7.6.4.3
forum, 7.6.4.4
PARTIALITY
see BIAS
PLEADINGS
filing as waiver of arbitration, 8.3.2.3
sample materials, 1.1.3
PRECEDENT
see CASE LAW
PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
PREEMPTION
see FEDERAL PREEMPTION
PRESUMPTIONS
arbitration, favoring, 7.3
arbitration agreement, no presumption of formation, 5.1.1
waiver of arbitration rights, against, 8.2
PROCEDURES
appeal procedures, see APPEALS; JUDICIAL REVIEW
applicable law, 3.5
arbitration proceedings, see ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS
arbitration service provider rules, see under ARBITRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS
arbitrator selection, 11.4.4.5
class arbitrations, 9.3
confirmation process, 11.5.1, 11.5.7
discovery, see DISCOVERY
errors in, judicial review, 10.4.5
FAA provisions not preemptory, 2.5, 3.5
failure to follow as waiver, 8.4.2
judicial review procedures, see JUDICIAL REVIEW
jury trials, see JURY TRIALS
procedural unconscionability, 6.6
removal to federal court
judicial review of award, 10.2.1
PRODUCTION REQUESTS
see DISCOVERY
PUBLIC POLICY CONSIDERATIONS
arbitration awards, 10.5.3
preclusive effect, 10.8.3
punitive damages, 10.7.5
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see also DAMAGES
availability, 10.7.3.2, 10.7.3.4.1
due process challenges to, 10.7.6, 10.7.6
limitations on
arbitration agreements, 4.4.1.1, 4.4.2.3, 10.7.3.2
arbitration rules, 10.7.3.3
challenging, 10.7.3.2
state law, 10.7.3.4
unconscionability, 6.7.4.1
protecting arbitrator’s award of, 10.7
QUI TAM PROVISIONS
FAA preemption, 3.4.4
REPEAT PLAYER BIAS
see also BIAS
concerns, 1.3.3
debt collection via arbitration, 11.2
evident partiality, 10.4.3.1
REPOSSESSIONS
see SELF-HELP REMEDIES
REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS AND DOCUMENTS
see DISCOVERY
RESCISSION
effect on arbitration clause, 6.9.4.1, 7.4.8
TILA, see TILA REMEDIES
RESEARCH AIDS
case law, see CASE LAW
web resources, see WEB RESOURCES
RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE LOANS
prohibition on mandatory arbitration, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, Appx. B.1
Regulation Z, Appx. B.1.2
retroactive application, 4.2.2.2
TILA, 4.2.2.1, Appx. B.1.1
RES JUDICATA
arbitration decisions, effect, 10.8
RICO CLAIMS
see also STATUTORY CLAIMS
arbitrability, 4.4.2.3
ROOKER-FELDMAN DOCTRINE
federal court review of state court rulings, 2.3.5
SALES AGREEMENTS
see also AGREEMENTS
arbitration clauses, see MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
contract defenses, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
state regulation, 6.9.3
warranty claims, 4.3.2
SCOPE OF ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
see also ARBITRABILITY
ambiguous language, interpreting, 7.3.5
applicable law, 7.2, 7.3.2, 7.3.5, 7.7
broad clauses, 7.4.4
disputes regarding contract formation, 7.4.7
federal policy favoring arbitration, application, 7.3
generally, 7.4.1
intent of parties, 7.2, 7.3.4
jurisdiction to determine, 7.4.2
mandatory or permissive remedy, 7.7
narrow clauses, 7.4.5
non-arbitrable claims, 7.4.11
non-signatories, 7.5, 7.6
other contract claims, 7.4.10
particular claims, 7.4
self-help remedies, 7.4.8
standard form language, 7.4.3
standards of interpretation, 7.2
statutory claims, 7.4.6
examples of claims outside scope, 7.4.6.2
fact specific inquiry, 7.4.6.6
significant relationship test, 7.4.6.1, 7.4.6.3
temporal scope, 7.4.9, 7.4.10
events after expiry of agreement, 7.4.9.2
events prior to agreement, 7.4.9.1
tort claims, 7.4.6
breach of contract, necessity, 7.4.6.4
examples of claims outside scope, 7.4.6.2
fact specific inquiry, 7.4.6.6
foreseeability test, 7.4.6.5
significant relationship test, 7.4.6.1, 7.4.6.3
SECRECY PROVISIONS
see CONFIDENTIALITY PROVISIONS
SECURITIES INVESTMENT CONTRACTS
mandatory arbitration clauses, restrictions, 4.2.1
SEC authority, Appx. B.3
SELF-HELP REMEDIES
arbitration clauses
applicability, 7.4.8
effect, 6.9.4.1
waiver of arbitration rights, as, 8.3.2.2
SERVICE CONTRACTS
binding arbitration clauses, disclosure requirements, 4.3.2.7.4
dealer arbitration clauses, application, 7.6.2
SERVICEMEMBERS
see MILITARY PERSONNEL
SEVERABILITY
arbitration clauses, 4.4.1.3, 6.8.3
SIGNATURES
acknowledging receipt, 5.2.2.8
both parties, requirement, 5.2.2.4
contract law requirements, 5.2.2.1
electronic agreements, 5.2.2.6
failure to sign, 5.2.2.2–5.2.2.5
forged signatures, 5.2.2.7
initialing of clause, 5.2.2.2
non-binding, 5.2.2.8
non-signatories, arbitration enforcement, 7.5
refusal to sign, 5.2.2.2, 5.2.2.3
third party signature, 5.2.2.9
SPOT DELIVERY SALES
void agreements, effect, 5.7
STATE ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
see GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
STATE LAW
arbitration awards, vacating and confirming, 10.2.2
arbitration clauses, application, 3.2, 3.4
choice of law provisions, 3.4.7
class action bans, 3.3.3.1
contract law defenses, see CONTRACT LAW DEFENSES
enforceability issues, 3.2.3, 3.3, 3.4.6.2, 5.1, 6.9.3
FAA preemption, 3.3, 6.2
formation issues, 3.2.2, 3.4.2, 5.1.2
insurance claims, 3.4.5
intrastate commerce, 3.4.6.2
qui tam claims, 3.4.4
scope restrictions, 7.4.6
statutory regulation, 6.9.3
unconscionability doctrine, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
voiding under, 6.1
arbitration orders, appeals, 2.6.5
choice-of-law provisions, 3.4.7
claims, see STATUTORY CLAIMS
consumer protection laws, 3.4.4
contract law principles, application, 3.2, 5, 6
federal preemption, 3.3
see also FEDERAL PREEMPTION
class action ban provisions, 3.3.3.1
FAA displacement by agreement, 3.4.7
laws disfavoring arbitration, 3.3.2
laws interfering with fundamental arbitration attributes, 3.3.3
laws limiting enforceability, generally, 3.3.1
laws regulating arbitrators and services, 3.4.8
“market participant” exception, 3.4.3
procedural laws, 3.5
unconscionability doctrine, 6.2
unpreempted state laws, 3.4
insurance disputes, application, 3.4.5
judicial review of arbitration award, application, 10.2.2
procedural laws, application, 3.5
punitive damages, limit on, 10.7.3.4
UDAP claims, see UDAP CLAIMS
unconscionability, see UNCONSCIONABILITY
waiver issues, application, 8.2
worker protection laws, 3.4.4
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
judicial review of arbitration award
confirmation, 10.2.3.2
punitive damages, 10.7.2
vacating or modifying, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.3
shortening, enforceability, 4.4.2.6, 6.7.4.4
STATUTORY CLAIMS
arbitration of
bankruptcy, claims asserted in, 4.3.3
class action bans, 6.7.5.3.2
employment-related claims, 7.4.6.7
federal claims, generally, 4.1
federal claims, restrictions, 4.2, 4.3.1
judicial review, 10.5.2.4
Magnuson-Moss claims, 4.3.2
scope determinations, 7.4.6
state claims, 4.4.1.4
Bankruptcy Code, see BANKRUPTCY CLAIMS
Civil Rights Act, see CIVIL RIGHTS CLAIMS
employment-related, see EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CLAIMS
excessive fees thwarting, 4.5, 6.7.4.5
arbitration charges exceeding court fees, 4.5.3.1
charges deterring pursuit of claims, 4.5.3.2
loser pays rules, 4.4.2.2
offers to pay fees, effect, 4.5.5
reimbursement of fees, effect, 4.5.4
FAA preemption
class action ban prohibitions, 6.7.5.3.2
federal law claims, 4.2, 4.3
state law claims, 4.4.1.4
federal claims, 4
judicial review of awards affecting, 10.5.2.4
limits on, 1.3.7, 4.4
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, see MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
one-sided control of arbitration process effectively nullifying, 4.6
RICO claims, see RICO CLAIMS
state claims, 4.4.1.4
UDAP claims, see UDAP CLAIMS
waiver of remedies, 4.4, 6.7.4
attorney fees, 4.4.2.1, 6.7.4.2
damages, 4.4.2.3, 6.7.4.1
excessive fees as, 4.5, 6.7.4.5
federal remedies, 4.3.1
injunctive and equitable relief, 4.4.2.5, 6.7.4.3
knowing and voluntary waiver, 5.5.4
STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
arbitration proceedings, 11.3.2
non-signatory party claims, 7.6.7
pending arbitration
appeals, 2.6.2, 2.6.3
dismissal of claims, 2.6.3
parties not subject to clause, 7.6.7
state court proceedings, 2.3.5
pending bankruptcy proceedings, 4.3.3
STUDENT LOANS
limits on mandatory arbitration of federal loans, proposed, 4.2.4a
SUITS
see CLAIMS; LITIGATION
SURETIES
arbitration agreements, application, 7.6.6
THIRD PARTIES
arbitration agreements, enforcement, 7.5, 7.6
affinity group members, 7.6.9
agents, 7.5.5
appeal rights, 2.6.2
applicable law, 7.5.2
assignees, 7.6.1
attorneys, 7.6.2
contempt proceedings, 7.6.8
debt buyers and collectors, 7.6.3
enforcement officials, 7.6.8
equitable estoppel, 7.5.3
general principles, 7.5
guarantors and sureties, 7.6.6
insurers, 7.6.2
manufacturers, 7.6.2
nursing home residents, 7.6.4
overview, 7.5.1
owners, 7.6.2
service contractors, 7.6.2
specific situations, 7.6
third-party beneficiaries, 7.5.4, 7.6.4.3
wrongful death claimants, 7.6.5
judicial review rights, 10.5.6
litigation stay pending arbitration, 7.6.7
signatures by, binding effect, 5.2.2.9, 7.6.4
TIE-INS
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 4.3.2.7.5
TILA REMEDIES
see also STATUTORY CLAIMS
bankruptcy proceedings, 4.3.3.6
effect on arbitration clause, 6.9.4.1
limits on class action rights, 4.4.2.4
TORT CLAIMS
arbitration clauses, applicability, 7.4.6
breach of contract, necessity, 7.4.6.4
employment-related claims, 7.4.6.7
examples of claims falling outside, 7.4.6.2
fact specific inquiry, 7.4.6.6
foreseeability test, 7.4.6.5
limitations on damages, 4.4.2.3
significant relationship to contract, 7.4.6.1, 7.4.6.3
defamation, see DEFAMATION CLAIMS
fraud, see FRAUD
negligence, see NEGLIGENCE CLAIMS
TRIBAL ARBITRATION FORUMS
arbitration agreements designating, 5.8.3.5
UDAP CLAIMS
see also STATUTORY CLAIMS
arbitration clauses
application, 7.4.6.6
attacking, 6.9.3
UNCONSCIONABILITY
arbitration clauses, 4.4.1.4, 6.1–6.7
adhesive, 6.6.1
determination, jurisdiction, 2.2.2, 2.5, 6.1, 6.3
discovery re, right to, 2.4
general standards, 6.4
language considerations, 6.6.2.3
non-mutual or one-way clauses, 6.7.3
opt-out provisions, 6.5
partial unconscionability, 6.8
procedural unconscionability, 6.6
punitive damages restrictions, 10.7.3.2
re-drafting or severing, 6.8
relationship between procedural and substantive, 6.5
shortened statute of limitations, 6.7.4.4
standard form agreements, 6.5, 6.6.1
state law application, 6.1, 6.2, 6.5
substantive unconscionability, 6.7
surprise, 6.6.2
bias of arbitrator or mechanism, 6.7.7
class action restrictions, 6.7.5
challenging, 6.7.5.3
Concepcion decision, 6.7.5.2
early case law, 6.7.5.1
confidentiality provisions, 6.7.8
contract as a whole, 6.1
adhesion contracts, 6.6.1
delegation clauses, 6.3
determination
jurisdiction, 2.2.2, 2.5, 6.1, 6.3
time, 6.4, 6.7.4.4
discovery, excessive limitations, 6.7.10
equitable relief limitations, 6.7.4.3
excessive fees and costs, 6.7.2, 6.8.2
limitation on remedies, as, 6.7.4.5
FAA preemption of doctrine, 6.1, 6.2
formation issue, as, 5.9
general standards, 6.4
inconvenient venue, 6.7.6
loser pays rules, 4.4.2.2, 6.7.9
partial unconscionability, 6.8
procedural unconscionability, 6.6
adhesion contracts, 6.6.1
meaningful choice as a factor, 6.6.3
relationship to substantive, 6.5
surprise as a factor, 6.6.2
secrecy provisions, 6.7.8
statutory remedies limitations, 4.4.1.4, 6.7.4
attorney fees, 6.7.4.2
damages, 6.7.4.1
high fees as, 6.7.4.5
injunctive and equitable relief, 6.7.4.3
shortened limitations period, 6.7.4.4
substantive unconscionability, 6.7
relationship to procedural, 6.5
UCC doctrine, application, 6.4
UNDUE INFLUENCE
contract law defense, 6.9.2
UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
FTC authority, 4.3.7
UDAP claims, see UDAP CLAIMS
UNIFORM ARBITRATION ACT (UAA)
arbitral immunity, 10.6
insurance exemption, effect, 3.4.5.2, 3.4.5.3
judicial review procedures
grounds to modify or correct award, 10.3
grounds to vacate award, 10.4.1
state adoption, 10.2.2
timing requirements, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.2
venue, 11.5.7.2
notice of award, 11.5.2
punitive damages, authorization, 10.7.3.4.1
stay of arbitration proceedings, 11.3.2
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
self-help remedies, application, 7.4.8
unconscionability doctrine, application, 6.4
USED GOODS
warranty claims, 4.3.2.6
VACATING AWARD
see JUDICIAL REVIEW
VENUE
collection actions, 11.5.7.2
confirmation proceedings, 10.2.1, 11.5.7.2
inconvenient venue, 1.3.7
as grounds for judicial review, 11.4.4.6
as unconscionable, 6.7.6
judicial review proceedings, 10.2.1, 11.4.3
motions to compel, 2.3.6
motions to vacate or modify, 10.2.1
VOLUNTARY AND KNOWING DOCTRINE
arbitration clauses, requirement, 5.5
cases rejecting, 5.5.5
constitutional waivers, 5.5.1
examples, 5.5.3
FAA preemption and, 5.5.2
statutory rights, waiver, 5.5.4
WAIVER
constitutional rights
jury trial, 5.5
voluntary and knowing doctrine, 5.5
FAA application, 3.4.7
interlocutory appeal rights, 2.6.2, 8.3.2.8
right to compel arbitration, 8
amended complaint, effect, 8.3.4
applicable law, 8.2
arbitration rules not determinative, 8.6
breach of arbitration clause as, 8.4
change-in-law defense, 8.3.3
class action context, 8.3.2.7
class waivers, 9.1
Concepcion decision, application, 6.7.5.3.4, 8.3.3
costs, failure to pay as, 8.4.4
defenses to waiver, 8.6
delay as, 8.3.2.6
discovery, conducting as, 8.3.2.5
duty of good faith, breach as, 8.4.3
filing pleadings as, 8.3.2.3
forum rules, failure to follow as, 8.4.2
issues raised, 8.1
jurisdiction to decide, 8.3.1
litigation conduct as, 8.3
merits of case, addressing as, 8.3.2.4
miscellaneous actions constituting, 8.3.2.8
miscellaneous actions not constituting, 8.3.2.9
motions, bringing as, 8.3.2.4
non-legal proceedings as, 8.3.2.2
“no-waiver” clauses, 8.6
policy rationales, 8.3.2.1
prejudice, necessity, 8.5
pre-suit litigation-related conduct as, 8.3.2.2
presumption against waiver, 8.2
revival after waiver, 8.3.3, 8.3.4
totality of circumstances test, 8.3.2.1
statutory remedies, 4, 6.7.4
attorney fees, 6.7.4.2
damages, 6.7.4.1
excessive fees as, 4.5, 6.7.4.5
injunctive and equitable relief, 6.7.4.3
unconscionability, 6.7.4
voluntary and knowing doctrine, 5.5.4
WARRANTY CLAIMS
binding arbitration clauses, 4.3.2
see also MANDATORY PREDISPUTE BINDING ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
designation of service provider, 4.3.2.7.5
disclosure requirements, 4.3.2.7
extended warranties, 4.3.2.7.4
implied warranties, 4.3.2.6
restrictions on, 4.3.2, 5.6.3
written warranties, 4.3.2.4, 4.3.2.6
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, see MAGNUSON-MOSS CLAIMS
WEB RESOURCES
NCLC companion materials, 1.1.3
WHISTLEBLOWERS
financial industry, mandatory arbitration restrictions, 4.2.1, Appx. B.6
WORKER PROTECTION LAWS
FAA preemption, 3.4.3, 3.4.4
WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS
arbitrability, 7.6.5
YO-YO SALES
void agreements, effect, 5.7