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ACCESS TO INFORMATION
see also INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES
automobile title information, 3.8
Driver’s Privacy Protection Act, 3.8.1
safety at stake, 3.8.3
selected circumstances, 3.8.2
ACCIDENT REPORTS
see also PRIOR DAMAGE
DMV filings, 2.4.2.3
information source, 2.4.5.4.1, 2.5.15
leased vehicles, 2.5.7
ACTIONS
breach of contract, see CONTRACT CLAIMS
breach of warranty, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
causes of action
selecting, 10.3.1
special state laws, 7.9
common law fraud, see FRAUD CLAIMS
Odometer Act, see ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS (ODOMETER ACT)
RICO, see RICO CLAIMS
tort claims, see TORT CLAIMS
UDAP, see UDAP CLAIMS
ACTUAL DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
ADD-ONS
dealer abuses, 1.3.6
ADDRESSES
helpful web addresses, 2.5.17, Appx. H
prior owners
obtaining from DMV, 3.8, Appx. E
obtaining from title search, 2.5.1
ADVERSE HISTORY
Carfax reports, missing information, 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
flood damage, see FLOOD DAMAGE
mechanical problems, see PREEXISTING MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
nondisclosure, see NONDISCLOSURE
prior use, see PRIOR USE
scope of this treatise, 1.2
stolen vehicle, see STOLEN VEHICLES
uncovering, see INVESTIGATORY TECHNIQUES
wreck damage, see WRECK DAMAGE
ADVERTISING
deceptive advertising
analysis, 1.3.3
license suspension, 7.7.5
possible claims, 2.2.12
AGENTS
see also EMPLOYEES
knowledge imputed to, 9.4.4
misconduct, dealer liability, 8.4.2
odometer disclosures, liability, 5.6.2.2
potential defendant, 10.4.2
punitive damages, principal’s liability, 8.10.5
AIRBAGS
practice checklist, 1.4.13
state laws, 7.5
used cars sold missing, 2.8
ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION
actual damages claims, 6.8.1.7
AMERICAN SALVAGE POOL ASSOCIATION
ethics and standards, 2.5.16
website, 2.5.17
APPRAISALS
see also PRICING
actual value, determination, 6.8.1.3
need to obtain, 10.2.1
ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
application
Magnuson-Moss claims, 10.3.5.4
non-signatory third parties, 10.3.5.2
arbitrability of issue, 10.3.5.7
class arbitration, 10.3.5.8
defendants, strategic considerations, 10.4.1
enforceability, 10.3.5
decided by court or arbitrator, 10.3.5.7
NAF as designated forum, 10.3.5.5
punitive damages, availability, 10.3.5.9
treble damages, availability, 10.3.5.10
unconscionability challenges, 10.3.5.3
validity, 10.3.5.2, 10.3.5.6
waiver of rights under, 10.3.5.6
yo-yo sales, 4.7.1
“AS IS” DISCLAIMERS
described, 8.8.2
disclosure requirements, 9.2.4.3.5
fraud claims, effect, 8.8.2
implied warranty disclaimers
effect, 9.2.4.3.1, 9.2.4.3.5
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 9.2.4.3.2
state law restrictions, 9.2.4.3.3
UCC restrictions, 9.2.4.3.4, 9.2.4.3.6
odometer violations, effect, 5.9
UDAP claims, effect, 9.4.3
ASSIGNMENTS
automobile title, 2.4.2.1, 2.4.2.2, 3.2.4
reassignment blocks and forms, 3.3.4
transfers not requiring, 3.2.5
ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
availability, 10.12.1
bonds, recovering under, 10.13.4.5
contract claims, 9.9
expectations, explaining to client, 10.2.6
expert witness fees, 6.8.5
fee-shifting statutes, 10.12.5
initial steps to obtaining, 10.12.2
lease unconscionability claims, 9.7
odometer complaints
federal statute, 6.8.4, 6.8.5
state statutes, 6.6.3, 6.8.4
pleading, 10.12.2
postjudgment awards, 10.12.4
requesting, procedure, 10.12.4
RICO claims, 9.5.1
settlements
attorney fees, 10.11.1.7, 10.12.5
court costs, 10.11.2.6
standards, 10.12.3
UDAP claims, 9.4.10
warranty claims, 9.2.10
ATTORNEYS
fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
practice tips, see PRACTICE TIPS
title information, obtaining, 3.8.2
ATTORNEYS GENERAL (STATE)
odometer acts, enforcement
federal statute, 6.9.2
state statutes, 6.9.3
AUCTIONS
Auction Access registration form, 10.13.1.3.4
arbitration clauses, application, 10.3.5.2
Carfax, reporting to, 2.3.1, 2.6.2.8
Carfax reports, use, 2.6.4.1
code of ethics and standards, 2.5.16, 2.6.4.4
dealer-only auctions, 2.6.4.1
dealer registration, 10.13.1.3.4
disclosures
odometer disclosures, 5.6.3.3, 5.6.9
requirements, 2.6.4.1, 5.6.9, 7.8.2
guarantees, 2.6.4.4
information source, 2.5.4
intent to defraud, 5.8.5
Internet auctions, see ONLINE AUCTIONS
investigatory techniques
culpability, 2.6.4.4
reputation, 2.6.2.7
“knock-out,” lists, 2.6.2.7
lemon laundering, 2.1.6
liability for fraud, 2.6.4.4, 8.5.2, 10.4.5
Odometer Act, 10.4.5.2
online auctions, 10.4.5.3
own misconduct, 10.4.5.1
seller’s misconduct, 10.4.5.1
“money on the hood,” 2.6.4.4
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.1
online auctions, see ONLINE AUCTIONS
potential defendants, 10.4.2
public auctions, 2.6.4.3
records
documentary evidence, 10.8.8.3
information source, 2.5.4
NHTSA requirements, 5.6.9
state law requirements, 7.8.1
remote participation, 2.6.4.1
reputation
evidentiary issues, 10.8.3
investigating, 2.6.2.7
salvage auctions, 2.6.4.2
fraud, 2.6.4.4
signal light systems, 2.6.4.4
state law, 7.8
summaries, Appx. C
summary title history, appearance on, 2.3.1
title branding requirements, 7.8.2
title documents, 2.4.2.1
“title attached,” 2.6.4.3
AUTO SAFETY HOTLINE
odometer complaints, 2.5.15
AUTOCHECK SERVICE
summary title reports, 2.3.1, 2.3.3
website, 2.5.17
AUTOMOBILE AUCTIONS
see AUCTIONS
AUTOMOBILE DEALERS
see DEALERS
AUTOMOBILE FRAUD
acceptance of benefits, 10.4.3.3
aiding and abetting, 10.4.3.5
civil conspiracy, 10.4.3.4
common law claims, see FRAUD CLAIMS
culpability
see also LIABILITY
auctions, 2.6.4, 10.4.5
generally, 2.6.1, 10.4.2
insurance companies, 2.6.5
joint and several liability, 10.4.7
manufacturers, 2.6.6
notaries, 10.4.6
other dealers, 2.6.3
prior private owners, 2.6.9
secured creditors, 2.6.7, 10.4.4
selling dealer, 2.6.2
third party participants, 10.4.3
wholesalers, 2.6.3
defective title, see DEFECTIVE TITLE
described, 2.1
felony status, 9.6.1
financing situations, 1.3.4
flood or hurricane damage, 1.4.4
investigations
see also INVESTIGATORY TECHNIQUES
cloned vehicles, 2.7
detailed title histories, 2.4
information from others, 2.5
information within consumer control, 2.2
retagged vehicles, 2.7
summary title history, 2.3
uncovering special culpability, 2.6
larceny status, 9.6.1
lease transactions, see LEASING
lemon laundering, see LEMON LAUNDERING
litigating, see LITIGATION AIDS
mail fraud, 9.5.3
misrepresentation, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
nature of, 1.1.1
NCLC treatise
described, 1.1.2
other treatises, 1.3
scope, 1.2
new cars, see NEW CARS
nondisclosure, see NONDISCLOSURE
odometers, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
online resources, 2.5.17, Appx. H
see also WEB RESOURCES
out-of-state entities, 10.3.4
practice tips, see LITIGATION AIDS; PRACTICE CHECKLISTS
ratification, 10.4.3.2
repairs, see REPAIRS
repossessions, see REPOSSESSIONS
rescission remedy, see RESCISSION
restitution, see RESTITUTION
RICO claims, see RICO CLAIMS
salvage fraud, see SALVAGE FRAUD
state laws
see also STATE LAW
special state laws, 7.9
summaries, Appx. C
stolen vehicles, see STOLEN VEHICLES
sublease scams, 1.3.8, 4.8
theft status, 9.6.1
title, see TITLE WASHING
title warranty issues, 9.2.2.2
trade-ins, 1.3.4
UDAP claims, see UDAP CLAIMS
unconscionability, see UNCONSCIONABILITY CLAIMS
used cars, see USED CARS
warranty claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
wire fraud, 9.5.3
wreck damage, see WRECK DAMAGE
yo-yo sales, see YO-YO SALES
AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS
see MANUFACTURERS
AUTOMOBILE SALES
see also TITLE TRANSFERS
auctions, see AUCTIONS
cancellation and restitution, 10.10.2
contract claims, see CONTRACT CLAIMS
dealers, see DEALERS
disclaimers, 9.2.3.3, 9.2.4.3
“as is” clauses, 5.9, 8.8.2, 9.2.4.3
express warranties, 9.2.3.3
merger clauses, 8.8.1
title warranty, 9.2.2.3
disclosure requirements
common law duty, 8.3.5.1
damaged vehicles, 7.2
disclaimers, 9.2.4.3.5
lemon vehicles, 7.6
odometers, see DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
prior use, 7.3
statutory duty, 7.2, 7.3, 8.3.5.4
discrimination, 1.3.12
extra charges, 1.3.6
fraud, see AUTOMOBILE FRAUD
Internet sales, 10.3.4.3
lemon vehicles, see LEMON LAUNDERING
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.2
odometer certification, 5.4
power of attorney transfers, 2.4.2.3, 2.4.5.1, 3.3.5, 5.6.5.6
preexisting mechanical problems, see PREEXISTING MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
pricing, see PRICING
resales of vehicles taken back, 10.11.2.2
revocation of acceptance, 9.2.7
RICO claims, see RICO CLAIMS
salvage vehicles, state law, 7.2.1
seller’s superior knowledge, 8.3.5.3
stolen vehicles, 2.1.8
UDAP claims, see UDAP CLAIMS
UDAP standards, 9.4.7
vehicles over ten years old, 3.2.6, 5.6.4.4
warranty claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
withholding payments, 9.2.8, 10.2.4
yo-yo sales, see YO-YO SALES
AUTOMOBILE TITLE
application for title, 2.4.2.3
assignments, 2.4.2.1, 2.4.2.2, 3.2.4
reassignment blocks and forms, 3.3.4
transfers not requiring, 3.2.5
auction “TA” sales, 2.6.4.4
auto fraud clues, 2.2.10.1, 2.2.10.2
brands, see TITLE BRANDS
certificate of title, see CERTIFICATE OF TITLE
chain of title
generally, 2.4.2.1
searches, 2.4.2.3, 2.4.2.4, 2.4.4, Appx. E
skipping by insurance companies, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.6.5
dealer’s own name, 2.4.5.7, 3.2.4
defective title
checklist, 1.4.11
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.6
demonstrators, 2.4.5.6
DMV records, 2.4.2.3, 2.4.2.4, 3.8
document of title, see CERTIFICATE OF TITLE
documentary evidence, 10.8.8.1
documents known to dealer, 2.6.2.2
duplicate titles, 2.4.5.7, 3.4.4
electronic titling, 2.4.3, 3.7
disclosures, 5.6.5.7
fraud reduction, 3.4.1
signatures, 5.6.7.2
falsifying, 2.7.3
fraudulent signatures, 3.3.1
investigatory techniques, 2.7.4
federal requirements, 2.4.2.2
floor plan financers, 3.6.1, 9.2.2.5
history, see TITLE HISTORY
information on title, access, 3.3.6, 3.8
information source, 2.4.2.2
instant verification, state checks, 2.3.7
laundered title, 2.4.5.7, 2.6.3
see also TITLE WASHING
intent to induce, 8.5.2
lost title, 5.6.5.6.1
new title
first title, 5.6.5.2
obtaining, circumstances, 2.4.2.1, 3.2.3
wholesalers or dealers, 2.4.2.1, 2.4.5.7, 3.2.4
new vehicles, 3.2.2
NMVTIS, 2.3.4
obtaining clear title, 9.2.2.5
old title
assignments, 2.4.2.1, 3.2.4
odometer disclosures, 3.6.2, 5.6.5.w.6.5.5
reviewing, 2.4.5.1
unavailable, 5.6.5.6
overview, 3.1
possession at time of sale, 3.6.1, 3.6.5
records
privacy issues, 3.8
retention, 3.5
registration documents, 2.4.2.3, 3.2.7
repossession title, 4.4.4.2
salvage vehicles, exchange for certificate, 7.2.1.5
searches, see TITLE HISTORY
state law, dealer compliance, 7.7.4
stolen cars, 2.1.8
strict title states, 3.6.4
transfers, see TITLE TRANSFERS
used car sales, 3.2.3, 3.3
violations
common law fraud remedies, 3.9.5
Odometer Act remedies, 3.9.2
securities fraud, 3.9.6
state law remedies, 3.9.3
UDAP remedies, 3.9.4
warranty of title, see WARRANTY OF TITLE
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.4.1
repossession title, 4.4.4.2
AUTOMOBILES
actual value, determination, 6.8.1.3, 10.10.1.2, 10.10.1.3
adverse history, see ADVERSE HISTORY
demonstrators, see DEMONSTRATORS
diminished value, proving, 10.10.1.2
distributors, see DISTRIBUTORS
executive cars, see EXECUTIVE CARS
flood damage, see FLOOD DAMAGE
fraud, see AUTOMOBILE FRAUD
gray market vehicles, see GRAY MARKET VEHICLES
impoundment, 6.9.1.1
insurance, see INSURANCE
leasing, see LEASING
“lemon,” use of term, 10.9.11
license plates, see LICENSE PLATES
low mileage, see LOW MILEAGE VEHICLES
manufacturers, see MANUFACTURERS
new, see NEW CARS
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.2
physical condition
cursory inspection, 2.2.5
dealer culpability, 2.6.2.3
expert inspection, 2.2.9
prior damage, see PRIOR DAMAGE
registration, 3.2.7
sales, see AUTOMOBILE SALES
salvage vehicles, see SALVAGE FRAUD; WRECK DAMAGE
speed sensors, 5.2.3
tires, see TIRES
towing, see TOWED VEHICLES
uni-body construction, 2.1.4
used, see USED CARS
AUTOMOTIVE NEWS
information source, 2.5.15
enforcement actions, 6.9.1.3
website, 2.5.17
BANKRUPTCY
dealers, recovery against bond, 10.11.1.2, 10.13.4.10
defendants after settlement, 10.11.1.2, 10.11.2.7
BANKS
see also LENDERS; SECURED CREDITORS
UDAP exemption, 9.4.2
BINDING ARBITRATION
see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
BLANKET INSURANCE POLICIES
issues, 1.3.10
BODY SHOPS
see also MECHANICS; REPAIRS
arbitration clauses, application, 10.3.5.2
distributor status, 2.5.9
information source, 2.5.9
potential defendant, 10.4.2
records, 2.5.9
salvage fraud, 2.4.5.4.5, 2.4.5.4.6
BONDING COMPANIES
collecting the judgment, 10.13.4
appeals, bonds pending, 10.13.2
attorney fees, 10.13.4.5
dealer bankruptcy, 10.13.4.10
different types of damages, 10.13.4.4
expired bonds, 10.13.4.7
limitations on size of recovery, 10.13.4.6
other limitations, 10.13.4.9
practice tips, 10.13.4.11
proof of fraud or specific conduct, 10.13.4.3
state-mandated bonds, 10.13.4
statute of limitations, 10.13.4.8
surety’s liability, 10.13.4.7
potential defendant, 9.2.2.4.3, 10.4.2
state bonding statutes
fraud or misconduct required to collect, 10.13.4.3
protected claimants, 10.13.4.2
requirements, 10.13.4.1
summaries, Appx. C
BRANDS
see TITLE BRANDS
BREACH OF CONTRACT
claims re, see CONTRACT CLAIMS
dealers, 7.7.5
withholding payment re, 10.2.4
BREACH OF WARRANTY
see WARRANTY CLAIMS
BURDEN OF PROOF
see also EVIDENCE; STANDARD OF PROOF
common law fraud claims
offset for use, 8.9.2
standard of proof, 8.7.l, 8.10.4
DPPA violations, 3.8.1
mistake, 9.3.2
Odometer Act violations, intent, 5.8.3
C.L.U.E. REPORTS
insurance claims histories, 2.3.6
CANADIAN VEHICLES
see also GRAY MARKET VEHICLES
federal emissions standards, meeting, 2.1.10.3
identifying, 2.1.10.4, 2.2.2
information sources, 2.3.5
NHTSA compliance packages, 2.5.15
nondisclosure problems, 2.1.10.1
odometer issues, 2.1.2.7, 2.1.10.2
warranty problems, 2.1.10.3
CAR AUCTIONS
see AUCTIONS
CARFAX
see also TITLE HISTORY
auctions, reporting to, 2.6.2.8
auctions, use, 2.6.4.1
cost of report, 2.3.2
dealers, use, 2.3.2
“Carfax certified,” 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
knowledge as culpability, 2.5.12, 2.6.2.6
discrepancy reports, 2.3.2
limitations, 2.3.2, 2.5.13
missing information, 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
overview, 2.3.2
summary title reports, 2.3.1, 2.3.2
VIN identifications, 2.2.4.2, 2.3.2
website, 2.5.17
CARPROOF
Canadian title histories, 2.3.5
website, 2.5.17
CARS
see AUTOMOBILES
CASE LAW
automobile fraud, 8.3.6
punitive damages, 8.10.8
UDAP per se violations, 9.4.6.2
unreported cases, 1.1.2.5
CERTIFICATE OF TITLE
see also AUTOMOBILE TITLE
assignment blocks, 3.3.4, 3.4.2
brands on, see TITLE BRANDS
DMV records, 2.4.2.4
duplicate titles, 2.4.5.7, 3.4.4
electronic titling, 2.4.3, 3.7, 5.6.7.2
forgery and alterations, 2.7.3, 3.3.1, 3.4.1
form and contents, 2.4.2.2, 3.4.2
history of, see TITLE HISTORY
new cars, 3.2.2, 3.3.2
obtaining after purchase for use, 2.4.2.1, 3.2.3
odometer disclosures, 3.6.2, 5.6.5.3–5.6.5.5
possession at time of sale, 3.6.5
privacy issues, 3.8
records retention, 3.5
salvage certificates, 3.4.3, 7.2.1.5
securities status, 3.9.6
strict title states, 3.6.4
temporary tags and registrations, 3.6.6
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.7
transferee’s signature, 3.3
exceptions, 3.3.4, 3.3.5
timing, 3.6
used cars, 3.3.3
CHECKLISTS
see PRACTICE CHECKLISTS
CIVIL PENALTIES
odometer violations, 6.9.1.2
punitive damages awards, relationship, 8.11.4
comparable penalties, 8.11.4.2
CLASS ACTIONS
arbitrations, 10.3.5.8
claims to assert, 10.7.3
defendants, 10.7.4
defining the class, 10.7.2
federal odometer statute, 6.8.6
generally, 10.7.1
pleadings, 10.7.5
protective orders, 10.7.6
settlement with individuals, 10.7.6
shaping, 10.7.2
CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
see also SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
unreported cases, 1.1.2.5
CLONED VEHICLES
investigatory techniques, 2.7
COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
liability by, 10.8.9
COLLECTING THE JUDGMENT
appeals, effect, 10.13.2
automobile auctions, 10.4.5
consumer recovery funds, 10.13.5
dealer’s assets, 10.13.1
bank accounts, 10.13.1.1
debts owed to dealer, 10.13.1.2
hidden assets, 10.13.1.3
dealer’s insurance policy, 10.13.3
lender, recovering from, 10.4.4
manufacturer, recovering from, 10.13.1.4
state-mandated bonds, 10.13.4
attorney fees, 10.13.4.5
bankrupt dealer, 10.13.4.10
default judgments, 10.13.4.3
different types of damages, 10.13.4.4
expired bonds, 10.13.4.7
generally, 10.13.4.1
limitations on size of recovery, 10.13.4.6
other limitations, 10.13.4.9
practice tips, 10.13.4.11
proof of fraud or specific conduct, 10.13.4.3
statute of limitations, 10.13.4.8
surety’s liability, 10.13.4.7
COLLECTION ACTIVITIES
abuses, 1.3.9
collection of unlawful debt, 9.5.2
res judicata, 10.6.1
COMMON LAW ACTIONS
contract claims, see CONTRACT CLAIMS
fraud claims, see FRAUD CLAIMS
tort claims, see TORT CLAIMS
warranty claims, see WARRANTY CLAIMS
COMPENSATORY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
COMPLAINTS
see PLEADINGS
COMPULSORY ARBITRATION
see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
CONDITIONAL SALES
see YO-YO SALES
CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENTS
settlement term, 2.5.1, 10.11.2.4
CONSPIRACY
elements of claim, 10.4.3.4
evidentiary issues, 10.8.1.8
co-conspirator’s statement, 10.8.1.8, 10.8.7.2
preparation or plan, 10.8.1.3
Odometer Act violations, 5.7
CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES
punitive damages, 8.11
statutory damages, 8.11.8.2
CONSUMER RECOVERY FUNDS
collecting the judgment, 10.13.5
CONSUMER SELLERS
intent to defraud, 5.8.14
CONTRACT CLAIMS
see also CONTRACTS
advantages and disadvantages, 9.9
dealers, against, 7.7.5
limitations on, 9.2.9.4
overview, 9.9
privity defense, 7.6.4, 9.2.6
restitution claims, see RESTITUTION
CONTRACTS
claims for breach, see CONTRACT CLAIMS
contingency clauses, 4.2
dealers, failure to perform, 7.7.5
disclaimer or merger clauses, 8.8.1
limitations on remedies clauses, 9.2.9.4
rescission, see RESCISSION
retail installment, see RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
withholding payment for breach, 10.2.4
COUNTERCLAIMS
Odometer Act claims, 6.4.3
CREDIT AGREEMENTS
see RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
CREDIT INSURANCE
abuses, 1.3.5
blanket policies, 1.3.10
force-placed insurance, 1.3.10
VSI insurance, 1.3.10
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.5
CREDIT PRACTICES
abuses, 1.3.4, 1.3.10, 1.3.11, 2.5.2.2.5
discrimination, 1.3.12
CREDIT REPORTS
abuses, 1.3.11, 2.5.2.2.5
consequential damages, 10.10.3.1
protecting as part of settlement, 10.11.2.3
withheld payments, 9.2.8, 10.2.4
CREDIT SALES
see RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
CREDITORS
see LENDERS; SECURED CREDITORS
CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS
automobile fraud, 9.6.1
collateral estoppel, 10.8.9
evidentiary issues, 10.8.1.10, 10.8.9
res judicata, 10.6.2
CRIMINAL PENALTIES
odometer violations, 6.9.1.3
punitive damages awards, relationship, 8.11.4.1, 8.11.4.2.4
title branding violations, 7.2.1.10
CUSTOM OF TRADE
defense to fraud claim, 8.8.4
DAMAGE
disclosure requirements, see DISCLOSURE
flood damage, see FLOOD DAMAGE
nondisclosure, see NONDISCLOSURE
prior damage, see PRIOR DAMAGE
DAMAGES
actual, see DAMAGES, ACTUAL
closing arguments, 10.9.13
deduction of damages, 9.2.8
diminished value of vehicle, 10.10.1.2, 10.10.2.2
documenting, 10.2.7
duty to mitigate, 8.9.4
emotional distress, 10.10.3.2
expert evidence, 10.8.7.5
fraud claims, 8.9, 8.10
joint and several liability, 10.4.7
leased vehicles, 10.10.4
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, 9.2.11.5
minimum damages, 6.8.2
multiple, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
Odometer Act violations, 6.8
intent requirement, 3.9.2.2, 5.8
minimum damages, 6.8.2
treble damages, 6.8.1
pain and suffering, 9.4.10
pleading in alternative, 8.12.3
punitive, see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
rescission alternative, 8.9.1, 8.12.3
state odometer statutes, 6.6.3
statutory, see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
treble, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
UDAP claims, 9.4.1.2, 9.4.10
yo-yo sale cases, 4.7.3
DAMAGES, ACTUAL
see also DAMAGES
benefit-of-bargain, 8.9.2, 10.10.1.1
closing arguments, 10.9.13
consequential damages
attorney fees as, 10.12.4
bonds, recovering under, 10.13.4.4
emotional distress damages, 10.10.3.2
fraud claims, 8.9.1
litigation aids, 10.10.3
odometer violations, 6.8.1.7–6.8.1.9
pain and suffering damages, 9.4.10
UDAP remedies, 9.4.10
warranty claims, 9.2.9.1
economic loss damages, 8.4.3.5, 8.9.1
fraud claims
causation, 8.9.3
generally, 8.9.1
measure of, 8.9.2
incidental damages
attorney fees as, 10.12.4
litigation aids, 10.10.3
odometer violations, 6.8.1.6
leased vehicles, 10.10.4
litigation aids, 10.10.1
loss of warranty or lemon law rights, 8.9.1
mandatory trebling, see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
Odometer Act violations
computation, 6.8.1.2, 6.8.1.3
consequential damages, 6.8.1.7–6.8.1.9
diminished value, 6.8.1.2
expenses to determine accuracy, 6.8.1.6
higher financing and other costs, 6.8.1.8
incidental damages, 6.8.1.6
prejudgment interest, 6.8.1.10
repair costs, 6.8.1.7
restitution alternative, 6.8.1.4
service contract cost, 6.8.1.5, 6.8.1.8
substitute transportation, 6.8.1.7
treble damages, 6.8.1.1, 10.9.12
out-of-pocket damages, 8.9.2, 10.10.1.1
punitive damages, ratio to, 8.11.3
repair costs, 6.8.1.7
substitute transportation, 6.8.1.7
UDAP remedies, 9.4.10
warranty claims, 9.2.9.1
DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
see also DAMAGES
arbitrations, availability, 10.3.5.10
bonds, recovering under, 10.13.4.4
jury knowledge, 6.8.1.1, 10.9.12
Odometer Act, 6.8.1
generally, 6.8.1.1
jury knowledge, 6.8.1.1, 10.9.12
restitution, relationship to, 6.8.1.4, 10.10.2.3
true mileage undeterminable, 6.8.1.3
punitive damages, relationship, 8.10.7
Gore standards, application, 8.11.8
RICO claims, 9.5.1, 10.9.12
state odometer violations, 5.8.2, 6.6.3, 8.10.7, 10.9.12
statutory damages, 6.8.2.5
UDAP remedies, 9.4.10, 10.9.12
DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
see also DAMAGES
arbitrations, 10.3.5.9
arguments for, 10.9.7, 10.9.13
bonds, recovering under, 10.13.4.4
case law examples, 8.10.8
constitutional limits, 8.11
contract claims, 9.9
emotional damages, relationship, 8.11.3.4.3
equity cases, 8.10.3
evidence of other bad acts, 10.8.1.7, 8.11.2.5
excessive awards, 8.10.6, 8.10.7, 8.11.1
fraud claims, 8.10
availability, 8.10.1
actual damages precondition, 8.10.2
case law examples, 8.10.8
constitutional limits, 8.11
odometer cases, 6.1, 10.10.6
principals’ liability for agent, 8.10.5
rescission remedy and, 8.10.3, 8.12.3
seeking, 10.10.6
state caps, 8.10.6, 8.10.7, 8.11.4.2.3
state criteria, 8.10.4
guideposts, 8.11
application to other damages, 8.11.8
comparison to other penalties, 8.11.4
ratio to compensatory damages, 8.11.3
reprehensibility, 8.11.2
Supreme Court decisions, 8.11.1
health or safety risks, 8.11.2.3
potential harm, 8.11.3.4
insurance policies, coverage, 10.11.1.1
intent to defraud, 8.11.2.6
joint liability, 10.4.7.4
jury instructions, 8.11.6
jury voir dire questions, 10.9.3
multiple claims, 8.11.2.7, 8.11.3.4.4
multiple defendants, 10.4.7.4
physical versus economic harm, 8.11.2.2
purposes, 10.9.7
repetition of conduct, 8.11.2.5, 10.5.3
review of award, 8.11.7
RICO claims, 10.10.6
settlement negotiations, 10.11.1.1
standards, 8.10.4
statutory caps, 8.10.6, 8.10.7, 8.11.4.2.3
treble damages, relationship, 8.10.7
UDAP claims, 9.4.10, 10.10.6
vulnerable plaintiffs, 8.11.2.4
warranty claims, 9.2.9.2
wealth of defendant, relevance, 8.11.5
DAMAGES, STATUTORY
see also DAMAGES
constitutionality, 8.11.8.2
fair notice, 8.11.8.3
Gore standards, application, 8.11.8
Odometer Act violations, 6.8.2
minimum award, 6.8.2.1
multiple defendants, 6.8.2.3
multiple plaintiffs, 6.8.2.4
multiple violations, 6.8.2.5
prerequisites, 6.8.2.2
seeking, 10.10.5
punitive damages guideposts, application, 8.11.8
state odometer statutes, 6.6.3, 6.8.3
UDAP remedies, 9.4.10, 10.10.5
DAMAGES, TREBLE
see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
DATABASES
AutoCheck, 2.3.3
Canadian vehicles, 2.3.5
Carfax, 2.3.2
CarProof, 2.3.5
insurance claims, 2.3.6
NICB, 2.3.6
NMVTIS, 2.3.4
other databases, 2.3.7
DATASEARCH
title searches, 2.4.4
DEALER-ONLY AUCTIONS
see also AUCTIONS
described, 2.6.4.1
online auctions, 2.6.4.1
registration, 10.13.1.3.4
DEALER PLATES
see also LICENSE PLATES
improper use, 4.4.3.8
DEALERS
auctions, see AUCTIONS; DEALER-ONLY AUCTIONS
bonding requirements, 10.13.4, Appx. C
business manager’s books, 2.5.2.2.5, 2.5.2.2.6
Carfax, use, 2.3.2
“Carfax certified,” 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
“charge backs,” 2.5.2.2.4
credit insurance sales, 1.3.5
creditor status, 4.3.3.2
culpability
agent’s misstatement, liability for, 8.4.2
Carfax reports, 2.5.12, 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
duty to inspect, 2.6.2.4, 7.2.5, 8.4.3.4
earlier dealers, 2.6.3
generally, 2.6.2.1
pattern of misconduct, 2.6.2.8
physical appearance of car, 2.6.2.3
price paid by dealer, 2.6.2.5
reputation of wholesaler or seller, 2.6.2.7
service and warranty history, 2.6.2.10
standards, 2.6.2.1
state law disclosure statutes, 7.2
title documents as evidence, 2.6.2.2
true mileage, failure to verify, 2.6.2.12
uncovering, 2.6.2
voided service contracts, 2.6.2.11
warnings, failure to abide, 2.6.2.9
“deal files,” 2.5.2.2.2
“dealer slang,” 2.5.2.5
dealer to dealer transfers, 5.6.5.5
deceptive pricing and advertising, 1.3.3, 7.7.5
defined, 3.5, 5.6.9
deposition of, 10.5.6
discovery techniques, 10.5.4
discrepancy reports, use, 2.3.2
discriminatory practices, 1.3.12
DMV records, 2.5.15
“dumb dealer” defense, 10.8.1.5
ECOA, application, 4.3.3.2
employee incentives, 2.5.2.2.6
extra charges, 1.3.6
FCRA, application, 4.3.3.2
“file jackets,” 2.5.2.2.2
finance facsimiles, 2.5.2.2.5
“finance reserve,” 2.5.2.2.5
financing fraud, 1.3.4
GAP insurance sales, 1.3.5
high pressure sales techniques, 1.3.3
information source, 2.5.2, 2.5.3
former employees, 2.5.2.4
present employees, 2.5.2.3
records, 2.5.2.1, 2.5.2.2
inspection, 6.9.1.1
insurance coverage, 10.11.1.1, 10.13.3
intent to defraud, 5.8
“jackets,” 2.5.2.2.2
judgments against, collecting
assets, 10.13.1
bonds, 10.13.4
insurance policy, 10.13.3
“knock-out,” lists, 2.6.2.7
knowledge of defects, 8.4.3
duty to inspect, 2.6.2.4, 7.2.5, 8.4.3.4
new cars, 7.2.3.5
lemon laundering, see LEMON LAUNDERING
licenses
information source, 2.5.15
revocation, grounds, 7.7.4–7.7.6
settlement motivation, 10.11.1.1
state law requirements, 7.7
state licensing offices, Appx. F
suspension, 7.7.4–7.7.6
log books, 2.5.2.2.6
mandatory arbitration agreements, see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
mechanical problems, contacting regarding, 2.5.2.6
misconduct, lender liability, 2.6.8, 5.8.3, 10.4.4
misrepresentations, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
nondisclosure, see NONDISCLOSURE
odometer accuracy
actual knowledge, 5.6.6.4
constructive knowledge, 5.8.3
duty to investigate, 5.8.8
verification with, 2.2.7
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.1
odometer disclosures, 5.6.5, 5.6.9
clerical errors, 5.8.10
odometer tampering, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
Police Book, 2.5.2.2.6
policy and procedure manuals, 2.5.2.2.7
potential defendant, 10.4.2
power of attorney disclosures, 5.6.5.6
punitive damage awards against, examples, 8.10.8
purchase order, 2.5.2.2.3
“recap” sheets, 2.5.2.2.4
records
documentary evidence, 10.8.8.3
information source, 2.5.2
inspection, 6.9.1.1
licensing requirements, 7.7.6
mandatory records, 2.5.2.1
other records, 2.5.2.2
payroll records, 2.5.2.2.7
repair records, 2.5.2.2.9, 2.5.10
retention, 3.5, 5.6.9
title records, 3.5
reputation, investigating, 2.6.2.7, 2.6.3
resales of suspect vehicles, 10.11.2.2
rollback slang, 2.5.2.5
service contracts, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
“spiffs,” 2.5.2.2.6
third party relationships, 2.5.2.2.8
title in own name, 2.4.5.7, 3.2.4
title laws, compliance, 7.7.4
title possession at time of sale, 3.6.1, 3.6.5
title warranty, 9.2.2
trade associations, 2.5.2.2.8
training materials, 2.5.2.2.7
“washout” system book, 2.5.2.2.6
worksheet, 2.5.2.2.3
yield spread premiums, 4.2.7
yo-yo sales
ECOA violations, 4.3.3
FCRA violations, 4.3.3
improper structure, 4.4
license plates, 4.4.3.7, 4.4.3.8
right to cancel, 4.2
TILA violations, 4.3.2, 4.4.3.3
UDAP violations, 4.2.8, 4.2.9, 4.2.10
DECALS
see STICKERS
DECEIT
see AUTOMOBILE FRAUD; FRAUD CLAIMS
DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES
see UDAP CLAIMS
DEFAULT JUDGMENT
collecting under state-mandated bond, 10.14.4.3
DEFECTIVE TITLE
see also WARRANTY OF TITLE
practice checklist, 1.4.11
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.6
DEFENDANTS
see also DEFENSES
class actions, 10.7.4
closing arguments, 10.9.13
collecting the judgment, see COLLECTING THE JUDGMENT
confidentiality agreements, 10.11.2.4
“empty chair” effect, 10.8.5
Fifth Amendment privilege, 10.8.7.8
financially shaky defendants, 10.11.1.2
habit or routine practice, 10.8.1.6
joint and several liability, 10.4.7
punitive damages, 10.4.7.4
knowledge
evidence, 10.8.1.4
fraud claim element, 8.2
“lemon,” attempts to limit use of word, 10.9.11
multiple defendants
settlement negotiations, 10.11.1.6
statutory damages, 6.8.2.3
naming
potential defendants, 10.4.2–10.4.6
strategic considerations, 10.4.1
out-of-state defendants, 10.3.4
postjudgment examinations, 10.13.1.1
ratification of fraud, 10.4.3.2
settlements, admissibility as evidence
other defendants, 10.8.5
prior settlements, 10.8.4
title warranty claims, 9.2.2.4.3
DEFENSES
see also DEFENDANTS
countering, 10.9.6
credit application fraud, 4.2.3
“dumb dealer” defense, 10.8.1.5
ECOA violations, 4.3.3.3, 4.3.3.4
federal odometer statute
bona fide error, 6.8.2.2
lack of intent, 5.8, 6.8.2.2
Fifth Amendment privilege, 10.8.7.8
fraud actions
“as is” clauses, 5.9, 8.8.2
custom of trade, 8.8.4
disclaimer clauses, 8.8.1
disclosure of defect, 8.8.3
election of remedies, 8.8.5
fraud by consumer, 8.8.6
merger clauses, 8.8.1
preemption of statute, 8.8.5
puffery, 8.6.4
mistake or accident, 10.8.1.5
privity, 7.6.4
res judicata
prior collection action, 10.6.1
prior fraud suit, 10.6.2
DEFINITIONS
auction company, 5.6.9
collection of unlawful debt, 9.5.2
dealer, 3.5, 5.6.9
deception, 9.4.3
distributor, 2.5.3, 3.5, 5.6.9
fraud, 10.13.4.3
lessor, 5.6.9
odometer, 5.2.3
racketeering activity, 9.5.2
salvage vehicle, 7.2.1.4
scienter, 8.4.1
transferor, 5.6.3.1
transfers, 5.6.3.1, 5.6.3.2
unconscionability, 9.4.5.2
unfairness, 9.4.5.1
unlawful act, 10.13.4.3
used car, 9.4.8.5.2
DEMONSTRATORS
see also LOW MILEAGE VEHICLES
damage disclosure, 7.2.2.4
first title, 2.4.5.6
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.6
misrepresentations
checklist, 1.4.9
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
new car status, 7.2.2.4
prior use, disclosure, 7.3
records, 2.5.10
DEPARTMENTS OF MOTOR VEHICLES (DMVs)
see also MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATION STATUTES
documentary evidence, 10.8.8.1
filings, 2.4.2.3
improperly obtaining information from, 3.8.1
information source, 2.5.15, Appx. E
Carfax use, 2.3.2
online resources, 2.5.17
prior owners’ identity, privacy issues, 3.8
title information, storing, 2.4.2.4
title searches, 2.3.7, 2.4.2.3, 2.4.2.4, 2.4.4, Appx. E
DEPOSITIONS
see DISCOVERY
DESIGN DEFECTS
odometers, 5.3.3
DISCLAIMERS
disclosure requirements, 9.2.4.3.5
express warranties, 9.2.3.3
fraud claims, effect
“as is” clauses, 8.8.2
merger clauses, 8.8.1
implied warranties, 9.2.4.3
FTC Used Car Rule, 9.2.4.3.5
Magnuson-Moss restrictions, 9.2.4.3.2
state law restrictions, 9.2.4.3.3
UCC duty of good faith, 9.2.4.3.6
UCC restrictions, 9.2.4.3.4
odometer violations, effect, 5.9
parol evidence rule and, 9.2.3.3
title warranties, 9.2.2.3
UDAP violations, effect, 9.4.1.2
DISCLOSURE
“as is” sales, 9.2.4.3.5
auction requirements, 7.8.2
blanket disclosures, 8.8.3
credit agreements, 4.3.2, 4.4.3.3
duty to disclose
generally, 8.3.5.1
half-truths, 8.3.5.2, 8.8.3
statutory duty, 7.2, 8.3.5.4
superior knowledge, 8.3.5.3
electronic titling systems, 3.7, 5.6.5.7
false disclosures, see MISREPRESENTATIONS
federal odometer statute, see DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
gray market vehicles, state law requirements, 7.4
lemon vehicles, see LEMON LAUNDERING
nondisclosure, see NONDISCLOSURE
prior physical damage
demonstrators, 7.2.2.4
new cars, 7.2.3
state law summaries, Appx. C
used cars, 7.2.2
wreck damage, 7.2.1.6
prior use, 7.3
subsequent resale of suspect vehicle, 10.11.2.2
TILA requirements, 4.3.2
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.3, 4.4.4.4
DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
see also ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
administrative history, Appx. B.1.3
application, 5.6.2
auction sales, 5.6.3.3
change of ownership, 5.6.3.1
change of title, 5.6.3.1
component parts, 5.6.3.4
dealer to dealer transfers, 5.6.4.5, 5.6.5.5
DMV filings, 2.4.2.3
enforcement actions, see ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS (ODOMETER ACT)
e-titling, effect, 3.7, 5.6.5.7
errors
correcting, 5.8.11
same clerical errors, 5.8.10
exemptions
government vehicles, 5.6.4.6
heavy vehicles, 3.2.6, 5.6.4.6
invalid, relying on, 5.6.4.8, 5.8.12
large motor homes, 5.6.4.6
manufactured homes and trailers, 5.6.4.6
new cars to dealers, 5.6.4.5
new cars to government agencies, 5.6.4.6
NHTSA exemptions, 5.6.4
rental company transfers, 5.6.3.5
state law relationship, 3.2.6, 5.6.4.2
vehicles over ten years old, 3.2.6, 5.6.4.4
waiver, 5.6.4.3
false disclosures, 5.6.4.3
false statements, 5.5, 5.6.4.3
consumer sellers, 5.8.14
incomplete, acceptance, 5.6.8, 5.8.7
insurance transfers, 5.6.3.2
intent to defraud, 3.9.2.2, 5.8, 6.3
involuntary transfers, 5.6.3.2
leased vehicles, 5.6.3.1, 5.6.6.5, 6.3
methods of making disclosures
dealers, 5.6.5.4, 5.6.5.5, 5.6.6.4
generally, 5.6.5.1
new cars, 3.3.2, 5.6.5.2
power of attorney, 5.6.5.6
state systems, 5.6.5.7
used cars, 5.6.5.3–5.6.5.5
mileage disclosures
certification, 5.6.6.1
contents, 5.6.6
failure to provide, 5.8.6
inaccurate readings, 5.6.6.3, 5.6.6.4
kilometers, 5.6.6.10
leased vehicles, 5.6.6.5
repaired vehicles, 5.6.6.8
restored cars, 5.6.6.7
salvage vehicles, 5.6.6.6
stolen vehicles, 5.6.6.6
towed vehicles, 5.6.6.9
turned over odometer, 5.6.6.2
unknown mileage, 5.6.6.3
vehicles over ten years old, 3.2.6, 5.6.4.4
multiple sellers or multiple buyers, 5.6.7.2
new cars, 3.3.2, 5.6.5.2
non-mileage disclosures
contents, 5.6.7.1
false statements, 5.5
Hertz system, 5.6.7.2
NHTSA authority, 5.6.7.3
remedies, 3.9.2
signature requirements, 5.6.7.2
old title, 5.6.5.3, 5.6.5.4
oral representations, 5.5
paper trail, 5.6.1, 5.6.5.3
parties responsible, 5.6.2
agents, 5.6.2.2
auctions, 5.6.2.1, 5.6.3.3
lessees, 5.6.2.3
transferor and transferee, 5.6.2.2
power of attorney disclosures, 5.6.5.6, 6.3
reassignments, 5.6.5.5
records, retention, 3.3.2, 5.6.9
rental cars, 5.6.3.5
repossessions, 5.6.3.2
requirements
generally, 5.6.1
scope, 5.2, 5.6.2–5.6.4
reset odometers, 5.4, 5.6.6.8, 5.6.6.10
security interests, granting, 5.6.3.2
signatures, 5.6.7.2
state request for alternative method, 5.6.5.7
statements as evidence, 10.8.8.1
supplementary information, selected excerpts, Appx. B.1.2
text, Appx. B.1.1
title documents, 3.6.2
transfers covered, 5.6.3
transfers exempted, 5.6.4
used cars, 3.6.2, 5.6.5.3, 5.6.5.4
violations
assisting, 5.6.2.1, 5.6.3.3
certification as inaccurate, 5.6.6.4
false statements, 5.5
liability, 5.6.2
private right of action, 6.3
remedies, 3.9.2
voluntary second set, 5.6.5.4
waiver of rights, 5.9
DISCOVERY
battles, preparing for, 10.5.5
“contention questions,” 9.5.6
deposition of consumer, 10.5.7
deposition of dealer, 10.5.6
evidence of other bad acts, 10.8.1.1
formal discovery, 10.5.2
informal discovery prior to filing suit, 10.5.1
merger clauses, tactics, 8.8.1
missing documents, dealing with, 10.5.9
pattern evidence, 10.5.3
techniques, 10.5.4
videotaping the deposition, 10.5.8
advantages and disadvantages, 10.5.8.2
right to, 10.5.8.1
yo-yo sale cases, 4.7.2
DISCRIMINATION
automobile sales and credit, 1.3.12
DISTRIBUTORS
body shops as, 2.5.9
defined, 2.5.3, 3.5, 5.6.9
information source, 2.5.3
insurance companies as, 2.5.9, 5.6.9
manufacturers as, 2.5.10
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.1
records
information source, 2.5.3
inspection, 6.9.1.1
odometer records, 2.5.3, 5.6.9
retention, 3.5, 5.6.9
title records, 3.5
secured creditors as, 2.5.5, 5.6.9
DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
see also EVIDENCE
business records, 10.8.8.3
simplifying admission, 10.8.8.4
summary title history reports, 10.8.8.2
title and registration documents, 10.8.8.1
DOCUMENTARY FEES
dealer abuses, 1.3.6
DRIVER’S EDUCATION CAR
prior use, disclosure
state law, 7.3
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
DRIVER’S PRIVACY PROTECTION ACT (DPPA)
constitutionality, 3.8.4
effect, 3.8.1
identifying information
disclosure restrictions, 3.3.6, 3.8.2
parallel state restrictions, 3.8.5
safety situations, 3.8.3
overview, 3.8.1
text, Appx. A.2
violations, 3.8.1
ELECTION OF REMEDIES
common law fraud or statutory, 8.8.5
rescission or damages, 8.12.3
ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
see DATABASES
ELECTRONIC DISCLOSURES
odometer disclosures, 5.6.5.7
ELECTRONIC ODOMETERS
see also ODOMETERS
predominant system, 2.1.2.2
rollbacks, 2.1.2.4
ELECTRONIC TITLING SYSTEMS
disclosures, 5.6.5.7
fraud reduction, 3.4.1
increased state interest, 3.4.1, 3.7
overview, 2.4.3
electronic lien and title programs, 3.7
signatures, 5.6.7.2
EMISSION TESTING RECORDS
DMV filings, 2.4.2.3
EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
damages for, 10.10.3.2
closing arguments, 10.9.13
punitive damages, relationship, 8.11.3.4.3
EMPLOYEES
see also AGENTS
fraud by, punitive damage liability, 8.10.5
information source, 2.5.2.3, 2.5.2.4
knowledge imputed to, 9.4.4
misconduct, dealer liability, 8.4.2
odometer disclosures, liability, 5.6.2.2
rollback slang, 2.5.2.5
ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS (ODOMETER ACT)
see also DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS); ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
arbitration clauses, effect, 10.3.5.10
attorney fees, 6.8.4
buyers, against, 6.2.6
civil penalties, 6.9.1.2
class actions, 6.8.6
costs, 6.8.5
criminal penalties, 6.9.1.3
damages, 6.8, 10.10.1.1
federal court jurisdiction, 6.5.1, 6.6.1, 10.3.3.1
federal claims, advantages, 6.6.2
federal enforcement, 6.9.1
forum
claims selection determinative, 6.6.1
factors in choosing, 6.6.2
fraud claims, 10.3.3.3
indirect injuries, 6.2.4
injunctive relief, 6.9.1.4
intent requirements, 3.9.2.2, 5.8.1, 6.3
non-mileage disclosures, 3.9.2
pleading, 6.7
jury trials, 6.5.3
leased vehicles, 6.2.5
lessee liability, 6.3
litigation aids, see LITIGATION AIDS
non-mileage disclosures, 3.9.2
other than current title owner, bringing, 6.2.3
parol evidence rule, application, 10.8.6
parties, 6.7
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
power of attorney violations, 6.3
private remedies
attorney fees, 6.8.4
class actions, 6.8.6
costs, 6.8.5
disclosure violations, 6.3
non-odometer violations, 3.9.2
punitive damages, 6.8.1.1
standing, 6.2
statutory damages, 6.8.2
treble damages, 6.8.1, 10.9.12
privity not required, 6.2.2
reliance, necessity, 6.7
reporting, 6.9.1.3
standing, 6.2
state claims
benefits of adding, 6.6.3
forum, 6.6.1
merits of federal claim, 6.6.2
state enforcement, 6.9.2
statute of limitations, 6.4
UDAP alternative, 9.4.1.5
utility of, 3.9.2.1
venue, 6.5.2
EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (ECOA)
violations
misrepresentations, 4.2.9
notice requirements, 4.3.3
EQUITABLE REMEDIES
lease unconscionability claims, 9.7
mistake doctrine, 9.3
punitive damages and, 8.10.3
rescission, see RESCISSION
EVIDENCE
see also BURDEN OF PROOF; STANDARD OF PROOF; WITNESSES
actual knowledge, 8.4.3.2
adverse parties, statements, 10.8.7.2
bad reputation, 10.8.3
closing arguments, 10.9.13
consumer complaints, other, 10.8.2
criminal conviction, 10.8.1.10, 10.8.9
diminished value of vehicle, 10.10.1.2
documentary evidence, see DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
exhibits, use, 10.9.5
expert evidence, see EXPERT WITNESSES
forgery, 10.8.7.4
intent to defraud, 5.8.4–5.8.14, 8.10.4, 8.11.2.6
merger clauses, 10.8.6
motion to preserve, 10.2.2
multiple claims, 10.8.1.8
odometer tampering
circumstantial, 5.3.1
intent, 5.8
investigatory techniques, 2.1.2.4
other bad acts, admissibility, 10.8.1
absence of mistake or accident, 10.8.1.5
conspiracies, 10.8.1.8
habit or routine practice, 10.8.1.6
impeachment, 10.8.1.10
intent or motive, 10.8.1.2
intertwined acts, 10.8.1.8
knowledge, 10.8.1.4
multiple claims, 10.8.1.8
overview, 10.8.1.1
practice tips, 10.8.1.11
preparation or plan, 10.8.1.3
punitive damages, in support, 10.8.1.7
RICO and UDAP claims, 10.8.1.9
parol evidence rule, 8.7.2, 9.2.3.3, 10.8.6
pattern evidence, 8.11.2.5, 10.5.3
public records, 10.8.8.1
reliance, 8.6.2
requests for admission, 10.8.8.4
settlements
other defendants by plaintiff, 10.8.5
other settlements by defendant, 10.8.4
spoliation of evidence claims, 2.5.2.2.1, 9.2.7.3, 9.2.7.6.3
title histories, 10.8.8.2
used car guides, 10.10.1.4
wealth of defendant, admissibility, 8.11.5
EXECUTIVE CARS
see also LOW MILEAGE VEHICLES
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.6
meaning of term, 2.4.5.6
misrepresentations, 1.4.9, 2.1.7
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
EXEMPLARY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
EXPERIAN’S AUTOCHECK SERVICE
see AUTOCHECK SERVICE
EXPERT INSPECTIONS
defense inspections, 2.2.9.4
finding an expert, 2.2.9.1
need for, 10.2.1
procedures and techniques, 2.2.9.1, 2.2.9.3
what to check, 2.2.9.2
EXPERT WITNESSES
see also EVIDENCE; WITNESSES
appraisers, 10.2.1
costs awards, 6.8.5
Daubert standards, 2.2.9.1, 10.8.7.6
defense inspections, 2.2.9.4
emotional distress damages, 10.10.3.2
forensic document examiners, 10.8.7.4
fraud transactions, 10.9.8
law enforcement agencies, 2.5.15
mechanics, 2.2.9, 10.2.1, 10.8.7.3
other experts, 10.8.7.5
police detectives, 2.2.9.1
EXTENDED WARRANTIES
see SERVICE CONTRACTS
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT (FCRA)
notice violations, 4.3.3
remedies, 4.3.3.5
FALSE STATEMENTS
see MISREPRESENTATIONS
FEDERAL ODOMETER ACT
see ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
FEDERAL PREEMPTION
fraud claims, 8.8.5
state odometer statutes, 5.1.5
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
Holder Rule, 2.6.8, 10.4.4
lemon laundering complaints, 2.5.15
online resources, 2.5.17
rule violations, penalties, 8.11.4.2.2
Used Car Rule, 9.2.4.3.5, 9.4.8.5.4
FIFTH AMENDMENT PRIVILEGE
see SELF-INCRIMINATION
FINANCING
see CREDIT PRACTICES; LENDERS; SECURED CREDITORS
FLEET VEHICLES
see LEASING
FLOOD DAMAGE
Gulf Coast, state law requirements, 7.2.4
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.4, 2.5.15
online resources, 2.5.17
insurers, title skipping, 5.6.3.2
undisclosed
generally, 2.1.3
hurricane damage, 2.1.5, 5.6.3.2
practice checklist, 1.4.4
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.2
FLOOR PLAN FINANCERS
investigatory techniques, 2.5.6
title, retaining, 3.6.1
FORCE-PLACED INSURANCE
abuses, 1.3.10
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.5
FOREIGN ORIGIN VEHICLES
see CANADIAN VEHICLES; GRAY MARKET VEHICLES
FORGERY OF DOCUMENTS
expert witnesses, 10.8.7.4
title documents, 3.4.1
FORUM
drafting complaint to preserve, 10.3.2
jurisdictional issues, 10.3
odometer actions, 6.5.1, 6.6.1
factors in choosing, 6.6.2
FRANCHISED DEALERS
see DEALERS
FRAUD
see AUTOMOBILE FRAUD; FRAUD CLAIMS
FRAUD CLAIMS
see also MISREPRESENTATIONS
acceptance of benefits of fraud, 10.4.3.3
active concealment, 8.3.4
advantages and disadvantages, 8.1
affirmative misstatements, 8.3.3
aiding and abetting, 10.4.3.5
arbitration clauses, effect, 10.3.5
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
auction violations, 7.8.4, 10.4.5
case law precedents, 8.3.6
causes of action, selecting, 10.3.1
class actions, 10.7.3
conspiracy, 10.4.3.4
damage, undisclosed, 7.2.2.3, 7.2.3.6
damages
actual damages, 8.9, 10.10.1.1
duty to mitigate, 8.9.4
economic loss damages, 8.4.3.5, 8.9.1
emotional distress damages, 10.10.3.2
punitive damages, 8.10
defendants
potential defendants, 10.4
privity, 2.6.1
defenses
“as is” clauses, 5.9, 8.8.2
custom of trade, 8.8.4
disclaimer clauses, 8.8.1, 8.8.2
disclosure of defect, 8.8.3
election of remedies, 8.8.5
fraud by consumer, 8.8.6
merger clauses, 8.8.1
preemption by statute, 8.8.5
privity, 7.6.4
puffery, 8.6.4
duty to disclose
common law, 8.3.5.1
statutory, 8.3.5.4
elements, 8.2, 8.4.3.1
evidence, see EVIDENCE
fact vs. opinion, 8.3.3.2
fraud by consumer, effect, 8.8.6
flood or hurricane damage, 1.4.4
half-truths, 8.3.5.2, 8.3.5.3
innocent misrepresentation, 8.4.3.6
intent to induce, 8.5, 8.10.4
justifiable reliance, 8.6
lemon laundering, 7.6.6
licensing violations
basis of fraud claim, 7.7.1
fraud as violation, 7.7.5
litigation aids, see LITIGATION AIDS
material misrepresentations, 8.3
negligence, 8.4.3.5
nondisclosure, 8.3.5
notaries, 10.4.6
Odometer Act claim, framing as, 10.3.3.3
odometer cases, 6.1, 10.3.3.3
parol evidence rule, application, 10.8.6
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
privity defenses, 7.6.4
promissory fraud, 8.3.3.2
proof
intent to defraud, 8.10.5
parol evidence rule, 8.7.2
standard of proof, 8.7.1
puffery, 8.6.4
punitive damages, 6.1
ratification of fraud, 10.4.3.2
recklessness, 8.4.3.3
duty to inspect, 8.4.3.4
remote sellers, 8.5.2
res judicata, 10.6.2
rescission alternative, 8.9.1, 8.12
restitution alternative, 8.9.1
salvage fraud, see SALVAGE FRAUD
scienter requirement
degree of knowledge, 8.4.3
generally, 8.4.1
proof, 2.5.12
whose knowledge, 8.4.2
securities fraud, 3.9.6
seller’s knowledge
actual knowledge, 8.4.3.2
duty to inspect, 8.4.3.4
superior knowledge, 8.3.5.3
truth, 8.4
vehicle history report, 2.5.12, 2.6.2.6
silence as, 8.3.5
state law preemption, 8.8.5
title law violations, 3.9.5, 7.2.1.10
trial of case, see under LITIGATION AIDS
FTC
see FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)
GAP INSURANCE
abuses, 1.3.5
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.5
GOOD FAITH
UCC duty, 9.2.4.3.6
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
consumer complaints to, evidentiary use, 10.8.2
federal odometer statute, enforcement, 6.9
information source, 2.5.15
law enforcement, see LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
new car transfers to, Odometer Act exemption, 5.6.4.6
GRAY MARKET VEHICLES
see also CANADIAN VEHICLES
federal emissions standards, meeting, 2.1.10.3
identifying, 2.1.10.4, 2.2.2
NHTSA compliance packages, 2.5.15
odometer discrepancies, 2.1.10.2
practice checklist, 1.4.12
state law requirements, 7.4
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.7
warranty of title issues, 9.2.2.2
warranty of merchantability, 8.2.4.2
warranty problems, 2.1.10.3
GUIDES
see USED CAR PRICING GUIDES
HIGH PRESSURE SALES TECHNIQUES
automobile dealers, 1.3.3
HISTORY
see ADVERSE HISTORY; TITLE HISTORY
HOLDER RULE (FTC)
creditor liability for dealer misconduct, 2.6.8, 10.4.4
HUBODOMETERS
odometer status, 5.2.3
HURRICANE DAMAGE
see FLOOD DAMAGE
IMPORTED VEHICLES
see GRAY MARKET VEHICLES
IMPOUNDMENT
Secretary of Transportation, powers, 6.9.1.1
INFORMATION SOURCES
see DATABASES; INVESTIGATORY TECHNIQUES
INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
odometer violations, 6.9.1.4
INSPECTION
dealers, 6.9.1.1
physical condition
see also MECHANICAL INSPECTIONS
cursory inspections, 2.2.5
dealer’s duty, 2.6.2.4, 7.2.5, 8.4.3.4
effect on justifiable reliance, 8.6.3
expert inspections, 2.2.9, 10.2.1, 10.8.7.3
Secretary of Transportation, powers, 6.9.1.1
INSURANCE
claims, see INSURANCE CLAIMS
companies, see INSURANCE COMPANIES
credit insurance, see CREDIT INSURANCE
force-placed insurance, see FORCE-PLACED INSURANCE
GAP insurance, see GAP INSURANCE
yo-yo transactions, improper treatment, 4.4.3.5
INSURANCE CLAIMS
collecting the judgment, 10.13.3
databases, 2.3.6
information source, 2.3.6, 2.5.9, 2.5.14
punitive damages, 10.11.1.1
INSURANCE COMPANIES
arbitration clauses, application, 10.3.5
culpability, uncovering, 2.6.5
distributor status, 2.5.9, 5.6.9
information source, 2.5.9
odometer disclosures, 5.6.3.2
potential defendant, 10.4.2
punitive damages, 3.9.5
records, 2.5.9
salvage auctions, 2.6.4.2
salvage brands, 2.4.5.4
salvage certificates, 7.2.1.5
salvage fraud, 2.1.4, 2.4.5.4.5, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.6.5
stolen vehicles, odometer disclosures, 5.6.6.6
title skipping, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.6.5, 5.6.3.2
UDAP exemption, 9.4.2
wreck damage, reporting, 7.2.1.5
INSURANCE SERVICES OFFICE, INC. (ISO)
claims database, 2.3.6
INTENT TO DEFRAUD
see also FRAUD CLAIMS; ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
acceptance of incomplete disclosure, 5.8.7
“clerical” errors, 5.8.10
common law fraud, 8.4, 8.5
conflicting disclosures, 5.8.5
consumers, 5.8.14
corrections as lack of intent, 5.8.11
evidence of, generally, 8.10.4
evidence of other bad acts, 10.8.1.2
examples of dealers overcoming presumption, 5.8.13
failure to investigate suspicious disclosure, 5.8.8, 5.8.9
failure to provide disclosures, 5.8.6
invalid NHTSA exemptions, 5.8.12
lack of as defense, 5.8
non-mileage disclosures, 3.9.2.2, 6.3
pleading, 6.7
proof, general standards, 5.8.3, 8.4.10
punitive damages, 8.10.4, 8.11.2.6
requirement for Odometer Act enforcement, 3.9.2, 5.8.1
state odometer statutes, 5.8.2
tampering as evidence, 5.8.4
INTERNET RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
INTERNET SALES
auctions, see ONLINE AUCTIONS
growing trend, 2.6.4.1
jurisdiction, 10.3.4.3
INTERROGATORIES
see DISCOVERY
INVESTIGATORY TECHNIQUES
airbags, missing, 2.8
auction culpability, 2.6.4
Canadian vehicles, identifying, 2.1.10.4, 2.2.2
cloned vehicles, 2.7
consumer interview, 2.2.1
dealer culpability, 2.6.2
discovery, see DISCOVERY
DMV searches, 2.4.2.4, 2.4.4, 3.8
information sources
advertisements, 2.2.12
auctions, 2.5.4
AutoCheck, 2.3.3
body shops, 2.5.9
Canadian vehicles, 2.3.5
Carfax, 2.3.2, 2.5.12
CarProof, 2.3.5
C.L.U.E. reports, 2.3.6
Datasearch, 2.4.4
dealers, 2.5.2
floor plan financers, 2.5.6
government agencies, 2.5.15
insurance claims, 2.3.6, 2.5.9, 2.5.14
ISO, 2.3.6
lessors and lessees, 2.5.7
manufacturer records, 2.5.10
odometer readings, 2.2.7
NICB, 2.3.6
NMVTIS, 2.3.4
paperwork found in car, 2.2.2
prior owners, 2.4.5.2, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.5.1
rental car companies, 2.5.8
repair documents, 2.2.10.3
secured creditors, 2.5.5
service contract records, 2.5.11
stickers on car, 2.2.2
title history, 2.3, 2.4
trade associations, 2.5.16
used car pricing guides, 2.2.11
VIN, 2.2.4
wholesalers, 2.5.3
insurance company culpability, 2.6.5
lemon laundering, 2.4.5.5
lender culpability, 2.6.8
low mileage vehicles, 2.4.5.6
manufacturer culpability, 2.6.6
motor home engine hour meter, 2.2.8
odometer tampering, 2.2.7, 2.4.5.3
physical inspection
cursory, 2.2.5
dealer culpability, 2.6.2.3, 2.6.2.4
expert, 2.2.9, 10.2.1
tires, 2.2.3
visual inspection, 2.2.5
preliminary steps by client, 10.2.5
prior use, 2.4.5.6
retagged vehicles, 2.7
salvage brands, 2.4.5.4
secured creditor culpability, 2.6.7, 2.6.8
special culpability, uncovering, 2.6
title documents
new title, 2.2.10.1
other title documents, 2.2.10.2
using to uncover fraud, 2.4.5
title history, 2.7.4.2
detailed history, 2.4
summary history, 2.3
used car status, 9.4.8.5.3
vehicle identification number (VIN), 2.2.4, 2.7.4.1
wholesaler culpability, 2.6.3
ISO
see INSURANCE SERVICES OFFICE, INC. (ISO)
JUDGMENTS
collecting on, see COLLECTING ON THE JUDGMENT
default judgments, see DEFAULT JUDGMENTS
partial summary judgment, 10.11.1.4
prejudgment interest, 6.8.1.10
JURISDICTION
federal jurisdiction
advantages and disadvantages, 10.3.3.1
circumstances, 6.6.1
supplemental jurisdiction, 10.3.3.2
Internet sales, 10.3.4.3
long-arm jurisdiction, 10.3.4.2
mandatory arbitration clauses, 10.3.5
odometer actions, 6.5.1, 6.6.1
out-of-state defendants, 10.3.4
RICO claims, 9.5.1
state law claims, 6.6.1, 10.3.3.2
JURY TRIALS
closing argument, 10.9.13
conduct of trial, 10.9.4
countering defense arguments, 10.9.6
exhibits, use, 10.9.5
fraud cases, 10.9
jury instructions
preparing early, 10.9.1
punitive damages, 8.11.6
review in closing, 10.9.13
“lemon,” use of word, 10.9.11
motions in limine, 10.9.2
Odometer Act, actions under, 6.5.3
opening statement, 10.9.9
order of witnesses, 10.9.10
preparing for, 10.9.1
punitive damages, arguing for, 10.9.7
settlement with other defendants, knowledge, 10.8.5
treble damages, knowledge, 6.8.1.1, 10.9.12
voir dire, 10.9.3
KICKBACKS
automobile financing, 1.3.4
LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
information source
car’s history, 2.5.15
reputation of seller, 2.6.2.7
LEASING
see also RENTAL CARS
automobile fraud, analysis, 1.3.7, 1.3.8
company culpability, uncovering, 2.6.3
damages measure, 10.10.4
disclosure requirements, 2.5.7, 5.6.6.5
discrimination, 1.3.12
lemon laundering, 7.6.2
mileage misrepresentations, 5.5
Odometer Act
application, 5.2.1
violations, 6.3
odometer disclosures
generally, 2.5.7
lessee liability, 5.6.2.3, 6.3
mileage disclosures, 5.6.6.5
record retention, 5.6.9
transfer of title, 5.6.3.1, 5.6.6.5
odometer fraud, 2.1.2.7, 2.4.5.3, 2.4.5.8
records, 2.5.7, 5.6.9
subleases and brokerage scams, 1.3.8, 4.8
unconscionability claims, 9.7
LEMON
laundering, see LEMON LAUNDERING
use of word, 10.9.11
LEMON LAUNDERING
see also PREEXISTING MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
checklist, 1.4.7
disclosure requirements, 7.6.1
documentary evidence, 10.8.8.1
express warranty claims, 9.2.3.2.2
FTC, reporting to, 2.5.15
“goodwill” buybacks, 2.1.6, 7.6.2
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.5, 2.5.2.6, 2.5.10, 2.6.6
multistate transactions, 7.6.5
non-manufacturer buybacks, 7.6.3
overview, 2.1.6
privity defense, 7.6.4
reimbursement request as evidence, 2.5.15
state law, 7.6
remedies, 7.6.6
summaries, Appx. C
UDAP claims, 7.6.6, 9.4.8.3
LENDERS
see also BANKS; SECURED CREDITORS
class action defendant, 10.7.4
dealer misconduct, liability for, 2.6.8, 5.8.3, 10.4.4
potential defendant, 10.4.2
yo-yo transactions, 4.2.1
LIABILITY
agents, 5.6.2.2
auctions, 2.6.4, 10.4.5
dealers, 7.2.3.6
other dealers, 2.6.3
selling dealer, 2.6.2
disclosure violations, 5.6.2, 6.3
generally, 2.6.1, 10.4.2
insurance companies, 2.6.5
joint and several liability, 10.4.7
manufacturers, 2.6.6, 7.2.3.6, 8.4.2
notaries, 10.4.6
principal for agent, 8.4.2, 8.10.5
prior private owners, 2.6.9
punitive damages, 10.4.7.4
secured creditors, 2.6.7, 2.6.8, 5.8.3, 10.4.4
sureties, 10.13.4.7
third party participants, 10.4.3
wholesalers, 2.6.3, 9.4.2
LICENSE PLATES
motor vehicles, 3.2.7
dealer plates, 4.4.3.8
temporary, 3.6.6, 4.4.3.7
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.7, 4.4.3.8
LICENSES
dealers
bonding requirements, 10.13.4, Appx. C
revocation or suspension, grounds, 7.7.4–7.7.6
settlement motivation, 10.11.1.1
state law, 7.7
state offices, Appx. F
LIENHOLDERS
see SECURED CREDITORS
LIENS
see SECURITY INTERESTS
LITIGATION AIDS
see also PRACTICE CHECKLISTS; PRACTICE TIPS
advising the client
attorney-client relationship, expectations, 10.2.6
documenting damages, 10.2.7
expert inspection, 10.2.1
preliminary steps by client, 10.2.5
progress of case, 10.2.6
returning vehicle, 10.2.2, 10.2.3
withholding payments, 10.2.2, 10.2.4
attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
cause of action, selecting, 10.3.1
checklists, see PRACTICE CHECKLISTS
choice of forum, 10.3.2
class actions, 10.7
collecting the judgment, see COLLECTING THE JUDGMENT
computerizing exhibits, 10.9.5
consumer interview, 2.2.1
damages awards, see DAMAGES
defendants
out-of-state defendants, 10.3.4
potential defendants, 10.4.2
strategic considerations, 10.4.1
discovery, see DISCOVERY
DMV information, 3.8.2
evidence, see EVIDENCE
federal jurisdiction
advantages and disadvantages, 10.3.3.1
supplemental jurisdiction, 10.3.3.2
investigatory techniques, see INVESTIGATORY TECHNIQUES
mandatory arbitration clauses, 10.3.5
mediation, 10.11.1.5
online resources, 2.5.17
pleadings, see PLEADINGS
res judicata, 10.6
settlement, 10.11
see also SETTLEMENT
other defendants, 10.8.5
trial of case, 10.9
closing argument, 10.9.13
conduct of trial, 10.9.4
countering defense arguments, 10.9.6
exhibits, use, 10.9.5
jury trials, see JURY TRIALS
lemon, use of word, 10.9.11
opening statement, 10.9.9
order of witnesses, 10.9.10
preparing victim for trial, 10.9.8
punitive damages, arguing for, 10.9.7
voir dire, 10.9.3
LOSS OF USE
damages awards, 6.8.1.7
LOW MILEAGE VEHICLES
demonstrators, see DEMONSTRATORS
executive cars, see EXECUTIVE CARS
false statements, 5.5
misrepresentations
checklist, 1.4.9
prior use, 2.1.7
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
see also WARRANTY CLAIMS
application to auto fraud claims, 9.2.11
arbitration clauses, validity, 10.3.5.4
attorney fees, 10.12.1
disclaimer restrictions, 9.2.4.3.2
federal jurisdiction, 10.3.3.1
implied warranty claims, 9.2.11.3
opportunity to cure, 9.2.5
remedies, 9.2.11.5
service contracts, 9.2.11.4
title warranties, application, 9.2.2.4.2
written warranties, 9.2.11.2
MANDATORY ARBITRATION CLAUSES
see ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS
MANUFACTURED HOMES
Odometer Act exemption, 5.6.4.6
MANUFACTURER’S STATEMENT OF ORIGIN (MSO)
demonstrators, 2.4.5.6
new cars, issuance, 2.4.2.1, 3.2.2
MANUFACTURERS
arbitration clauses, application, 10.3.5.2
component part transfers, disclosure regulations, 5.6.3.4
culpability, uncovering, 2.6.6
damage disclosure statutes, threshold liability, 7.2.3.6
distributor status, 2.5.10
“goodwill” buybacks, 2.1.6, 7.6.2
information source, 2.5.10
judgments against, collecting on, 10.13.1.4
lemon laundering, see LEMON LAUNDERING
liability for dealer’s misstatements, 8.4.2
odometer disconnects, 5.3.2
odometer distorting software, 5.3.1, 5.3.3
potential defendant, 10.4.2
records, 2.5.10, 10.8.8.3
resales of suspect vehicles, 10.11.2.2
statement of origin, see MANUFACTURER’S STATEMENT OF ORIGIN (MSO)
MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN INSURANCE
see SERVICE CONTRACTS
MECHANICAL INSPECTIONS
see also INSPECTION; MECHANICS
defense inspections, 2.2.9.4
expert evidence, 10.8.7.3
initial screenings, 2.2.5
need for, 10.2.1
procedures and techniques, 2.2.9.3
what to check, 2.2.9.2
MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
see PREEXISTING MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
MECHANICS
see also BODY SHOPS; MECHANICAL INSPECTIONS; REPAIRS
expert evidence, 10.8.7.3
finding an expert, 2.2.9.1
initial screenings, use, 2.2.5
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.1
potential defendant, 10.4.2
MEDIATION
practice tips, 10.11.1.5
MERGER CLAUSES
defense, as, 8.8.1, 10.8.6
MILEAGE
see also ODOMETER READINGS
computer modules, 2.1.2.2, 2.2.7, 2.6.2.12
misrepresentations, 1.4.9, 2.1.6, 5.5
true mileage
access to, 2.1.2.2, 2.2.7
failure of dealer to verify, 2.6.2.12
MISREPRESENTATIONS
advertisements, 2.2.12
affirmative misstatements, 8.3.3
case law precedents, 8.3.6
clear title, 9.4.8.6
common law claims, see FRAUD CLAIMS
credit applications, 4.2.3
dealer liability for agents, 8.4.2
flood or hurricane damage, 1.4.4
foreign origin, 2.1.10.1
half-truths, 8.3.5.2, 8.3.5.3
innocent misrepresentation, 8.4.3.6
intent to induce, 8.5
justifiable reliance, 8.6
lemon cars, 7.6.2
low mileage vehicles, 1.4.9, 2.1.6, 5.5
material misrepresentations, 8.3
merger clauses, 10.8.6
mistakes based on, 9.3.2
misunderstanding distinguished, 8.3.1
NCLC auto fraud treatise, scope, 1.2
negligent misrepresentation, 8.4.3.5
Odometer Act claim, framing as, 10.3.3.3
Odometer Act disclosures, 5.5
odometers, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
opinions distinguished, 8.3.3.2
oral misrepresentations, 5.5, 8.7.2, 10.8.6
parol evidence rule, 8.7.2, 10.8.6
prior damage, see PRIOR DAMAGE
prior use, see under PRIOR USE
promissory fraud, 8.3.3.2
puffery distinguished, 8.6.4
recklessness, 8.4.3.3, 8.4.3.4
seller’s knowledge of truth, 8.4
trade-ins, 1.3.4
UDAP analysis, 1.3.3
used car as new, 9.4.8.5.1
yo-yo sales, 4.2.9, 4.4.3.9
backdating documentation, 4.6.2
during renegotiation, 4.6.1
MISTAKE
clerical errors, 5.8.10
correcting errors, 5.8.11
“dumb dealer” defense, 10.8.1.5
mutual mistake, 8.9.1
rescission on grounds of, 9.3
MOBILE HOMES
see MANUFACTURED HOMES
MOTOR HOMES
engine hour meter, 2.2.8
Odometer Act exemption for large homes, 5.6.4.6
MOTOR VEHICLE INFORMATION AND COST SAVINGS ACT
see ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATION STATUTES
see also DEPARTMENTS OF MOTOR VEHICLES (DMVs)
state citations, Appx. E
MOTOR VEHICLES
see AUTOMOBILES
MOTORCYCLES
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.2
MULTIPLE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, MULTIPLE
MVICSA
see ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUTOMOBILE AUCTIONS (NAAA)
ethics and standards, 2.5.16, 2.6.4.4
website, 2.5.17
NATIONAL AUTOMOBILE DEALERS ASSOCIATION (NADA)
ethics and standards, 2.5.16
original odometer requirements, drafting, Appx. A.1.4.1
website, 2.5.17
NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR LEGAL SERVICES
see SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
NATIONAL CONSUMER LAW CENTER (NCLC) TREATISES
add-ons and options, 1.3.6
automobile fraud treatise, 1.1
scope, 1.2, 5.1.1
structure, 1.1.2
blanket insurance policies, 1.3.10
collection activity, 1.3.9
credit insurance, 1.3.5
credit reports, 1.3.11
dealer financing, 1.3.4
deceptive pricing and sales techniques, 1.3.3
discrimination, 1.3.12
documentary fees, 1.3.6
force-placed insurance, 1.3.10
GAP insurance, 1.3.5
leasing, 1.3.7
misrepresentations, 1.2
nondisclosure of adverse history, 1.2
other charges, 1.3.6
repairs, 1.3.2
repossessions, 1.3.9
service contracts, 1.3.5
subleases and brokerage, 1.3.8
trade-ins, 1.3.4
VSI insurance, 1.3.10
warranties, 1.3.2
yo-yo sales, 1.3.4, 4.1.3
NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION (NHTSA)
imported vehicle compliance packages, 2.1.10.4, 2.5.15
information source, 2.5.15
imported vehicles, 2.1.10.4, 2.5.15
online resources, 2.5.17
Odometer Act regulations
see also DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
exemptions, validity, 5.6.4
interpretations, 5.1.4
supplementary information, Appx. B.1.2
odometer hotline, 2.5.15
opinion letters, obtaining, 5.1.4
websites, 2.5.17
NATIONAL INSURANCE CRIME BUREAU (NICB)
claims histories, 2.3.6
VIN handbook, 2.2.4.2
website, 2.5.17
NATIONAL MOTOR VEHICLE TITLE INFORMATION SYSTEM (NMVTIS)
consumer access, 2.3.4
summary title information, 2.3.4, 2.3.7
text, Appx. A.3
NATIONAL ODOMETER AND TITLE FRAUD ENFORCEMENT ASSOCIATION
see also ODOMETERS
information source, 2.5.15
website, 2.5.17
NEGLIGENCE
claims, generally, 9.8
doctrine of mistake, effect, 9.3.2
negligent misrepresentation, 8.4.3.5
notaries, 10.4.6
per se negligence, 7.1
NEW CARS
damage disclosure statutes, 7.2.3
actual knowledge, 7.2.3.5
application, 7.2.3.1, 7.2.2.4
remedies, 7.2.3.6, 7.2.3.7
state law summaries, Appx. C
threshold amounts, 7.2.3.2, 7.2.3.7
timing, 7.2.3.4
type of damage, 7.2.3.3
demonstrators, status, 7.2.2.4
manufacturer’s statement of origin (MSO), 2.4.2.1
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.2
odometer disclosures, 3.3.2, 5.6.5.2
titling, 3.2.2, 3.3.2
undisclosed damage
checklist, 1.4.6
dealer liability, 7.2.3.6
fraud claims, 8.3.6
generally, 2.1.9
investigatory techniques, 2.5.2.7
state law, 7.2.3
used cars sold as, 9.4.8.5
VIN, see VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN)
NHTSA
see NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION (NHTSA)
NICB
see NATIONAL INSURANCE CRIME BUREAU (NICB)
NONDISCLOSURE
see also DISCLOSURE
common law fraud claims, 8.3.5
case law precedents, 8.3.6
damage
airbags missing, 1.4.13, 2.8
flood or hurricane damage, 1.4.4, 2.1.3, 2.1.5
new cars, 1.4.6, 2.1.9, 2.5.2.7, 7.2.3, 8.3.6
remedies, 7.2.2.3
state laws, 7.2
used cars, 7.2.2
wreck damage, 1.4.3, 1.4.5, 2.1.4, 7.2.1
foreign origin, 2.1.10.1, 7.4
half-truths, 8.3.5.2, 8.3.5.3
intent to induce, 8.5
preexisting mechanical problems
checklist, 1.4.8
generally, 2.1.6
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.3
scope of this treatise, 1.2
UDAP analysis, 1.3.3
UDAP claims, 7.2.2.3, 9.4.4, 9.4.8
used car status, 9.4.8.5.1
vehicle history reports, 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
NOTARIES
potential defendant, 10.4.2, 10.4.6
state bonding requirements, 10.13.4
ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
see also ODOMETERS
administrative history, Appx. B.1.3
automobile auctions, liability under, 10.4.5.2
conversion table, Appx. A.1.3
damages under
minimum statutory damages, 6.8.2
treble damages, 6.8.1
disclosures under, see DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
enforcement actions, see ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS (ODOMETER ACT)
federal enforcement
impoundment, 6.9.1.1
inspections, 6.9.1.1
investigations, 6.9.1.1
legislative history, Appx. A.1.4
liberal construction, 5.1.2
NHTSA interpretations, 5.1.4
overview, 5.1.2
purpose, 6.4.1
recodification, effect, 5.1.3
regulations, Appx. B.1
see also DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
remedies, 3.9.2, 6.8
scope
odometers, 5.2.3
persons, 5.2.1
vehicles, 5.2.2
state enforcement, 6.9.2
state law preemption, 5.1.5
statute of limitations, 6.4.1
text, Appx. A.1.2
violations
arbitration clauses, 10.3.5.10
civil penalties, 6.9.1.2
conspiracy, 5.7
counterclaims, 6.4.3
criminal penalties, 6.9.1.3
enforcement actions, see ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS (ODOMETER ACT)
injunctive relief, 6.9.1.4, 6.9.2
intent requirement, 3.9.2, 5.8
misleading advertising, 2.2.12
non-odometer violations, 3.9.2.2
old title, failure to show, 2.4.5.1
recoupment claims, 6.4.3
remedies, 3.9.2, 6.8
state remedies, 6.9.2
statute of limitations, 6.4, 6.9.2
UDAP per se violation, 3.9.4
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.4.1
waiver of rights, 5.9
ODOMETER ACTS (STATE)
see also STATE LAW
claims under
adding to federal claim, 6.6.3
attorney fees, 6.8.4
benefits of federal statute over, 6.6.2
benefits over federal statute, 5.1.5, 6.6.3, 6.9.3
forum, 6.6.1
statutory damages, 6.8.3
federal preemption, 5.1.5, 6.6.2
overview, 5.1.5
state attorney general enforcement, 6.9.3
statute of limitations, 6.4.2
expiry, recoupment claims, 6.4.3
summaries, Appx. C
violations, intent, 5.8.2
ODOMETER FRAUD
see ODOMETER TAMPERING
ODOMETER READINGS
see also ODOMETERS
accuracy
actual knowledge, 5.6.6.4
constructive knowledge, 5.8.3
costs to determine, 6.8.1.6
duty to investigate, 5.8.8
verification, 2.2.7
altering, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
backup modules, 5.4
disclosure, see DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
DMV filings, 2.4.2.3
searches, Appx. E
electronic verification, 2.2.7, 2.6.2.12
emission testing records, 2.4.2.3
false statements, 5.5, 5.6.4.3
consumer sellers, 5.8.14
fleet vehicles, suspicious, 2.4.5.8
inaccurate, 5.6.6.3
kilometer conversion, 5.6.6.10
Canadian vehicles, 2.1.2.7, 2.1.10.2
manufacturing defects, 5.3.1, 5.3.3
misrepresentations, UDAP claims, 9.4.8.1
motor home engine hour meter, 2.2.8
reconstructed vehicles, 5.6.6.7
resetting, 5.4, 5.6.6.8, 5.6.6.10
rollbacks, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
speed sensor data, 5.2.3
ODOMETER TAMPERING
see also ODOMETERS
actions, 6.1
class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
damages, see DAMAGES
defenses, 5.3.1
federal actions, see ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS (ODOMETER ACT)
fraud claims, Ch. 9
state claims, 6.6, 6.8.3, 7.9
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.1
warranty claims, 9.2.3.2.1
altering of odometer, 5.3.1
Canadian vehicles, 2.1.2.7, 2.1.10.2
civil damages, 6.8
civil penalties, 6.9.1.2
collusion by subsequent buyers, 2.1.2.5
common forms, 2.1.2.7
criminal penalties, 6.9.1.3
cursory inspections, 2.2.5
“dealer slang,” 2.5.2.5
dealers, license revocation, 7.7.5
defective odometers, 5.3.1
digital odometers, 2.2.6
diminished value of vehicle, 6.8.1.2, 6.8.1.3, 10.10.1.2, 10.10.1.3
disclosing reading as inaccurate to hide, 2.1.2.7, 5.6.6.4
disconnection of odometer, 5.3.1
evidence, 2.2.6, 5.3.1
extent and history of fraud, 2.1.2.1
federal restrictions, 5.3
see also ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
disconnects or rollbacks, 5.3.1
operating with nonfunctional odometer, 5.3.2
selling of unlawful devices, 5.3.3
floor plan financers, involvement, 2.5.6
hotline, 2.5.15
injunctive relief, 6.9.1.4
intent
consumers, 5.8.14
fraud element, 8.5.2
inferring, 5.8.4–5.8.13, 5.8.14
lack of as defense, 5.8
proof, 5.8.3
investigatory techniques, 2.1.2.4, 2.2.7, 2.4.5.3, 2.6.3
leased vehicles, 2.1.2.7, 2.4.5.3, 10.10.4
manufacturing distortions, 5.3.1, 5.3.3
practice checklist, 1.4.2
punitive damages, 6.1
reporting, 2.5.15
resetting of odometer, 5.3.1, 5.4, 5.6.6.8, 5.6.6.10
state law, see STATE LAW
subtle forms, 2.1.2.6
towed vehicles, 5.3.2, 5.3.3, 5.6.6.9
UDAP claims, 6.1
unlawful devices, 5.3.3
used car valuation guides, applicability, 10.10.1.3
ODOMETERS
altering, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
defective programming, 5.3.1, 5.3.3
defined, 5.2.3
described, 2.1.2.2, 5.2.3
design flaws, 5.3.3
digital odometers, 2.2.6, 5.6.6.3
disclosure requirements, see DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
disconnect devices, restrictions, 2.1.2.4, 5.3.3, 5.6.6.9
disconnecting, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
electronic odometers, 2.1.2.2, 2.1.2.4
federal statute, see ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
fraud, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
kilometer conversion, 2.1.2.7, 5.6.6.10
manufacturing defects, 5.3.1, 5.3.3
mechanical limits, 2.1.2.3
NOEA, see NATIONAL ODOMETER ENFORCEMENT ASSOCIATION
nonfunctional, operating vehicle with, 5.3.2
readings, see ODOMETER READINGS
repair or replacement, 5.4, 5.6.6.8
resetting or rollback, see ODOMETER TAMPERING
speed sensor data, 5.2.3
turn over, 2.1.2.3, 5.6.6.2
ONLINE AUCTIONS
see also AUCTIONS; INTERNET SALES
dealer-only auctions, 2.6.4.1
growing trend, 2.6.4.1
jurisdiction, 10.3.4.3
liability for fraud, 10.4.5.3
ONLINE RESOURCES
see WEB RESOURCES
OPTIONS
dealer abuses, 1.3.6
PAIN AND SUFFERING
damages for, 9.4.10
PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
common law fraud claims, application, 8.7.2
express warranties, application, 9.2.3.3
oral misrepresentations, 10.8.6
PARTIES
fraud claims, potential defendants, 10.4
odometer actions, 6.7
PHYSICAL DAMAGE
see DAMAGE
PLEADINGS
see also LITIGATION AIDS
attorney fees, 10.12.2
causes of action, selecting, 10.3.1
class actions
claims to assert, 10.7.3
class pleadings, 10.7.5
defendants, naming, 10.4
material misrepresentation, 8.3.2
Odometer Act, complaints under, 6.7
preserving choice of forum, 10.3.2
resource aids, 1.1.2.4, Appx. G
rescission and damages, 8.12.3
sample pleadings, Appx. G
POLICE REPORTS
see ACCIDENT REPORTS
POLICE VEHICLES
misrepresentations
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.6
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
prior use as
disclosure, 7.3
identifying, 2.2.5
POWERS OF ATTORNEY
access by subsequent purchaser, 5.6.5.6.4
automobile transfers by, 2.4.2.3, 2.4.5.1, 3.3.5, 5.6.5.6
circumstances allowed, 5.6.5.6.1
consent requirement, 3.3.5.4
filing and records retention, 3.3.5.7
first powers of attorney, 5.6.5.6.2
form, 3.3.5.2
fraud opportunities, 5.6.5.6.2
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.1, 2.4.5.7
odometer disclosures, 5.6.5.6
second powers of attorney, 5.6.5.6.3
special form, use, 5.6.5.6.1
state law, 3.3.5.3
PRACTICE AIDS
see PRACTICE TIPS
PRACTICE CHECKLISTS
see also LITIGATION AIDS; PRACTICE TIPS
airbags missing, 1.4.13
defective title, 1.4.11
demonstrators, 1.4.9
flood or hurricane damage, 1.4.4
gray market vehicles, 1.4.12
lemon laundering, 1.4.7
low mileage vehicles, 1.4.9
misrepresentations
low mileage vehicles, 1.4.9
prior users, 1.4.10
odometer fraud, 1.4.2
preexisting mechanical problems, 1.4.8
program cars, 1.4.9
salvage fraud, 1.4.3
stolen vehicles, 1.4.11
undisclosed damage
new cars, 1.4.6
used cars, 1.4.4, 1.4.5, 1.4.13
PRACTICE TIPS
checklists, see PRACTICE CHECKLISTS
litigation aids, see LITIGATION AIDS
title defects, 9.2.2.6
PRECEDENT
see CASE LAW
PREEMPTION
fraud claims by statute, 8.8.5
state odometer laws by federal statute, 5.1.5
PREEXISTING MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
see also LEMON LAUNDERING; REPAIRS
checklist, 1.4.7
dealer culpability, 2.6.2.1
investigatory techniques, 2.5.2.6
nondisclosure
generally, 2.1.6
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.3
salvage auctions, 2.6.4.2
PREJUDGMENT INTEREST
awards of, 6.8.1.10
PRICING
see also APPRAISALS
actual value, determination, 6.8.1.3
dealer culpability, 2.6.2.5
deceptive pricing, 1.3.3
guides, see USED CAR PRICING GUIDES
PRIOR DAMAGE
accident reports, see ACCIDENT REPORTS
disclosure statutes, 7.2
new cars, 7.2.3
remedies, 7.2.2.3
state law summaries, Appx. C
used cars, 7.2.2
wreck damage, 7.2.1.6
mechanical problems, see PREEXISTING MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
new cars, see under NEW CARS
salvage vehicles, see SALVAGE FRAUD
UDAP claims, 7.2.2.3, 9.4.8
used cars, see under USED CARS
wreck damage, see WRECK DAMAGE
PRIOR OWNERS
see also PRIOR USE
contacting, 2.5.1
privacy issues, 3.8
culpability, 2.6.9
DPPA, application, 3.3.6, 3.8
enforcement actions
against, 6.2.2
by, 6.2.3
identity, obtaining from DMV, 3.3.6, 3.8
information source, 2.4.5.2, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.5.1
numerous, indications, 2.4.5.6
potential defendant, 10.4.2
witness testimony, 10.8.7.1
PRIOR USE
see also PRIOR OWNERS
disclosure statutes, 7.3
investigatory techniques, see INVESTIGATORY TECHNIQUES
misrepresentations
checklist, 1.4.9, 1.4.10
generally, 2.1.7
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
PRIVACY
see ACCESS TO INFORMATION; DRIVER’S PRIVACY PROTECTION ACT (DPPA)
PROGRAM CARS
see LOW MILEAGE VEHICLES
PROOF
see BURDEN OF PROOF; EVIDENCE; STANDARD OF PROOF
PUBLIC SALES
automobile auctions, 2.6.4.3
PUFFERY
defense to fraud action, 8.6.4
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, PUNITIVE
RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS ACT (RICO)
see RICO CLAIMS
REASSIGNMENT FORMS
dealers, use, 3.3.4
REBUILT VEHICLES
see also LEMON LAUNDERING; SALVAGE FRAUD
odometer disclosures, 5.6.6.6, 5.6.6.7
RECKLESSNESS
failure to inspect, 8.4.3.4
fraud claims, 8.4.3.3
RECORDS
auction companies, 2.5.4, 5.6.9, 7.8.1
carelessness as intent to defraud, 5.8.5
daily rental cars, 2.5.8
dealers, 2.5.2, 3.5, 5.6.9, 7.7.6
distributors, 2.5.3, 3.5, 5.6.9
DMV, see DEPARTMENTS OF MOTOR VEHICLES (DMVs)
documentary evidence, 10.8.8
electronic records, 5.6.9
federal odometer statute
compliance records, 6.9.1.1
disclosures, 3.3.2, 5.6.9
inspection, 6.9.1.1
floor plan financers, 2.5.6
insurance companies, 2.5.9, 2.5.14
leased vehicles, 2.5.7, 5.6.9
manufacturers, 2.5.10
secured creditors, 2.5.5
service contract companies, 2.5.11
title, see TITLE HISTORY
RECOUPMENT CLAIMS
Odometer Act violations, 6.4.3
REGISTRATION
auto auction dealers, 10.13.1.3.4
motor vehicles, 3.2.7
temporary tags and registration, 3.6.6, 4.4.3.7
RELIANCE
common law fraud claims, 8.2
justifiable reliance
elements, 8.6.1
justifiability, 8.6.3
proving reliance, 8.6.2
puffery, 8.6.4
Odometer Act, claims under, 6.7
reasonable reliance, 8.6.1
RENT-TO-OWN (RTO) TRANSACTIONS
automobile sublease scams, 4.8.1
RENTAL CARS
misrepresentations
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.6
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
odometer disclosures, 5.6.3.5
prior use, disclosure, 7.3
records, 2.5.8
REPAIRS
see also BODY SHOPS; MECHANICS; PREEXISTING MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
automobile fraud analysis, 1.3.2
cost as actual damages, 6.8.1.7
dealer knowledge, 2.6.2.10
history as clue, 2.2.10.3
odometers, resetting, 5.4, 5.6.6.8
records
dealership, 2.5.2.2.9
documentary evidence, 10.8.8.3
manufacturer, 2.5.10
undisclosed
fraud claims, 8.3.5, 10.4.2
new cars, 7.2.3, 8.3.6
used cars, 7.2.2
REPORTS
accidents, see ACCIDENT REPORTS
AutoCheck, see AUTOCHECK SERVICE
Carfax, see CARFAX
credit, see CREDIT REPORTS
insurance claims histories, 2.3.6
NMVTIS, requirements, 2.3.4
title, see TITLE HISTORY
REPOSSESSIONS
automobile fraud analysis, 1.3.9
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.6, 2.6.7
odometer accuracy, investigation, 5.8.9
odometer disclosures, 5.6.3.2
title documents, 2.4.2.1
withheld payments, 9.2.8, 10.2.4
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.4.2, 4.4.4.3
REPUTATION
evidentiary issues, 10.8.3
investigating, 2.6.2.7, 2.6.3
RES JUDICATA
prior collection action, 10.6.1
prior fraud suit, 10.6.2
RESCISSION
see also REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
advantages and disadvantages, 8.12.1
alternative to damages, 8.9.1, 8.12.3
conduct precluding, 8.12.2
damages, election, 8.12.3
mistake as grounds, 9.3
pleading in alternative, 8.12.3
punitive damages, interrelationship, 8.10.3
returning vehicle, 10.2.2, 10.2.3
UDAP remedies, 9.4.10
RESOURCE AIDS
see CASE LAW; LITIGATION AIDS; WEB RESOURCES
RESTITUTION
diminished value recovery, relationship, 10.10.2.2
generally, 10.10.2.1
mutual mistake, 8.9.1
Odometer Act remedy, 6.8.1.4
treble damages, relationship, 6.8.1.4, 10.10.2.3
RETAGGED VEHICLES
investigatory techniques, 2.7
RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES CONTRACTS
adverse action, 4.3.3.1
conditions precedent versus conditions subsequent, 4.4
disclosure requirements, 4.3.2, 4.4.3.3
information source, 2.5.2.2.3
notice requirements, 4.3.3
yo-yo transactions, 4.2.1
contingency clauses, 4.2
dealer’s signature, necessity, 4.2.4
ECOA violations, 4.3.3
FCRA violations, 4.3.3
improperly structured, 4.4
TILA violations, 4.3.2, 4.4.3.3
REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE
see also RESCISSION
circumstances, 9.2.7.2
continued use of car, 9.2.7.7
holding car for pickup, 9.2.7.5
options after revocation, 9.2.7.3
returning car to dealer, 9.2.7.4
sale of car after revocation, 9.2.7.6
UCC remedy, 9.2.7.1
RICO CLAIMS
arbitration clauses, effect, 10.3.5.10
attorney fees, 10.12.1
class actions, 10.7.3
collection of unlawful debt, 9.5.2
evidence of other bad acts, 10.8.1.9
federal claims
advantages and disadvantages, 9.5.1
auto fraud application, 9.5.3
elements of claim, 9.5.2
statute of limitations, 9.5.2
federal jurisdiction, 10.3.3.1
misleading advertising, 2.2.12
parol evidence rule, application, 10.8.6
pattern of racketeering, 9.5.2, 9.5.3
proximate cause, 9.5.2
punitive damages, 10.10.6
state claims
advantages, 9.6.2
overview, 9.6.1
ROLLBACKS
see ODOMETER TAMPERING
SALVAGE BRANDS
see TITLE BRANDS
SALVAGE FRAUD
see also WRECK DAMAGE
auctions
salvage auctions described, 2.6.4.2
uncovering culpability, 2.6.4.4
cursory physical inspections, 2.2.5
express warranty claims, 9.2.3.2.2
fictitious VIN, 2.2.4.1
hurricane-damaged vehicles, 2.1.5
insurance companies, 2.4.5.4.5, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.6.5
interstate transfers, 7.2.1.9
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.4, 2.6.4.4
insurance companies, 2.6.5
manufacturers, 2.6.6
new titles, 2.2.10.1
odometer rollbacks, 5.6.6.6
overview, 2.1.4
practice checklist, 1.4.3
salvage brands, see TITLE BRANDS
salvage vehicle, defined, 7.2.1.4
state law, 7.2.1
summaries, Appx. C
title warranty issues, 9.2.2.2
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.2
SARGENT SHRIVER NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW
see also CLEARINGHOUSE NUMBERS
unreported cases, obtaining from, 1.1.2.5
SECRETARY OF STATE
information source, 2.5.15
online resources, 2.5.17
SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION
civil penalties, setting, 6.9.1.2
enforcement powers, 6.9.1.1
SECURED CREDITORS
see also LENDERS
culpability, uncovering, 2.6.7, 2.6.8
dealer misconduct, liability for, 5.8.3, 10.4.4
distributor status, 2.5.5, 5.6.9
information source, 2.5.5
intent to defraud, 5.8.9
power of attorney transfers, 5.6.5.6.1
repossessions, see REPOSSESSIONS
SECURITIES FRAUD
title fraud as, 3.9.6
SECURITY INTERESTS
electronic lien and title programs, 3.7
odometer disclosures, 5.6.3.2
release of title to buyer, 9.2.2.5
revocation of acceptance, effect, 9.2.7.6.2
SELF-INCRIMINATION
defendant’s assertion of Fifth Amendment privilege, 10.8.7.8
SELLERS
see CONSUMER SELLERS; DEALERS
SERVICE CONTRACTS
see also REPAIRS
abuses, 1.3.5
dealer knowledge
voided contracts, 2.6.2.11
work done under, 2.6.2.10
information source, 2.5.11
Magnuson-Moss claims, 9.2.11.4
odometer discrepancies, 2.5.11, 2.6.2.11
voided contracts, actual damages, 6.8.1.5, 6.8.1.8
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.4
SETTLEMENT
attorney fees, 10.11.1.7, 10.12.5
class actions, individuals, 10.7.6
evidence of, admissibility
other defendants by plaintiff, 10.8.5
previous settlements by defendant, 10.8.4
indemnity clauses, 10.11.2.2, 10.11.2.5
negotiations, 10.11.1
attorney fees, 10.11.1.7, 10.12.5
financially shaky defendant, 10.11.1.2
last-minute settlements, 10.11.1.3
mediation, 10.11.1.5
multiple defendants, 10.11.1.6
speeding by partial summary judgment, 10.11.1.4
strategy, 10.11.1.1
terms
confidentiality agreements, 2.5.1, 10.11.2.4
consumer credit report, 10.11.2.3
court costs, 10.11.2.6
financing costs, 10.11.2.6
indemnification clauses, 10.11.2.2
other, 10.11.2.5
prompt payment, 10.11.2.1
protecting against defendant’s bankruptcy, 10.11.2.7
punitive damages, 10.11.1.1
resale of suspect vehicle, 10.11.2.2
SILENCE
see NONDISCLOSURE
SPOT DELIVERY
see YO-YO SALES
STANDARD OF PROOF
see also BURDEN OF PROOF
closing arguments, 10.9.13
common law fraud claims, 8.7.1
punitive damages, 8.10.4
Odometer Act violations, intent, 5.8.3
STANDING
Odometer Act violations
federal actions, 6.9.1
private actions, 6.2
state actions, 6.9.2
STATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL
see ATTORNEYS GENERAL (STATE)
STATE DEPARTMENTS OF MOTOR VEHICLES (DMVs)
see DEPARTMENTS OF MOTOR VEHICLES (DMVs)
STATE LAW
airbags, cars sold without, 7.5
“as is” sales, restrictions, 9.2.4.3.3
automobile auctions, 7.8
disclosure requirements, 7.8.2
other requirements, 7.8.3
private remedies, 7.8.4
recordkeeping, 7.8.1
summaries, Appx. C
title branding, 7.8.2
automobile fraud, special statutes, 7.9
claims under, supplemental jurisdiction, 10.3.3.2
civil theft laws, 9.6.1
common law claims, relationship, 8.8.5
contingency clauses, 4.2.5
damage disclosure, 7.2
duty to inspect, 7.2.5
Gulf Coast water damage, 7.2.4
new cars, 7.2.3
summaries, Appx. C
used cars, 7.2.2
wreck vehicles, 7.2.1
dealer licensing, 7.7
bonding requirements, Appx. C
liberal interpretation, 7.7.2
relevance, 7.7.1
scope, 7.7.3
state offices, Appx. F
foreign origin disclosure, 7.4
gray market vehicles, 7.4
Gulf Coast, water damage, 7.2.4
lemon laundering, 7.6
see also LEMON LAUNDERING
remedies, 7.6.6
summaries, Appx. C
motor vehicle registration citations, Appx. E
negligent misrepresentation, 8.4.3.5
odometer disconnect devices, 2.1.2.4
odometer tampering, 5.1.5
adding to federal claim, 6.6.3
attorney fees, 6.8.4
benefits of federal statute over, 6.6.2
benefits over federal statute, 5.1.5, 6.6.3, 6.9.3
federal preemption, 5.1.5
forum, 6.6.1
intent to defraud, 5.8.2
special causes of action, 7.9
state attorney general enforcement, 6.9.3
statute of limitations, 6.4.2
statutory damages, 6.8.3
summaries, Appx. C
UDAP violations, 5.8.2
waiver of rights, 5.9
power of attorney transfers, 3.3.5.3
prior owners, privacy issues, 3.8.5
prior use disclosure, 7.3
punitive damage caps, 8.10.6
RICO statutes, 9.6
salvage statutes, 7.2.1
constitutionality, 7.2.1.2
persons covered, 7.2.1.3
remedies, 7.2.1.10
resale and disclosure, 7.2.1.6
summaries, Appx. C
title exchange for certificate, 7.2.1.5
waiver of protections, 7.2.1.7
summaries, Appx. C
title transfers
dealer compliance, 7.7.4
disclosure systems, alternative, 5.6.5.7
odometer disclosures, 5.6.4.2
summaries, Appx. C
timing, 3.6.3
violations, remedies, 3.9.3
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.4.1
VIN laws, 7.2.1.8
violations as negligence per se, 7.1
violations as UDAP violations, 3.9.4, 9.4.6
warranty disclaimers, 9.2.4.3.3
water-damaged vehicles from Gulf Coast, 7.2.4
yo-yo sales, 4.1.4, 4.4.4.1
summaries, Appx. D
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
bonds, recovery under, 10.13.4.8
lease unconscionability claims, 9.7
Odometer Act violations
counterclaims, 6.4.3
recoupment claims, 6.4.3
state claims, 6.9.2
two-year rule, 6.4.1
RICO claims, 9.5.2
state odometer statutes, 6.4.2, 6.6.3
UDAP claims, 9.4.9
warranty claims, 9.2.9.3
STATUTORY DAMAGES
see DAMAGES, STATUTORY
STICKERS
auto fraud clue, 2.2.2
Canadian vehicles, identifying, 2.1.10.4, 2.2.2
odometer replacement or resetting, 5.4, 5.6.6.8
STOLEN VEHICLES
fictitious VIN, 2.2.4.1
investigatory techniques, 2.7
nondisclosure, 2.1.8
odometer disclosures, 5.6.6.6
practice checklist, 1.4.11
special problems, 2.1.8
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.6
warranty of title, breach of, 9.2.2.2
SUBLEASING
see also LEASING
scams, 1.3.8, 4.8
SUBSTITUTE TRANSPORTATION
see ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION
SUMMARY TITLE HISTORY
see TITLE HISTORY
TAXICABS
misrepresentations
investigatory techniques, 2.4.5.6
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.4
prior use, disclosure, 7.3
THEFT
civil theft laws, 9.6.1
stolen vehicles, see STOLEN VEHICLES
TIRES
auto fraud clues, 2.2.3
online resources, 2.5.17
TITLE
see AUTOMOBILE TITLE
TITLE BRANDS
see also AUTOMOBILE TITLE; TITLE HISTORY
absence as express warranty, 9.2.3.2.4
auctions
salvage auctions, 2.6.4.2
state branding laws, application, 7.8.2
salvage brands, 2.1.4, 2.4.5.4, 3.4.3
disclosure requirements, 7.2.1.6
hurricane vehicles, 2.1.5
insurance company not on title, 2.4.5.4.6
state policy manuals, 7.2.1.1
understanding salvage brands, 2.4.5.4.2
state regulation, 3.4.3
salvage title procedures, 7.2.1.1
vehicle history, indication, 2.2.10.1, 2.4.5.4.1
washing, see TITLE WASHING
TITLE DOCUMENTS
see CERTIFICATE OF TITLE; AUTOMOBILE TITLE
TITLE FRAUD
see TITLE WASHING
TITLE HISTORY
see also AUTOMOBILE TITLE; TITLE BRANDS
AutoCheck, see AUTOCHECK SERVICE
Canadian vehicles, 2.1.10.2, 2.3.5
Carfax, see CARFAX
CarProof, see CARPROOF
Datasearch, see DATASEARCH
dealer’s knowledge, 2.5.12, 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
detailed histories
advantages, 2.4.1
chain of title, 2.4.2
cost, 2.4.4
electronic titling, 2.4.3
obtaining, 2.4.4, Appx. E
prior owners’ identity, 3.8
using to uncover fraud, 2.4.5
documentary evidence, 10.8.8.1
investigatory techniques, 2.7.4.2
missing information, 2.5.13, 2.6.2.6
see also TITLE SKIPPING
NMVTIS, see NATIONAL MOTOR VEHICLE TITLE INFORMATION SYSTEM (NMVTIS)
online resources, 2.5.17
prior use, use to determine, 2.1.7
privacy issues, 3.8
DPPA restrictions, 3.3.6, 3.8.1–3.8.3
state restrictions, 3.8.5
records retention, 2.4.2.4, 3.5
state sources, Appx. E
summary history
admissibility as evidence, 10.8.8.2
AutoCheck, 2.3.3
Carfax, 2.3.2
CarProof, 2.3.5
disadvantages, 2.3.1
NMVTIS, 2.3.4
online resources, 2.5.17
other quick searches, 2.3.7
using, 2.3.1
VIN checks, 2.2.4.2
TITLE SKIPPING
insurance companies, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.6.5, 5.6.3.2
TITLE TRANSFERS
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES; AUTOMOBILE TITLE
assignment not required, exceptions, 3.2.5
auctions, 5.6.3.3
change in ownership, 3.2.3, 5.6.3.1
dealer to dealer, 5.6.5.5
electronic transfers, 3.7, 5.6.5.7
federal exemptions, 3.2.6
involuntary transfers, 5.6.3.2
leased vehicles, 5.6.3.1, 5.6.6.5
new cars, 3.3.2, 5.6.5.2
odometer disclosures, 5.6
vehicles over ten years old, 3.2.6, 5.6.4.4
power of attorney transfers, 2.4.2.3, 2.4.5.1, 3.3.5, 5.6.5.6
reassignment forms, 3.3.4
repossession title, 4.4.4.2
signature requirements, 5.6.7.2
skipping by insurance companies, 2.4.5.4.6, 2.6.5
state law summaries, Appx. C
strict title states, 3.6.4
timing, 3.6
used cars, 3.2.3, 3.3, 5.6.5.3–5.6.5.7
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.4.1
repossession title, 4.4.4.2
TITLE WASHING
see also AUTOMOBILE TITLE
duplicate titles, 3.4.4
expert evidence, 10.8.7.4, 10.8.7.5
intent to induce, 8.5.2
new title, obtaining, 2.4.5.7
remedies, 3.9
salvage brands, 2.4.5.4.4, 2.6.3
securities fraud, as, 3.9.6
state to state transfers, 2.4.5.6, 7.2.1.9
TORT CLAIMS
contract defenses, 8.8.1
duty to inspect, 8.4.3.4
fraud claims, see FRAUD CLAIMS
innocent misrepresentation, 8.4.3.6
negligence claims, generally, 9.8
negligent misrepresentation, 8.4.3.5
punitive damages, 9.2.9.2
TOWED VEHICLES
odometer disconnection, 5.3.2, 5.3.3, 5.6.6.9
TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
ethics and standards of conduct, 2.5.16
information source, 2.5.16
online resources, 2.5.17
warnings to dealers, 2.6.2.9
TRADE-INS
automobile fraud, 1.3.4
leasing abuses, 1.3.7
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.3.6
refusal to return, 4.5.1
TRAILERS
Odometer Act exemption, 5.6.4.6
TRANSFERS
see AUTOMOBILE SALES; TITLE TRANSFERS
TRIALS
see JURY TRIALS; LITIGATION AIDS
TRUCKS
Odometer Act exemption, 5.6.4.6
TRUTH IN LENDING ACT (TILA)
federal jurisdiction, 10.3.3.1
yo-yo transactions, application, 4.3.2, 4.4.3.3, 4.4.4.4
backdating documentation, 4.6.2
TRUTH IN MILEAGE ACT
see ODOMETER ACT (FEDERAL)
UCC REMEDIES
“as is” disclaimers, 9.2.4.3.4
duty of good faith, 9.2.4.3.6
revocation of acceptance
circumstances, 9.2.7.2
continued use of car, 9.2.7.7
generally, 9.2.7.1
holding car for pickup, 9.2.7.5
options after revocation, 9.2.7.3
returning car to dealer, 9.2.7.4
sale of car after revocation, 9.2.7.6
title warranty breach, 9.2.2.4.1
unconscionability, 9.7
warranty claims, 2.1.8, 9.2.1
title warranty, 9.2.2.4.1
withholding payments, 9.2.8
yo-yo transactions, 4.4.4.3
UDAP CLAIMS
advantages, 9.4.1.1
“as is” disclaimers, effect, 9.4.1.2
attorney fees, 9.4.10, 10.12.1
automobile auctions, 7.8.4
automobile dealers, 1.3.3–1.3.6
civil penalties, 8.11.4.2.2
class actions, 10.7.3
combining with other claims, 9.4.1.4
creditor liability, 2.6.8
damages, 9.4.1.2
deception standard, 9.4.3
disadvantages, 9.4.1.3
emotional distress damages, 10.10.3.2
evidence of other bad acts, 10.8.1.9
failure to disclose, 9.4.4
force-placed insurance, 1.3.10
FTC Used Car Rule violations, 9.4.8.5.4
gray market vehicles, 9.4.8.7
leasing scams, 1.3.7, 1.3.8
unconscionability alternative, 9.7
lemon laundering, 7.6.6, 9.4.8.3
licensing violations, 7.7.1
limitations on, 9.4.9
mileage misrepresentations, 9.4.8.1
new car damage, undisclosed, 7.2.3.6
nondisclosure, 9.4.4
Odometer Act violations, 3.9.4
odometer cases, 3.9.4, 6.1
disclosures, 5.6.6.3
misrepresentation alternative, 9.4.1.5
rollbacks, 9.4.8.1
state law violations, 5.8.2
parol evidence rule, application, 9.4.3, 10.8.6
preexisting mechanical problems, 9.4.8.3
prior use, misrepresentations, 9.4.8.4
privity defenses, 7.6.4
punitive damages, 10.10.6
remedies, 9.4.10
RICO alternative, 9.6.2
salvage fraud, 3.9.4, 9.4.8.2
scope issues, 9.4.2
statute of limitations, 9.4.9
statutory damages, 10.10.5
title misrepresentations, 9.4.8.6
title violations, 3.9.4
unconscionability, 9.4.5.2
unfairness, 9.4.5.1
used car damage, undisclosed, 7.2.2.3
used cars sold as new, 9.4.8.5
vehicle sales, specific standards, 9.4.7
violations of other statutes as, 9.4.6
warranty comparison, 9.4.1.2
yo-yo sales, 4.2.8, 4.2.9, 4.2.10, 4.4.3.9, 4.6.1
UNCONSCIONABILITY
arbitration clauses, 10.3.5.3
leases, 9.7
UDAP claims, 9.4.5.2
UNFAIR AND DECEPTIVE ACTS AND PRACTICES (UDAP)
see UDAP CLAIMS
UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE (UCC)
see UCC REMEDIES
UNIFORM TIRE QUALITY GRADING SYSTEM
online resources, 2.5.17
UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE
dealer records, requirements, 2.5.2.1
USE
after discovery of defect, 8.9.2
prior use, see PRIOR USE
USED CAR PRICING GUIDES
see also USED CARS
evidence, introduction into, 10.10.1.4
examples, 2.2.11
investigatory technique, 2.2.11
online resources, 2.5.17
utilization, 10.10.1.3
USED CARS
airbags, sold without, 1.4.13, 2.8
“as is” disclaimers, 9.2.4.3.5
Buyers Guide, 9.2.4.3.5, 9.4.8.5.4
“certified” used cars, 9.2.3.2.3
damage disclosure
airbag missing, 1.4.13, 2.8
flood or hurricane damage, 1.4.4, 2.1.3, 2.1.5
other wreck damage, 1.4.5, 2.1.4
salvage fraud, 1.4.3, 2.1.4
state law, 7.2.2, Appx. C
defined, 9.4.8.5.2
express warranties, 9.2.3.2
FTC Used Car Rule, 9.2.4.3.5, 9.4.8.5.4
Odometer Act, application, 5.2.2
odometer disclosures, see DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS (ODOMETERS)
over ten years old, 3.2.6, 5.6.4.4
pricing guides, see USED CAR PRICING GUIDES
prior damage, see PRIOR DAMAGE
prior owners, see PRIOR OWNERS
prior use, see PRIOR USE
salvage fraud, see SALVAGE FRAUD
sold as new, 9.4.8.5
title transfer, 3.2.3, 3.3.3
UDAP claims, 9.4.8
wreck damage, see WRECK DAMAGE
VEHICLE HISTORY REPORTS
see TITLE HISTORY
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN)
auto fraud investigations, 2.2.4.1, 2.2.9.2
cloned vehicles, 2.7
discrepancies, title warranty issues, 7.2.1.8, 9.2.2.2
falsifying, 2.7.2
investigatory techniques, 2.7.4.1
federal requirements, Appx. B.2
non-U.S. market vehicles, 2.1.10.4
retagged vehicles, 2.7
state laws, 7.2.1.8
stolen vehicles, 2.1.8
verification, 2.2.4.2
VEHICLES
see AUTOMOBILES
VENDOR’S SINGLE INTEREST (VSI) INSURANCE
issues, 1.3.10
VENUE
Odometer Act, actions under, 6.5.2
VIN
see VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN)
WARRANTY CLAIMS
see also REPAIRS
advantages and disadvantages, 9.2.1
attorney fees, 9.2.10
automobile fraud, analysis, 1.3.2
bond claims, 9.2.2.4.3
Canadian vehicles, 2.1.10.3
cloned vehicles, 2.7.1
damages, 10.10.1.1
title warranty breach, 9.2.2.4.1
dealer knowledge, 2.6.2.10, 2.6.2.11
emotional distress damages, 10.10.3.2
express warranties, 9.2.3
automobile sales, 9.2.3.2
breach, 9.2.3.1, 9.2.3.2.2
by description, 9.2.3.2.2
“certified” used cars, 9.2.3.2.3
creation, 9.2.3.1
disclaimers, 9.2.3.3
odometer readings, 9.2.3.2.1
parol evidence, 9.2.3.3
title, 9.2.2.1, 9.2.2.4.2
title brand absence, 9.2.3.2.4
extended warranties, see SERVICE CONTRACTS
foreign vehicles, 2.1.10.3
implied warranties, 9.2.4
automobile sales, 9.2.4.2
breach, 9.2.4.1
creation, 9.2.4.1
disclaimers, 9.2.4.3
fitness for purpose, 9.2.4.1, 9.2.4.2
Magnuson-Moss claims, 9.2.11.3, 9.2.2.4.2
merchantability, 9.2.4.1, 9.2.4.2
title, 9.2.2.1, 9.2.2.4.2
licensing violations, 7.7.1
odometer tampering, 9.2.3.2.1
Magnuson-Moss, see MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT
notice of breach, 9.2.5
title warranties, 9.2.2.4
privity, 9.2.6
retagged vehicles, 2.7.1
remedies
damages, 9.2.9
limitations on, 9.2.9.4
Magnuson-Moss, 9.2.11.5
revocation of acceptance, 9.2.7
withholding payments, 9.2.8, 10.2.4
service contracts, 9.2.11.4
statute of limitations, 9.2.9.3
title warranty, 9.2.2.4
see also WARRANTY OF TITLE
potential defendants, 9.2.2.4.3
UCC claims, see UCC REMEDIES
UDAP comparison, 9.4.1.2
undisclosed prior damage, 7.2.2.3
used cars, 9.2.3.2
withholding payment, 9.2.8, 10.2.4
written warranties, 9.2.11.2
WARRANTY OF TITLE
see also AUTOMOBILE TITLE; DEFECTIVE TITLE
application to fraud cases, 9.2.2.2
disclaimers, 9.2.2.3
implied warranty status, 9.2.2.4.2
nature of warranty, 9.2.2.1
practical tips, 9.2.2.6
remedies for breach, 9.2.2.4
see also WARRANTY CLAIMS
bond claims, 9.2.2.4.3
UCC remedies, 9.2.2.4.1
stolen cars, 2.1.8, 9.2.2.2
WATER DAMAGE
see FLOOD DAMAGE
WEB RESOURCES
helpful websites, 2.5.17, Appx. H
used car pricing guides, 2.2.11
NCLC treatise, 1.1.2.1
pleadings, 1.1.2.4, Appx. G
WHOLESALERS
arbitration clauses, application, 10.3.5.2
auctions, see AUCTIONS
culpability, uncovering, 2.6.3
discrepancy reports, use 2.3.3
information source, 2.5.3
reputation
evidentiary issues, 10.8.3
investigating, 2.6.2.7, 2.6.3
UDAP liability, 9.4.2
WITNESSES
see also EVIDENCE
adverse parties, 10.8.7.2
expert witnesses, see EXPERT WITNESSES
Fifth Amendment privilege, 10.8.7.8
fraud victims, preparation, 10.9.8
immunity for previous testimony, 10.8.7.7
impeachment, 10.8.1.10
order of witnesses, 10.9.10
previous owners, 10.8.7.1
subsequent owners, 10.8.7.1
WRECK DAMAGE
see also SALVAGE FRAUD
disclosures
odometer disclosures, 5.6.3.2, 5.6.6.6
state law, 7.2.1
title brands, see TITLE BRANDS
insurance databases, 2.3.6
insurer’s obligations, 7.2.1.5
investigatory techniques, 2.3.6, 2.4.5.4
insurance company culpability, 2.6.5
manufacturer culpability, 2.6.6
NMVTIS database, 2.3.4
online resources, 2.5.17
salvage certificates, 7.2.1.5
salvage vehicle, defined, 7.2.1.4
state law, 7.2.1
title warranty issues, 9.2.2.2
undisclosed
express warranty claims, 9.2.3.2.2
generally, 2.1.4
practice checklist, 1.4.5
UDAP claims, 9.4.8.2
uni-body construction, effect, 2.1.4
YO-YO SALES
see also AUTOMOBILE SALES
abuses, 1.3.4
arbitration of claims, 4.7.1
backdating documentation, 4.6.2
bad faith, 4.2.8
condition precedent or subsequent, distinguishing, 4.4.2
condition precedent transactions, inconsistent practices, 4.4.3
condition subsequent transactions, inconsistent practices, 4.4.4
consumer remedies, 4.2.10
contingency clauses, 4.2
conversion of trade-in, 4.5.1
damages recovery, 4.7.3
dealer defenses
counteroffer defense, 4.3.3.3
credit application fraud, 4.2.3
other defenses, 4.3.3.4
no signature, 4.2.4
dealer’s right to cancel, 4.2
deposits, 4.5.1
described, 4.1.2
disclosure requirements, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.4.3.3
discovery tips, 4.7.2
ECOA violations, 4.2.9, 4.3.3
defenses, 4.3.3.3, 4.3.3.4
remedies, 4.3.3.5
FCRA violations, 4.3.3
remedies, 4.3.3.5
illegal cancellation practices, 4.5
improperly structured, 4.4
license tags or plates, 4.4.3.7, 4.4.3.8
litigation strategies, 4.1.3
malicious prosecution actions, 4.5.2
misrepresentations
cancellation rights, 4.4.3.9
credit application, 4.2.3
final sale, 4.2.9
re-negotiations, 4.6.1
subsequent sales, 4.6.2
notice requirements, 4.3.1, 4.3.3, 4.4.3.9
Odometer Act violations, 4.4.4.1
repossession title, 4.4.4.2
state law, 4.1.4, 4.4.4.1
summaries, Appx. D
TILA violations, 4.3.2, 4.4.4.4, 4.6.2
titling requirements, 4.4.4.1
UCC Article 9, application, 4.4.4.3
UDAP violations, 4.2.8, 4.2.9, 4.2.10, 4.4.3.9, 4.6.1
used car status after, 9.4.8.5.2, 9.4.8.5.4
yield spread premiums, 4.2.7